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[[caption-width-right:330:This is not a pipe.[[note]][[RecursiveReality It's a photonic projection of a digital recording of a scan of a photograph of a painted representation of Magritte's perception of a pipe.]][[/note]]]]

->''"Postmodernism is an extremely broad term covering a thousand smaller movements in art, film, literature, architecture, music, and pretty much every other medium, covering such themes as concept over content, deconstruction of narrative and identity, and celebration of intertextuality. It can be applied to everything from Music/{{Madonna}}, to Creator/QuentinTarantino, to Creator/AdultSwim, to the internet in general, [[LampshadeHanging including this very web series.]]"''
-->-- '''The Cine-Kyle explaining the trope in''' WebVideo/SomeJerkWithACamera

Post Modernism first emerged as a philosophical movement amid the ruins and tribulations of postwar Europe and stems from a general disillusionment with thirties-era modernism brought about by UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. It was natural, and almost inevitable, that people who had suffered through the war (and the preceding [[TheGreatDepression Great Depression]]) would question the ideals of perpetual progress inherent in modernism, and that would lead to a philosophy of questioning everything in general. It has been pointed out that much post-modernist thinking originated in the countries (France, Germany) with a history of wartime devastation and in reaction to the threat of nuclear war which reared its head at the end of the war.

Post-modernism in books and movies was largely a questioning on the nature of narrative and plot and characterization. An epic story with TheHero at the centre with everyone else a SatelliteCharacter to him, was succeeded by stories with LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters with TheHero, if it is used, openly presented and critiqued as an AudienceSurrogate. Essentially, authors wanted readers to be more aware of how storytelling works and interact and question it so that they become active rather than passive audiences, and this was related to the ViewersAreGeniuses, the aversion of SmallReferencePools and all kinds of GeniusBonus enforced in these books. In Europe this was related to the fact that modern democracies and totalitarian governments are too vast for any single heroic figure to have a resonance since UsefulNotes/WW2 wasn't won by a single great general's gambit or small heroic actions but a complex series of interconnected decisions and a GambitPileup so vast that the world is still trying to put it together. And ultimately the Allied Powers were [[YouAreTooLate too late]] to do anything to halt UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust aside from counting the bodies and helping the survivors. After that, artists and philosophers felt that old forms of storytelling would no longer work in this new reality. The Frankfurt critic and philosopher, Theodor Adorno, famously stated that poetry was impossible after Auschwitz, which he did not mean as a literal statement but a general feeling, that was echoed and felt by many artists who felt that conventional storytelling no longer explained the tragedy and horror of the times and that any artist or philosopher who tries to come up with a "Grand Narrative" that ties everything together is either delusional or dangerous.

This led to all kinds of TakeAThirdOption in storytelling, efforts that echoed conventional pre-war genres but with a more contemporary, darker twist, the HappyEnding was often shown with StylisticSuck or a parody, and while DownerEnding never went out of style, we now had the GainaxEnding where the story goes beyond the fate of the characters and the confines of the story, sometimes directly addressing the viewer, other times leaving them with a sense of irresolution and uncertainty, sometimes yes veering to TrueArtIsIncomprehensible levels but with the intention that audiences should think and engage with the work, however difficult it may be, as per their own experience without the story telling them what to think and how to feel. {{Deconstruction}} was developed as an independent strain in this time and post-modernism generally features a strong deconstructive aspect. Generally one can say that what distinguishes post-modernist narratives is the fact that characters rarely have large scale agency. When a vast event takes place, the true actors are governments, institutions and societies and the story deals with the ways in which the characters fit or don't fit into that picture. In general, postmodern writing involves a blurring of boundaries. An example of this is blurring the boundary between the reader or viewer and the fiction -- for example, a TV show that acknowledges that it is not real (contrast ThisIsReality). However, [=Post Modernism=] can also be applied to fiction that mixes different genres into something new, such as the way that ''Anime/CowboyBebop'' [[GenreBusting combines]] western tropes with science fiction and various movie [[SatireParodyPastiche pastiches]]. Here, [=Post Modernism=] describes a self-referential fiction, a fiction which references other fiction, or a fiction which displays some [[MediumAwareness awareness]] that it is a fiction. The SubvertedTrope, DiscreditedTrope, [[GenreSavvy lack]] of GenreBlindness, {{Deconstruction}} of conventional boundaries, and PlayingWith the FourthWall ([[NoFourthWall or lack thereof]]) are all hallmarks of [=Post Modernism=]. Expect MindScrew.

