[[quoteright:320:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/robin-hood_1916.jpg]]

->''"Lythe and listin, gentilmen,''
->''That be of frebore blode;''
->''I shall you tel of a gode yeman,''
->''His name was Robyn Hode.''

->''Robyn was a prude outlaw,''
->''Whyles he walked on grounde:''
->''So curteyse an outlawe as he was one''
->''Was nevere non founde."''
-->--''[[http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/Teams/gest.htm A Gest of Robyn Hode]]''

[[FolkHero The man]] who lives in Sherwood Forest in [[TheMiddleAges Merrie Olde England]]. He [[JustLikeRobinHood robs from the rich, gives to the poor]]. He is a brilliant shot with a bow and has [[MenOfSherwood a band]] [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits of Merry Men]]. In due course, the king happens on him, and grants ThePardon. He's the best-known legendary hero ever produced by the British Isles, after KingArthur.

'''Robin Hood''' is first alluded to in William Langland's [[TheHighMiddleAges fourteenth century]] poem ''Piers Plowman'', though the reference indicates he existed much earlier in oral tradition. The oldest surviving ballads featuring him all date from a century or so later; the Literature/ChildBallads include an entire book solely of Robin Hood ballads. He is traditionally associated with Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire, though an important early ballad locates him in Barnesdale Forest in Yorkshire, and later ones as far afield as Scotland and London; a late ballad sets his birthplace as Locksley, a possibly fictional village in south Yorkshire or Notts. He is identified as a yeoman -- a non-noble, free, small landholder -- in his original incarnations, and it is thus that he is portrayed in what is most likely his most influential depiction, as "Locksley" in Sir Creator/WalterScott's ''Literature/{{Ivanhoe}}''. It was Scott who added the conflict between Saxon and Normans to the legend, which often results in PeopleOfHairColor in later retellings: all Saxons are identifiable as blond and Normans as darker-haired. The Elizabethans would attribute [[BlueBlood a title of nobility]] to Robin as Earl of Huntingdon; several modern incarnations make him a knight (or a soldier, treating the Crusades as some sort of medieval Vietnam). Certain early elements of the legend, such as [[PatronSaint Robin's devotion to the Virgin Mary]] and his antipathy to the higher clergy, have largely dropped out, to be replaced by his charity to the poor (probably developed from the early statement that he did no harm to poor farmers, yeomen, knights, or squires) and his opposition to tyranny (likely derived from his opposition -- entirely natural in an {{outlaw}} -- to the local Sheriff). He is the TropeCodifier for much of the ArcherArchetype, especially the association with nature and the rebellious nature. Many of the specific feats of archery associated with this archetype are first seen in Robin Hood legends or [[NewerThanTheyThink modern adaptations]].

Although most modern retellings have settled on the [[TheCrusades Third Crusade]] as the [[TheHighMiddleAges time frame]] for the stories (thanks to ''Literature/{{Ivanhoe}}'' and Sir Creator/WalterScott, who followed the lead of the early 16th century Scottish historian John Major), the earliest ballad to give any sort of indication of a date (the ''Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode'') is set during the reign of a quasi-mythical "Edward, our comely [''i.e.'', handsome] king." Three kings named Edward ruled England between 899 and 1066, and another three in succession from 1272 to 1377 (allusions to the Robin Hood legends started appearing in other works, such as court documents and ''Piers Plowman'' during this second period), but none of these were ever known as "the Comely" -- which is, in any event, a wholly conventional epithet not firmly attached to any historical figure. Another, later ballad names a King Henry and Queen Katherine (Henry V's queen was Catherine/Katherine (the spelling wasn't standardized at this point) of Valois, no other King Henry had a queen named Katherine until Henry VIII); still others leave the monarch wholly anonymous, making an authentic period for Robin hard to place. The very tentative consensus current among scholars is to place the origin of the legend somewhere from ''ca''. 1270-''ca''. 1350. A late 19th-early 20th century tendency to view Robin's legend as a remnant of pre-Christian pagan belief in some form of nature spirit, "Robin Wood" the "Spirit of the Forest", has largely been discredited in folklore studies, although it remains influential on more mystical retellings.

''Recurring characters in the Robin Hood mythos include:''
* '''[[IronicNickname Little John]]''', TheBigGuy, the BoisterousBruiser and Robin's [[NumberTwo right-hand man]]. Often he is portrayed as something of a GeniusBruiser, and generally more cautious than Robin himself. Generally befriends Robin in a very [[DefeatMeansFriendship Shonen fashion]]. Often depicted as the original founder and leader of the Merry Men who cedes his place to Robin once he turns up.
* '''Will Scarlet''', Robin's [[TheLancer Lancer]]. Or Scathelock, Scarlock, Scarlet, Stukeley, Stuteley. . . there are a lot of ballads which feature a man named William with a surname vaguely on this line, which have sometimes been split into more men later. He can appear as Robin's foppish younger cousin, or as an experienced soldier about Robin's own age. The two conceptions merged, and modern portrayals generally vacillate wildly between the two extremes. The character(s) can sometimes be saddled with the problem of being [[AlwaysSecondBest Robin, only less so]]: a good archer, but not as good as Robin; a good leader of the men, but not as good as Robin, etc.. Still sometimes remembered as the Merry Man who gets saved from the noose by a comrade disguised as the hangman. Depending on the work, Will Scarlet tends to shine when it comes to swordplay, to the point of DualWielding.
* '''Much the Miller's Son''': With William Scarlet and Little John, one of the three who regularly appears in the oldest ballads, but rather diminished since then. In modern retellings, he is often the youngest or least experienced of the Merry Men
* Other Merry Men make one appearance in the ballads: David of Doncaster, Gilbert Whitehand, and Arthur-a-Bland (one of the few men ever to beat Little John with the quarterstaff).
* '''Friar Tuck''', a folk monk / preacher, [[GoodShepherd often contrasted against the corruption in higher echelons of the Church]]. Usually portrayed as BigFun and an overweight BigEater like in ''Film/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood'' and [[Series/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood the British series of the same name]]. Even the [[Disney/RobinHood Disney film]] portrays the friar as overweight. A late addition to the legend, he probably came in, like Maid Marian, by way of the May Games, possibly to counter stories of paganism / [[HoYay a particular brand of manly merriness]] among the Merry Men. (There was a 15th century outlaw in Sussex called "Friar Tuck," who either may have taken his name from the legend or had his name given to the originally anonymous Friar of the May Games.) To give him a BadassPreacher / WarriorMonk edge, some versions grant him a knowledge of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pankration pankration]] -- a blend of wrestling and boxing which dates back to the Greeks, believed by many to be older than Kung Fu.
* '''The Sheriff of Nottingham''', Robin's traditional BigBad (though sometimes TheDragon), a corrupt official and FeudalOverlord.
* '''Guy of Gisbourne''' (or [[SpellMyNameWithAnS Gisborne, Gisburne, ''etc'']].), a bounty hunter, often TheDragon to the Sheriff and something of Robin's EvilCounterpart as well. His portrayal varies from an [[TheBrute outlaw in animal skins]] to a [[AristocratsAreEvil sneering knight]].
* '''[[BadKingJohn Prince John]]''', [[CainAndAbel evil younger brother]] to TheGoodKing '''RichardTheLionheart''' (Richard I). Often painted as a [[RegentForLife usurper to the throne]], "[[Disney/RobinHood the phoney King of England]]". Sometimes TheManBehindTheMan to the Sheriff, but often just a PointyHairedBoss abused by the Sheriff's machinations.
* '''Maid Marian''' (or Marion), Robin's LoveInterest. Marian was a latecomer to Robin Hood folklore; she probably originated as the originally unnamed May Queen or Queen of the Shepherds, a popular figure of the May festivities. (Her ''name'' was likely derived from totally unrelated pastoral plays similar to Adam de la Halle's ''Jeu de Robin et Marion'', in which a virtuous girl is seduced by the charms of TheCity before returning home to her boyfriend, a shepherd who happened to be named Robin.) When Robin Hood plays became a fad, someone did a {{crossover}}, and it eventually stuck. Maid Marian is sometimes treated as a DamselInDistress, other times as an archer ActionGirl and/or RebelliousPrincess.
* '''Allan-a-Dale''', a minstrel and sometimes narrator (for example, in the [[Disney/RobinHood Disney version]] and in ''TheOutlawChronicles''). A WarriorPoet sometimes. He's a 17th-century addition, though the character occurs independently in Scottish Border ballads.
* '''Richard at the Lee''', a landed noble who is deeply indebted to the corrupt clergy. Robin helps with his debts, and so Richard later hides Robin from the Sheriff. Some later versions of the story make him Marian's father.
* In recent years, a Moorish/Muslim character -- FishOutOfWater as he/she might be -- has begun to show up as a member of the Merry Men. Nasir in ''RobinOfSherwood'' was the first, followed by Azeem (Morgan Freeman) in ''Film/RobinHoodPrinceOfThieves'' (reportedly because the writer watched ''Robin of Sherwood'' instead of doing proper research and thought Nasir was a traditional character) and Djaq (a Saracen ''woman'' character played by relative newcomer Anjali Jay) in [[Series/RobinHood the 2006 UK series]]. This addition was spoofed (along with just about everything else Robin-related) in the Mel Brooks film ''Film/RobinHoodMenInTights'' and in the series ''Series/MaidMarianAndHerMerryMen'' (which has a ''Rastafarian'' Merry Man).