[=Post Modernism=] is also a popular school of thought in the social sciences and humanities, largely revolving around the idea that a cogent argument doesn't necessarily have to make points that are actually true, while arguments that may "''technically''" be true in some sense are not necessarily either convincing or valuable. In academic disciplines, the biggest impact that Postmodernism introduced was to sever the idea of history, society, or existence, being linear and progressive (i.e. the world is going to get better and better) and that led to the popularity of AlternateHistory and ForWantOfANail not only in speculative fiction but also in serious works of non-fiction where people showed that a lot of things people saw in history wasn't inevitable but in large part accidental or came down to pure dumb luck. Postmodernist theorists by extended research also pointed out how the idea of society going somewhere was NewerThanTheyThink, based on EntertaininglyWrong assumptions that have become DatedHistory (a strain that is called Historicism or New Historicism). Contingency and agency became watchwords in post-modernist inspired works. Post-modernist inspired accounts insist that life is in large sense a RandomEventsPlot and much of what we consider the "pursuit of knowledge" is a narrative that distracts us from realizing that, drawing inspiration from UsefulNotes/{{Existentialism}}[[note]]But differing in that existentialists insist on agency to choose and engage actively with one's ideas and views, i.e. if "the pursuit of knowledge" is not inherent in society, then it is up to humans to actively make a society that promotes knowledge knowing fully well the limitations of that choice. Postmodernism generally doesn't advocate engagement, which has led the kind of people who care about such things to accuse it of promoting nihilism[[/note]].

In general practice however, a lot of the serious and intellectual character of the movement tends to be too obscure or [[AndIMustScream too bleak]] to register outside an impartial academic course. [=Post Modernism=] in certain works of fiction can often simply be about [[WhatDoYouMeanItsNotDidactic spoiling everything for everyone]] without having to adopt any unspoiled or easily spoilable ideas of your own, which contributes greatly to the "Huh?" factor in postmodern texts (books, films, shows, art, etc.) -- they treat themselves as already didactic and spoiled, and instead attempt to generate enjoyment through the [[TropesAreTools adroitness of their use of their own tropes and medium]]. WorldOfSymbolism tends to come up, even when it's not necessarily obvious, so best try to have fun when EveryoneIsJesusInPurgatory. In the extremes of such instances, postmodernism becomes a posture, using [[DudeNotIronic irony as a defense]], an attempt to dodge responsibility and more or less advocate preserving the status-quo from the comfort of learned and knowing distance. This is considered the conservative strain of postmodernism which allows it to be co-opted and adopted in a number of consumerist media. The contemporary definition of [=Post Modernism=] is extremely ambiguous, and some of the definitions are extremely metaphysical, so don't go out into the world thinking this article is all there is to the concept. That the very term "Post-modern" is inherently self-contradictory is freely acknowledged -- indeed celebrated -- within [=Post Modernism=] itself.

Not to be confused with {{Irony}}, ''per se'', although both terms have been frequently [[IsntItIronic misused as such]] since TheNineties. Interestingly, the DeathOfTheAuthor is a {{Criticism Trope|s}} that both groups can [[EnemyMine often agree on]]. Modernists can claim it's possible to come to a {{canon}}ical conclusion about the text regardless of the author's [[WordOfGod changing opinions]], whereas postmodernists can claim that ''[[ShrugOfGod "there is nothing outside the text"]]'' and that [[LostInTransmission their opinion of]] what the ''author was trying to say'' is equally likely to be true as [[FanonDiscontinuity their opinion of]] what the work itself states. [[MindScrew Confused?]]. A.K.A. [=PoMo=]. Compare UsefulNotes/{{Dada}}. See also AffectionateParody and SurrealHumor. May sometimes border onto TrueArtIsIncomprehensible territory. Related heavily to MediumAwareness, BreakingTheFourthWall, NoFourthWall, FictionIdentityPostulate (which states that all fictions are equally fictional). Compare RecursiveCanon, HeavyMeta, FootnoteFever, JustForFun/FoRK.

Oh, and by the way, Actual [=Post Modernism=] is SoLastSeason these days. We're up to [[HypocriticalHumor Nuvo-Retro-Ex-Post-Modernism now.]]