Whether or not any of these characters actually ever existed is debatable. (Well, except for King Richard and Prince -- later King -- John, who most certainly did. And King Edward in the earliest ballads. And King Henry and Queen Catherine in latter ones. ... while which number may be meant is difficult to determine, the king has never had a name that an actual king of England did not have. And there were, of course, many Sheriffs of Nottingham.) There is a grave where the remains of Robin Hood are allegedly buried on the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirklees_Hall Kirklees Park Estate]]; the Prioress of Kirklees supposedly overbled Robin to his demise... And then there's another grave at the cairn of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crosby_Ravensworth Crosby Ravensworth Fell]].

As an aside that someone, somewhere might possibly find interesting, Britons and Americans pronounce Robin Hood's name ever-so-slightly differently, with the emphases in different places. Americans often say "''Ro''bin Hood", often slurred together to the point of sounding like one word, while the British say "Robin ''Hood''", definitely as two separate words. It may be to do with the way the "o" sound is pronounced.
----
!!Examples (in chronological order):
* As noted above, the very first literary [[ShoutOut allusion]] to Robin Hood comes in 1377, in William Langland's long moral allegory ''Piers Plowman'', in which the character Sloth says, "I kan noȝt parfitly my ''Paternoster'' as ŝe preest it syngeŝ, But I kan rymes of Robyn hood and Randolf Erl of Chestre." [[note]]"I do not know the "Our Father" exactly as the priest chants it, but I know popular verses of Robin Hood and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranulf_de_Blondeville,_6th_Earl_of_Chester Ranulf, Earl of Chester]]."[[/note]]
* About 1450, "A Gest of Robyn Hode" was put to manuscript; it was published half a century a later. This is among the oldest tales featuring Robin, and internal evidence points strongly toward its being several existing tales joined together -- often somewhat ineptly. Other tales from this time include ''Robin Hood and the Potter'' and ''Robin Hood's Death'' of which only fragments survive.
* In 1521, Scottish historian John Major published his ''Historia Majoris Brittaniae'', the first version of the legend to assign Robin Hood to the time of RichardTheLionHeart; Major also suggested that Robin not only avoided robbing the poor, "[[JustLikeRobinHood but rather enriched them from the plunder taken from the abbots.]]"
* In 1598, the playwright Anthony Munday (with Henry Chettle) wrote two plays, ''The Downfall of Robert, Earle of Huntington'' and ''The Death of Robert, Earle of Huntington''; this play gives Robin a title in a double sense, for it attributes to the erstwhile yeoman a title of nobility. The plays are set in the time of King John; "Maid Marian" becomes a pseudonym for the Lady Matilda Fitzwater [''sic''], pursued by the lustful king.
* In 1795, ''Robin Hood: A Collection of all the Ancient Poems, Songs and Ballads, now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw'' was published by Joseph Ritson. Ritson's commentaries on the ballads established the image of Robin as a freedom fighter against [[TheMan overbearing Royal tyranny]] (not coincidentally, Ritson was a firm supporter of TheFrenchRevolution).
* In 1819, Sir Creator/WalterScott published his ''Literature/{{Ivanhoe}}'' in which Robin (as "Locksley") plays a major part. Scott's main contribution to the legend is probably the motif of racial strife between the [[PeopleOfHairColor Normans and the Saxons]] and the introduction of Robin's affiliation to the name "Locksley." In the novel he uses it as an alias; later writers would use it as the name of his birthplace and village.
* In 1883, American artist and children's book author Howard Pyle published his lavishly illustrated and very successful ''The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire'', a somewhat [[{{Bowdlerization}} Bowdlerized]] and [[LighterAndFluffier sentimentalized]] distillation in prose of the matter of the ballads.
* Robin Hood appears in the ''Literature/ChildBallads'' #117-154 (the collection was published in 1882-1898, but the ballads themselves are much older).
* In 1890, American composer [=Reginald DeKoven=] and prolific librettist Harry B. Smith had a notable hit with his [[{{Musical}} comic opera]], ''Robin Hood''; a older song interpolated by Jessie Bartlett Davis in the CrosscastRole of Allan-a-Dale, "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sa36X00Rpi4 O Promise Me]]," enjoyed a RevivalByCommercialization and would become a staple of weddings for a good seventy years thereafter. A decade or so later, [=DeKoven=] and Smith wrote a less successful sequel, ''Maid Marian''.
* ''Robin Hood and His Merry Men'' (silent) -- The first Robin Hood film produced, ''c''. 1908-1909?. (Lost).
* ''Robin Hood'' (silent) -- An American version, with Robert Frazer as Robin, by Éclair American films in 1912. An interesting aspect is the delineation of character by cross-fading from the actors to various animals symbolizing their moral qualities.
* ''Robin Hood'' (silent) -- Issued in four parts by Thanhouser films in 1913, with William Russell as Robin. (Lost)
* ''Robin Hood'' (silent) -- 1922 Hollywood film starring Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. It was the most expensive film produced at the time of its release (the castle set was reputed to be the biggest ever built for a silent film). One notable feature -- the first half of the film takes place in the Holy Land with Robin (as the Earl of Huntingdon) and King Richard; it's not until the second half that the action moves to Sherwood Forest. Alan Hale, Sr., who played Little John, would reprise the role for Errol Flynn's 1938 film. For years the film was thought to be lost -- until a copy was rediscovered in the 1960s.
* Around the same time Creator/GKChesterton wrote a RobinHood ballad, telling of a meeting between Maid Marian and [[spoiler:the Virgin Mary]] after Robin's death.
* ''Film/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood'' -- 1938 film and arguably the most famous Hollywood film adaptation. Features an all-star cast including ErrolFlynn (Robin), Creator/OliviaDeHavilland (Marian), Basil Rathbone (Sir Guy of Gisbourne) and Creator/ClaudeRains (Prince John). Also starred Alan Hale, Sr., who reprised his role as Little John (having played it 16 years earlier, as noted in the previous entry).
** Interestingly, the film slightly reshuffles the usual villain roles, leaving us with Sir Guy as TheDragon to Prince John's BigBad -- the Sheriff is pretty much demoted to a CowardlySidekick and doesn't play much of an important role in the film.
** Regarding role reshuffling, the film also features Will Scarlet as Robin's sidekick but presents him as a minstrel (usual minstrel Allan-a-Dale does not appear in the film).
* In the same year of 1938 Robin appears as "Robin Wood" along with Little John, Maid Marian, and Friar Tuck in T. H. White's novel of the boyhood of KingArthur, ''Literature/TheSwordInTheStone'' (though not in its [[Disney/TheSwordInTheStone Disney adaptation]]); in this version he embodies the idea of Robin as "the spirit of the woods he lives in."
* In 1946 the ''son'' of Robin Hood appeared in the form of Cornel Wilde in ''Bandit of Sherwood Forest'' to save the boy-king Henry III from usurpation by his [[EvilChancellor scheming regent]], the Earl of Pembroke (Henry Daniell).
* Footage from the Errol Flynn film is used in the 1949 WesternAnimation/BugsBunny short ''Rabbit Hood.'' The short features the Sheriff of Nottingham as its antagonist, while Little John appears a few times to proclaim "Don't you worry, never fear. Robin Hood will soon be here."
* In 1950, an alternative son of Robin Hood (Jon Derek) appeared in ColumbiaPictures' ''Rogues of Sherwood Forest''; Alan Hale, Sr., appeared as Little John for the third and last time in this film.
* 'Film/TheStoryOfRobinHoodAndHisMerrieMen-- 1952 {{Disney}} live-action film starring Richard Todd. Breaks the OneSteveLimit by featuring both "Wills" (Will Scarlet and Will Stutely) as separate characters (although the latter is barely seen and is referred to only by his surname).
* ''Robin Hood'' (1953) -- First TV adaptation, lasted only one season and transmitted live. No longer survives in fully broadcastable form. Most notable for the title role being played by Creator/PatrickTroughton. Yes, that [[Series/DoctorWho one]].
* ''Series/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood'' -- 1955-1960 ITV series, famous for its theme tune ("[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2w7ALMIUy74 Robin Hood, Robin Hood, riding through the glen]]", infamously parodied by ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus'' in their "Dennis Moore" sketch. Now give me all your lupins.) Richard Greene starred as the dashing outlaw. A filmic derivative, with Creator/PeterCushing as the Sheriff of Nottingham, appeared in 1960.
* In 1957 Dan Taylor starred as Robin in the undistinguished ''Men of Sherwood Forest''.
* In 1958 ''Son of Robin Hood'' appeared; oddly enough, the "son" in this film is a [[GenderFlip daughter]], Deering (June Laverick). Jamie of Chester (David Hedison, later known as Captain Lee Crane in ''Series/VoyageToTheBottomOfTheSea'') has to pose as Robin's son, since, of course, the MedievalMorons all believe that girls should StayInTheKitchen.
* The 1958 LooneyTunes short "WesternAnimation/RobinHoodDaffy" features DaffyDuck as Robin Hood, trying to prove his identity to travelling friar Porky Pig.
* The 1964 Frank Sinatra {{musical}} film ''Robin and the 7 Hoods'' moves the story to [[TheRoaringTwenties Prohibition-era]] Chicago. Sammy Davis, Jr., as Will anticipates Mark Ryan's Moor character by a good 20 years; BingCrosby as Allan A. Dale serves as both the friar and the minstrel figure; Peter Falk is the BigBad, "Robbo"'s rival racketeer, Guy Gisborne; Barbara Rush plays Marian as a two-timing FemmeFatale running a [[ThePlan plan]] of her own.
* [[RecycledInSPACE Space cartoon version]] from 1966-1969: ''RocketRobinHood,'' by Krantz Films Inc. It was a SpaceOpera set in the year 3000. In one episode, the Robin of the future actually {{time travel}}s ''and meets the real Robin''.
* In 1967 HammerHorror produced the first Robin Hood movie for British cinema; ''A Challenge For Robin Hood'' a full-blooded version with a Norman (!) Robin played by Barrie Ingham ([-AKA-] [[TheGreatMouseDetective Basil of Baker Street]]).