* Plenty of examples. Since the site is a catalog of devices used in fiction, the whole site is this.
** Anytime you see a '''Meta Example''', it's Post Modern. Especially if it's on the Post Modern page. Whoa. [[MindScrew Trippy.]] Further complicating matters is that if you deny that your Post Modern statement is itself Post Modern, you've simply made it even more Post-Modern. In particular this makes it very tricky to parody as any sufficiently involved parody of Post Modernism is, in itself, a Post-Modern comment on itself. [[StupidSexyFlanders No]] [=PoMo=].[[note]][[FootnoteFever "Not that I'm postmodern or anything."]][[/note]]
** [[http://www.salient.org.nz/features/tv-tropes-will-ruin-your-life This article]] blames [=Post Modernism=] as one of the reasons why TVTropesWillRuinYourLife, since the style of this wiki references fictions one after the other, and dissolves the boundaries between fiction and RealLife. Besides the [[Administrivia/ThereIsNoSuchThingAsNotability lack of notability]], the relentless [[ThisTropeNameReferencesItself self-referencing]] of [[WikiWalk massively]] [[AllBlueEntry interlinked]] [[TVTropesWillRuinYourLife trope definitions]] with {{pothole}}s {{parody}}ing the [[SnarkBait purpose of every article]] and [[MemeticMutation turning trope names]] into FanSpeak (along with the [[TheInternet medium of hypertext]] and the concept of a wiki itself) is also a [[TrueArtIsIncomprehensible very postmodern concept]].

* Commercials have been experimenting more and more with Post Modernism for comic effect. For example, observe [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSQZxxtO9Mk this]] Cars.com commercial.
* Skittles: X the rainbow.
* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mv5U0W8FDDk It's a big ad!]]
* In [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXIr1P9Fm5A&feature=youtu.be this]] trailer for ''Film/CitizenKane,'' Creator/OrsonWelles explains certain aspects of the film, introduces the actors, and invites the audience to come back to the theater and see it later.
* Creator/AlfredHitchcock advertised some of his movies by creating trailers in which the actors describe the premises to moviegoers, sometimes even in character. Eventually, he hosted the ads himself.