* In the same year ''TheBeverlyHillbillies'' featured an episode called "Robin Hood and the Sheriff," in which Jethro takes to the woods in emulation of the outlaw; his band of merry men is swelled by a group of hippies, whom Granny teaches to "smoke crawdads."
* In 1969, the studio followed up with a pilot for a failed television series, ''Wolfshead: The Legend of Robin Hood'' with New Zealander Creator/DavidWarbeck as Robin (released in theatres in 1973). This version hewed very closely to the original ballad versions.
* Disney's 1973 animated version of ''Disney/RobinHood'', with its FunnyAnimal cast, which [[strike:may have been]] ''was'' a [[strike:contributing]] ''major'' factor in many [[FurryFandom furries' pubescent lives.]]
** And as a secondary effect, inspired crushes on many an anime boy designed with fangs.
* Creator/MelBrooks' short-lived 1975 spoof TV series, ''Series/WhenThingsWereRotten'', starring Dick Gautier and Misty Rowe.
** ...territory he would revisit in 1993's ''Film/RobinHoodMenInTights'' (''See below'').
* In 1976, Richard Lester directed ''RobinAndMarian,'' in which an aged Robin (Sean Connery), who has been campaigning in France, returns to England after [[RichardTheLionHeart Richard's]] death to find that Maid Marian (Audrey Hepburn} has become Prioress of [[MeaningfulName Kirklees Abbey]]. Arguably a {{Deconstruction}}, since it shows the English nobility (including "Good" [[GeneralRipper King Richard]]) as [[AristocratsAreEvil pretty rotten]], and how utterly exhausting the sword fights and chase scenes in most Robin Hood movies would actually be.
* In 1982 impressionist Rich Little did a Robin Hood TV special in which he played ''all'' the roles.
* In the same year, ''TheSmurfs'' featured "The Adventures of Robin Smurf," in which Vanity Smurf played the conceited outlaw.
* An ITV series, ''RobinOfSherwood'', ran from 1984 to 1986; best remembered for its theme song, which put the band Clannad on the map, it was also interesting in that the producers pulled a SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute with a PublicDomainCharacter, replacing the original woodsman Robin (played by Michael Praed) with a young nobleman (played by Jason Connery, son of Sean, who as noted above had starred as the aging Robin in ''Robin And Marian''). This was in fact a very clever move, as there are two radically different versions of Robin in the legends and the recast let them cover ''both'' of them in one series. Judi Trott played Maid Marian for all three series. The show made a considerable impact on the legend despite running for only twenty-six episodes, in particular by introducing the idea of the Moorish/Saracen exile as a Merry Man and by its heavy dose of semi-pagan mysticism.
* Also in 1984, a made-for-TV parody, ''The Zany Adventures of Robin Hood'' aired. Notable for a surprising number of recognizable names in its cast (if not much else): George Segal played Robin Hood, Morgan Fairchild played Maid Marian, Roddy [=McDowell=] played Prince John and Creator/TomBaker (yes, ''[[Series/DoctorWho that]]'' Tom Baker) played Guy of Gisbourne.
* In 1986, the Amiga game ''VideoGame/DefenderOfTheCrown'' featured Robin as a recruitable ally three times in the course of game-play; this was a selling point of the game.
* Also in 1986, the UsefulNotes/ZXSpectrum comedy [[InteractiveFiction Text Adventure]] ''Robin of Sherlock'', which bizarrely fused Robin Hood, Franchise/SherlockHolmes, and a whole lot of {{Pantomime}} characters into a shaggy-dog story about Moriarty impersonating Herne the Hunter.
* In 1988, the ''[[Series/{{Alf}} ALFTales]]'' cartoon presented its version of Robin Hood (mainly parodying the 1938 [[Film/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood film]]), with Gordon as Robin with a literal (swing) band of Merry Men; it features a [[strike:quarterstaff]] Big Stick bout with a saxophone-wielding Little John, as well as a pumpkin-head-wearing Friar Tuck.
* ''Series/MaidMarianAndHerMerryMen'', a 1989 children's show written by Tony "[[BlackAdder Baldrick]]" Robinson, subverted many of the central tenets of the myth. Maid Marian was the central protagonist, Robin Hood TheFool, Little John a dwarf, ''etc''.
* ''Robin Hood no Daibōken'', an 1990 anime adaptation of the Robin Hood story consisting of 52 episodes, animated by Tatsunoko.
* In 1991, Kevin Costner's ''Film/RobinHoodPrinceOfThieves'' appeared; a ''mélange'' of previous motifs, it is perhaps most notable for Alan Rickman's [[MagnificentBastard magnificently saturnine]] Sheriff of Nottingham.