[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* ''Anime/PaniPoniDash'' refers to other series regularly, and features frequent disruption of the FourthWall. For example, the series takes AnimatedActors to the extreme by sometimes showing the action as if it were on a sound stage, complete with assistants walking through the shot. The characters are also aware of narrative and meta-narrative events, such as commercial breaks.
* ''Manga/SayonaraZetsubouSensei'' is referential, random and self-aware, and so to a lesser extent is every other series from Creator/StudioShaft.
* ''Manga/HayateTheCombatButler'' absolutely and gleefully refuses to acknowledge the [[NoFourthWall existence of a fourth wall]]. Every character in the series is rather GenreSavvy and they do so enjoy LampshadeHanging.
* ''Anime/ExcelSaga'' makes dozens of references to other anime series and often has guest appearances by the show's director and writers, who are usually made to apologise for the indignities they force on the cast. A decent chunk of the plot is actually formed by the conflict -- ''in-story conflict'' -- between the director of the anime and the writer of the manga over the show's artistic direction.
* Its quasi-sequel ''Anime/PuniPuniPoemi'' is very self-aware, and the main character constantly refers to herself by her voice actress's name. She's also very aware of what she is: "Oh man, can you imagine a worse anime cliché than having to stand out in the hall?"
* ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion''. From the horrifying deconstruction of the mecha genre, to the mind-raping drawn-in-crayon apocalypse that ended the series, to the metafictional live-action sequences of the film. However, original drafts recovered from the series were far more coherent, and certain supplemental materials try to focus on that part instead of the actual reality that was shown. The manga is also fairly low on MindScrew in relation to the anime, along with the remake.
* ''Manga/{{Gintama}}'': References to other Jump series and characters (and the Jump staff) come up very often, from simply spoofing the names, like [[OnePiece "One Park"]] and [[Manga/{{Naruto}} "Belt"]] (pronounced "Beruto" in Japanese), to just blatant shout-outs (see: the [[MundaneMadeAwesome sukiyaki episode]] where a [[Manga/DeathNote shinigami]] pops up at the end and [[strike:Zura]] [[strike:Katsura]] [[SuperMarioBros Katsuo]] during the [[UsefulNotes/NintendoWii OwEe]] arc). Also, the characters are fully aware of their being fictional -- to the point where Gintoki and Shinpachi call out events that would get the anime cancelled and where Gintoki insists that people (even characters ''within the show'') buy the [=DVDs=] from Sunrise.
* ''Anime/SeitokaiNoIchizon'' also loves making references to other shows (specially LightNovel/HaruhiSuzumiya) and breaking the FourthWall. The first two minutes of the series is a NoFourthWall discussion on how they should make the anime.
* ''Anime/PrincessTutu'' is a post-modern ballet, so every episode has uses classical piece for themes and several episodes have plots that reference famous ballets, with ''Theatre/SwanLake'' being the most prominent. Also, one of the characters is a prince that escaped from a fairytale, and it's later revealed that [[spoiler:the writer of that fairytale is now controlling the town the show takes place in]]. Once the characters learn about that, they start BreakingTheFourthWall and manipulating the medium of fairytales to their advantage.
* The ''LightNovel/HaruhiSuzumiya'' anime starts with Haruhi directing a show about her purposes - to try to advance her purposes - which reveals more about the show than is first apparent. Many episodes end with Kyon and Haruhi arguing about which episode comes next, and Kyon complaining about how the AnachronicOrder makes the plot hard to follow. It should also be noted that the title character is also the Executive Director of the show.
* ''Anime/{{FLCL}}'' The characters, among other things, discuss how difficult it is to shoot a bullet-time kissing scene, just after having performed it.
* Creator/ShojiKawamori waffles on this with his ''Anime/{{Macross}}'' franchise in a unique way. Remember how ''Anime/MacrossDoYouRememberLove'' was said to be an in-universe movie production of the events of ''Anime/SuperDimensionFortressMacross''? Turns out that's kind of how he views ''everything'' in the franchise. ''Nothing'' is canon because they're ''all'' in-universe productions based on real events that we never see. In effect, it's as if you're learning history and your only method of doing so is by watching movies. This does mean ''Macross'' technically avoids any AlternateContinuity, regardless of if you watch say ''Anime/MacrossFrontier'' the series, the movies, read the three or four different mangas, or the light novels. They're all exactly that, productions based on a real event. Kawamori seems okay to [[ShrugOfGod let the fans fanwank something]], and only ever suggests this notion when an interviewer asks point blank about the differences between ''DYRL/SDFM'' or the ''Anime/MacrossFrontier'' series/movies.
* ''Manga/{{Bakuman}}'' -- it's a manga about manga with very shounen-manga type plot, though very realistic, devoid of fantastic elements, and featuring zero action; almost everything is driven by conversations. Despite this, it's become a hit in the same magazine that runs ''Manga/{{Naruto}}'', ''Manga/{{Bleach}}'', and ''OnePiece'', the very magazine for which the protagonists create manga.
* ''Anime/PuellaMagiMadokaMagica''. Not only does the art design of the Witch's Barriers evoke references to classical art and fiction, especially ''{{Faust}}'', but the main synopsis, and several of the episodes, such as episodes 9 and 12, brings back memories of other post-modern anime series.
* ''Anime/RevolutionaryGirlUtena'' lives on {{Deconstruction}} and [=Post Modernism=]. For a series about a girl who wants to be a prince, one wouldn't expect the catchphrase to be "absolute destiny apocalypse." Classical piano music coexists with children singing what sounds like Music/{{Megadeth}} in Japanese. A group of shadow girls acts as a GreekChorus to [[PaintingTheMedium explain the plot]] to drum music OnceAnEpisode (or go off on [[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} tangents about UFOs]]), but eventually they interact with the cast -- and when they do, it's a WhamEpisode. ''Utena'' is a deconstruction of the ShoujoGenre as a whole, in much the same way as ''[[Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion Evangelion]]'' is for ShonenGenre.
* The entire ''Anime/PrettyCure'' Franchise goes a different route from other series by having the characters go along with the craziness instead of having the tropes be deconstructed.
* ''Manga/HunterXHunter'' pays tribute to many {{Shonen}} tropes and character archetypes, especially ones from ''Manga/DragonBall'', [[{{Deconstruction}} and often subverts and examines them in a realistic manner]] that sometimes brings their [[FridgeHorror darker implications]] to light.
* In the ''LightNovel/{{Baccano}}'' anime Gustav St. Germain and his assistant Carol have conversations about [[EnsembleCast which character]] is the main protagonist and why the series doesn't have a conclusive ending. The anime tells the story in a completely non-chronological order and invites the audience to put all the pieces together, in contrast to the books, which are slightly more linear.