* Also in 1991, a lesser known but highly superior [[LiveActionTelevision TV movie]] version of the legend, entitled simply ''[[Film/RobinHood1991 Robin Hood]]'', was made with Patrick Bergin as Robert Hode (Robin Hood), Uma Thurman as a [[BadAss bad-ass]] Maid Marian, who actually kills a few guys in the final battle (again, [[KillBill Uma Thurman]]), and Jürgen Prochnow as the villain, [[AristocratsAreEvil Sir Miles Folcanet]]. Moreover, the Sheriff of Nottingham in this version [[AntiVillain isn't evil]]; he's just made some bad decisions.
* In 1991 Millennium Interactive published an ActionAdventure VideoGame ''VideoGame/TheAdventuresOfRobinHood''.
* ''YoungRobinHood'', a 1991-1992 Hanna-Barbera cartoon about [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Robin Hood and his merry men as teenagers]].
* Parke Godwin's 1991 novel ''Sherwood'' and the 1993 ''Robin and the King'' place the story during the Norman Conquest with William the Conqueror as a major character.
* In 1992, Sierra On-Line released ''ConquestsOfTheLongbow: the Legend of Robin Hood'', a graphic adventure game in which one played as Robin Hood with various tasks centered around raising money for King Richard's ransom, thwarting the Sheriff of Nottingham, and saving innocent people from harm. It contained several mystical elements (such as wood sprites and the Green Man) and portrayed Marian as a "forest priestess."
* In 1992 Jennifer Roberson published ''Lady of the Forest'', a novel that retells the legend from Marian's pov. It was followed in 1999 by ''Lady of Sherwood''. The books steer away from the mythological aspects of the legend and concentrate on CharacterDevelopment. This might be the first time that Robin, who just returned from the crusades, is given post traumatic stress disorder and deals with it in a realistic way.
* In 1993 Creator/MelBrooks directly spoofed the 1991 Costner film in ''Film/RobinHoodMenInTights'', which featured Cary Elwes as a Robin who ''actually spoke with an English accent.''
* Also in 1993, Theresa Tomlinson published ''The Forestwife'', the first book in the ''ForestwifeTrilogy''; an excellent ([[ShownTheirWork and well researched]]) set of young adult novels focussing on Marian as the central character. The later books are ''Child of May'' (1998) and ''Path of the She Wolf'' (2000). The first book focuses on Marian and expands her role from TheChick to TheMedic.
* The 1995 novel ''The Sherwood Game'' by Creator/EstherFriesner is about a {{Cyberspace}} game featuring the Robin Hood characters; it gets complicated when InstantAIJustAddWater kicks in. (Though things don't get ''really'' bad until the CorruptCorporateExecutive shows up.)
* ''Series/TheNewAdventuresOfRobinHood'' was a 1997-1998 live action TV series on Turner Network Television. It was filmed in Vilnius, Lithuania. [[FollowTheLeader The tone of the series resembled]] its contemporaries ''HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys'' and ''XenaWarriorPrincess''.
* ''Robin Hood - czwarta strzała'' (''Robin Hood - the Fourth Arrow'') is a 1997 low-budget Polish TV comedy that deals with the legend of Robin Hood in a MontyPython-esque way.
* 2001 saw the release of Disney's made-for-television movie ''Film/PrincessOfThieves'' with a 15-year-old KeiraKnightley as Gwyn, Robin Hood's daughter. Entertaining but average, the story kept certain aspects of the traditional legends (the archery tournament, the rescue of imprisoned outlaws) and simply cast Gwyn as the main character in these events.
* The German video games company Spellbound Games produced ''VideoGame/RobinHoodTheLegendOfSherwood'' in 2002, a stealth-based real-time strategy video game in which the player controls a number of characters (Robin himself, Will Stutely, Will Scarlet, Little John, Maid Marian, and Friar Tuck) and faces a number of enemies (Guy of Gisbourne, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Longchamp Guillame de Longchamps]] (!), and Sir Scathlock of Derby), ultimately to fight the Sheriff of Nottingham and defeat Prince John's bid to usurp the throne.
* ''Maid Marian'' by Elsa Watson came out in 2005. This novel is narrated by the eponymous maid, who starts out as a noblewoman rescued from an unpleasant marriage by Robin and then goes through numerous adventures, only some of which involve Robin Hood.
* The BBC has a ''Series/RobinHood'' series, which premiered in 2006. It suffered from being slightly {{anvilicious}} sometimes, but it was initially harmless enough fun. However, many believe it hit the wall big time when it [[spoiler:had Guy of Gisbourne brutally murder Maid Marian]] for the sake of shock value.
** Tuck is a [[MagicalNegro black warrior priest]] who is never referred to as a "Friar" and seldom talks about God or the Bible.
** Much is played by Sam Troughton, grandson of [[Series/DoctorWho Patrick]].
** The show is also noteworthy for the inclusion of three original female characters: Djaq, in the [[GenderFlip gender flipped]] role of the Saracen; Isabella, Guy of Gisborne's [[LongLostSibling sister]]; and Kate, described by press releases as "a feisty village girl." The first two characters were significantly more popular among audiences than [[CreatorsPet the last]].