* Creator/ReneMagritte's famous painting of a pipe, with the words "[[TheTreacheryOfImages This is not a pipe]]" written eloquently in French.
* Analytic cubism is actually an attempt to look at every angle of a three-dimensional object on a two dimensional plane.
* After World War I, several artists decided art should have no meaning whatsoever, (because according to them, nothing meant anything any more), so UsefulNotes/{{Dada}} developed and is forever remembered as one of the more ridiculous art movements- when it's not the most depressing. Though Dada is technically part of Modernism.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* Creator/GrantMorrison's run on ''Comicbook/AnimalMan'' featured the central character slowly becoming aware of his own fictional nature. He eventually confronted Morrison himself in the pages of the comic.
** In John Ostrander's ''ComicBook/SuicideSquad'' run in the late '80s, [[ShoutOut Morrison reappears as The Writer]], who reveals that when he wrote himself into ''Comicbook/AnimalMan'', he inadvertently became part of Creator/DCComics continuity. No matter, though; the Writer is soon killed off.
** In ''ComicBook/FinalCrisis'' ([[Creator/GrantMorrison Morrison]] again!) Superman wears ''literal'' PlotArmor and fights a parasitic vampire symbolizing [[DarkerAndEdgier darkness in comics]] in 4th dimensional metafictional space.
* John Byrne's run on ''ComicBook/SheHulk'' had the protagonist aware of the fact that she was in a comic, to the point where she would take shortcuts across advertisements in order to catch a crook. (Officially -- see the Marvel Universe Handbooks -- the ''events'' in ''She-Hulk'' are in continuity but the metafictional gags are not.)
* This same meta-knowledge is the driving gag behind [[Creator/DCComics DC's]] ''ComicBook/AmbushBug''. Who happens to be insane, so all that stuff could just be in his head.
* SelfDemonstrating/{{Deadpool}} takes MediumAwareness to [[UpToEleven the next level]]. He knows he's a fictional character and makes fun of comic book tropes and ''even'' the industry itself, and whenever he gets adapted to [[VideoGame/DeadPool other]] [[Film/DeadPool media]] he's aware of ''that'' too, arguably making him THE postmodern comic book character.
-->'''Deadpool:''' I even wrote my ''own'' page for this website and other wikis. Who says I don't go the extra mile?
* Much of Creator/AlanMoore's ''ComicBook/{{Promethea}}'' is like this, including the whole ending, which is ''[[ShapedLikeItself about itself]]''. It's also pretty cool, even without the psychotropics.
** A lot of Moore's work fit under this, especially his deconstructive parodies of superheroes in ''ComicBook/{{Miracleman}}'', ''ComicBook/{{Watchmen}}'', and ''ComicBook/WhateverHappenedToTheManOfTomorrow''. He has done much in exposing the often unpleasant subtext and implications of superhero fantasies and the conservative values that they end up enabling.
** ''ComicBook/TheLeagueOfExtraordinaryGentlemen'' is possibly the most post-modern of all comics since its set in a world composed entirely of fiction, all fiction all the time. It frequently critiques changing consciousness, how TheHero has different values in the Victorian Era than in modern times, how women are more prominent in 20th Century fiction than in earlier eras and the relationship between the narratives of an author and that of the state, culture and society he lives in.
* The origin of the Silver Age version of ComicBook/TheFlash has Barry Allen naming himself after his favorite comic book character upon gaining his powers, which just so happened to be the Golden Age Flash, Jay Garrick. This was some 30 years before ''ComicBook/CrisisOnInfiniteEarths'', and as such, the Silver Age comics and Golden Age comics existed in different universes.
* ''Comicbook/TheSandman''. [[MetaFiction It's essentially a story about stories]] [[AnthropomorphicPersonification whose protagonist is the embodiment of storytelling.]] A more persistent theme is the difference between ancient and modern writing, stories which are male and stories which are female, the latter tends to be more common in the 20th Century.
* ''Comicbook/HowardTheDuck'' had plenty of it during a 2016 issue: [[Characters/XMenRoguesGalleryMToZ Mojo]] revealed he was behind the 2015-16 run of stories, so he could [[TrumanShowPlot sell Howard's exploits as a reality show]]. In-between, as resembling Howard's OrphanedSeries he'd spend years without doing anything ("Your life was the equivalent of [[Film/GuardiansOfTheGalaxy a post-credits cameo!]]"), Mojo would film scripted scenes between [[Film/HowardTheDuck Lea Thompson and someone in a duck costume]].