** The third season sets up [[spoiler:Robin Hood as a LegacyCharacter so that Robin himself can die in the third season finale. Several other characters from the legend die in the same episode.]] The show's cancellation was announced soon afterward.
* Also from 2006 is Stephen R Lawhead's ''Raven King'' trilogy (Hood; Scarlett; Tuck), [[RecycledInSpace a retelling of the Robin Hood story...IN WALES.]]
* ''TheOutlawChronicles'' by Angus Donald features an absolutely terrifying version of Robin (the tagline for the first book is: "Meet the Godfather of Sherwood forest") and is narrated by an elderly Alan Dale (Alan-A-Dale by another name) who is writing his memoirs of his time as first an outlaw under Robin's command, then his right hand man/sworn swordsman/messenger/poet/and briefly assassin catcher. This series is notable for its darker themes, its very dark Robin who [[spoiler: indulges in a human sacrifice to increase his mystique with the country folk, extremely loyal to those who are close to him, and doesn't consider those outside his circle to be real people, and so feels free to lie, cheat, steal and murder.]], the regular appearance of King Richard I (thus far the books are set either just before he takes the throne and during his reign), a large amount of historical accuracy and the writing style.
* There's an odd trend of an immortal Robin of Locksley showing up in fiction with a modern setting. [[spoiler:See Marjorie M. Liu's "The Red Heart of Jade" (2006) and Lynn Viehl's "Evermore" (2008).]] In both cases the character's true nature is hidden from either the reader and/or other characters for a decent period of time.
* In 2009, ''TheBackyardigans'' had a Robin Hood-themed episode called "Robin Hood the Clean", with resident HotBlooded [[EverythingsBetterWithPenguins penguin]] Pablo as Robin Hood. The episode, mind you, was about was about all the cleaning supplies getting locked in a dungeon and Pablo/Robin Hood trying to retrieve them.
* Also in 2009 came the Sci Fi Channel's television movie ''BeyondSherwoodForest'' in which Robin Hood fights mythological creatures in Sherwood. It's about as good as you'd expect.
* 2010 saw the release Ridley Scott's ''[[Film/RobinHood2010 Robin Hood]]'' with RussellCrowe as Robin and CateBlanchett as Marian. In a departure from most modern versions there are no Saracen characters and Robin is of humble origins rather than a dispossessed nobleman.
** The plot also has Robin masquerading as slain knight Robert Locksley and attempting to unite the English people to defeat a treacherous plot by the king of France and to get Prince John to sign a precursor to the Magna Carta. It's only at the end that he and his companions actually retreat to the greenwood and become outlaws.
* ''VideoGame/MountAndBlade'' mod ''Videogame/{{Europe 1200}}'' (first version released in 2010) has Robin Hood among the potential party members. The potential party members also include [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_FitzWarin Fulk FitzWarin]] and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Godberd Roger Godberd]], two English historical characters who have been speculated to have inspired the Robin Hood legend.
* 2011, ''Music/{{Edguy}}'' releases a song about him on its ''Age of the Joker'' album. The catch? It's actually a VillainSong of sorts, as it portrays him as TheDreaded. And it's [[EpicRocking appropriately epic]] yet [[StealthParody strangely humorous]]. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkRP4-Gt7lM Listen to it by yourself!]]
* In 2011, the Royal Shakespeare Company performed David Farr's play ''The Heart of Robin Hood'', in which Robin starts off the play as an ordinary brigand, with Maid Marion attempting to reform him.
* In 2012-3, Robin appears as a minor character in the second and third seasons of ''Series/OnceUponATime''.
* In 2014, 12-Gauge Comics rleased ''ComicBook/SherwoodTexas'', a setting update that re-imagines Robin Hood as the leader of an outlaw biker gang battling the corrupt Sheriff of Nottingham County on the Texas/Mexico border.
* Also in 2014, the ''Series/DoctorWho'' episode "[[Recap/DoctorWhoS34E3RobotOfSherwood Robot of Sherwood]]" had the Doctor meeting Robin Hood and helping him foil the Sheriff of Nottingham [[spoiler:who is in league with alien robots]].

!!'''Robins By Another Name:'''

* In Creator/WilliamShakespeare's ''As You Like It'' (''ca.'' 1600), it is said of the exiled Duke:
-->''They say hee is already in the Forrest of ''Arden'', and a many merry men with him; and there they live like the old ''Robin Hood'' of ''England'': they say many yong Gentlemen flocke to him every day, and fleet the time carelessly as they did in the golden world.''
* ''Hajduci'' is a collective name for a number of outlaws in the Balkans, fighting against the Ottoman Empire throughout the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
* In France, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Mandrin Louis Mandrin]], was a famous "brigand" of the eighteenth century, staunch enemy of the "''fermiers généraux''" (tax collectors).
* Germany had Johannes Bückler, or "''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schinderhannes Schinderhannes]]''", opposing the [[TheFrenchRevolution French Revolutionaries]] during their occupation of the left bank of the Rhine. He was guillotined in 1802 and is the hero of a notable play by Carl Zuckmayer.
* Hungary has Rózsa Sándor, one of the most famous and popular outlaws, who even fought in the 1848-49 revolution. Notable in that he actually tried to give up his outlaw ways more than once but couldn't, mostly due to prejudice on the authorities' side.
* Koba from ''The Patricide'', an 1883 novel by [[UsefulNotes/{{Georgia}} Georgian]] writer Alexander Kazbegi. Best known as a source for Stalin's first pseudonym.
* In Creator/GKChesterton's ''Literature/FatherBrown'' story "The Paradise of Thieves" (1912), the King of Thieves is explicitly compared to Robin Hood.
-->''"A great man," replied Muscari, "worthy to rank with your own Robin Hood, signorina. Montano, the King of Thieves, was first heard of in the mountains some ten years ago, when people said brigands were extinct. But his wild authority spread with the swiftness of a silent revolution."''
* In 1934, Alex Raymond's comic strip ''ComicStrip/FlashGordon'' introduced Prince Barin's land of Arboria, an entire ''nation'' of [[SendInTheClones green-clad freedom fighting archers living in a vast forest kingdom.]]
* The superhero ComicBook/GreenArrow, debuting in 1941's ''More Fun Comics'' #73, fights crime with {{Trick Arrow}}s and a Robin Hood-inspired costume. He's taken on other elements of Robin at times; he began championing the poor and oppressed in the '60s, and for a brief time at the very end of the PostCrisis continuity he became an outlaw and got his own forest to run around in.
* "The Black Fox" in the 1955 film ''Film/TheCourtJester'' is clearly inspired by Robin Hood.
* ''Thierry La Fronde'' was a French TV series, running from 1963 to 1966, that borrowed heavily from Robin Hood. He was a young disenfranchised nobleman in English-occupied France (ca. 1360) living in the woods with a gang of resistance fighters. His weapon of choice was not the bow, but the sling.
* According to ''Reason'' columnist [[http://reason.com/archives/2005/04/01/the-hippie-and-the-redneck-can Jesse Walker]], such '70s cinematic offerings as ''SmokeyAndTheBandit'' (1977) and ''UpInSmoke'' (1978) can be seen as depicting modern American interpretations of the traditional Robin Hood narrative.
* The 1979-1985 TV series ''TheDukesOfHazzard''. It's even lampshaded in their ExpositoryThemeTune.
* ''Knights of the Oblong Table'' (''I Cavalieri Della Tavola Bislunga'') is a fantasy novel by Luciano Malmusi published in 1994. Times are hard in Central Italy, made worse by an unpleasantly tyrannical lord. Inspired by the story of King Arthur, a motley collection of drifters -- starting with an unemployed knight, including a "witch", throwing in a friar, and ending with a little boy and his pet pig -- band together and make life miserable for the local nobles. The story's resemblance to Robin Hood may have been unintentional. May be a deconstruction of common medieval character types.
* The first-season episode "Jet" of ''WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender'', (first aired May 6, 2005) apparently offers the viewers a Robin Hood analogue in the eponymous Jet, with his band of high-spirited freedom fighters, but then subverts expectations when Jet turns out to be little more than a charismatic thug.
* The episode appropriately named "Robin Hood" in ''{{Numb3rs}}'' (originally aired October 26, 2007) has a real life Robin Hood who robbed from a bunch of evil people and has the rewards donated to charity.
* ''Series/{{Leverage}}'' is a 2008 American TV series set in the modern day whose cast is intentionally modelled after Robin Hood and his Merry Men (albeit in the form of a FiveTokenBand.) Rather than just one antagonist, it has [[MonsterOfTheWeek various evil corporations.]]
* The various times Francois Villon is presented in film/television turn the poet into a Robin Hood figure, especially in ''The Beloved Rogue'', with a silent with John Barrymore, and in "The Sword of Villon," an episode of ''Directors' Showcase'' with Errol Flynn as the Frenchman, virtually copying his Robin Hood costume.
* ''WaterMargin'' has sometimes been described as the Chinese equivalent of the Robin Hood legends.
* Franchise/{{Batman}}'s sidekick Robin is sometimes said to have taken his codename from Robin Hood.
* (Juraj) {{Janosik}} was a Slovak outlaw remembered in legend as taking from the rich and giving to the poor. Usually depicted with a merry company of his own. Very popular in Poland as well, due to cross-border cultural exchange.
* The Swiss folk hero WilliamTell is sometimes likened to Robin Hood, as he's also an expert marksman (though with a crossbow). The main difference is that William Tell isn't a thief who acts JustLikeRobinHood, as he is a patriotic LaResistance figure during the Austrian rule of Switzerland. Some interpretations of Robin Hood similarly make him champion the Saxon cause in the face of Norman rule, but this wasn't in his original legends.
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