[[folder:Fan Fic]]
* Fanfic/TheCalvinverse is, if nothing else, very, ''[[MediumAwareness/TheCalvinverse very]]'' [[MediumAwareness medium aware.]]
* ''Fanfic/TheCalvinHobbesAndPaineShow'' - a work of {{metafiction}} about the titular ShowWithinAShow, which has been {{Retool}}ed into a VarietyShow after Waterson left, and Calvin hasn't been taking this very well.

* ''Film/TwentyOneJumpStreet'', is not only full aware of that they're in a movie but the movie also take the time to point out how things have changed when compared to high school in the current time period and high school of the previous generation.
* Nigel Tomm's film adaptation of ''Literature/TheCatcherInTheRye'', which is [[spoiler:75 minutes of a blank blue screen]]. TrueArtIsIncomprehensible, indeed.
* A particularly {{egregious}} example of the term "post-modern" being misused can be found in the movie Film/InspectorGadget, where [[HookHand Dr. Claw]] says that his robotic hand makes him seem like "a post-modern Captain Hook." What he probably meant was SteamPunk.
* In films starring Franchise/TheMuppets, the fourth wall is strong enough to keep the plot going- but no stronger.
* In addition to being an example (as a scripted film shot on-location at a real-life historical anti-war riot), ''Film/MediumCool'' (1969) is named after [=Marshall McLuhan=]'s book, ''The Medium Is The Message'', which stated that [[Wiki/TVTropes TV is the ultimate]] "cool" medium, whereas theater and, say, flash-mobs would be a "hot" medium that requires audience participation.
* The cinema version of ''Film/Gremlins2TheNewBatch'' had the film 'break down' because of gremlins in the projection booth, resulting in Hulk Hogan being called in from the cinema lobby to save the day. The home video version had gremlins plague the viewer's TV set by switching it over to other channels. Eventually they come undone by switching over to a Western, at which point John Wayne shoots them.
* Creator/MelBrooks movies:
** The characters in ''Film/{{Spaceballs}}'' appear completely aware they are in a heavily merchandised Sci-Fi movie. At one point the bad guys rent a copy of the movie so they can fast forward and use that info to track down the good guys more quickly. Things become awkward when they reach the part of the movie they are in at that moment.
** ''Film/BlazingSaddles'', an AffectionateParody of western movies. Multiple references to things in the future ("What in the Wide Wide World of Sports is going on here?", "The Doctor Gillespie killings", "I must have killed more men than Creator/CecilBDeMille", "The bitch was inventing the Candygram", Taggart's talking about the tractor before it was even invented, the railroad workers singing "I Get a Kick Out Of You" decades before it was written, and Hedy Lamarr ("That's ''Hedley!''")) and an ending that [[BreakingTheFourthWall rampages through the fourth wall like a supercharged bulldozer]].
** ''Film/RobinHoodMenInTights'' "Hey, it worked in ''Blazing Saddles''!" And the scene at the archery contest where everyone, in character and on screen, references the movie script to verify the tiebreaker rules.
* ''Film/TwentyFourHourPartyPeople''. Constant references to 'Things that, technically, didn't actually happen', many moments of fourth wall breaking, a scene that 'will probably be cut and will appear on the DVD Extras', and a scene highlighting all the cameos from the real musicians. In one of his asides to the camera, Steve Coogan's Tony Wilson describes himself as "being postmodern, before it was fashionable." The thing is, all these [=PoMo=] tricks are true to Wilson's actual character and ideals.
* Michael Winterbottom's ''A Cock and Bull Story'' is also very much this, since it's a film about an adaptation of ''Literature/TristramShandy''... itself an early example of post-modernism (see below in the Literature folder).
-->'''Steve Coogan:''' "''Tristram Shandy'' was a post-modern classic written before there was any modernism to be post about."
* ''Film/TheLifeAndDeathOfPeterSellers'' is structured as a {{Biopic}} being made by Creator/PeterSellers (Geoffrey Rush) himself. Most of the film is the [=Biopic=] itself, but several times one of the characters will be revealed to "actually" be played by Peter as s/he addresses the audience directly about Peter. For example: Anne Levy (his first wife) is played by Creator/EmilyWatson most of the way, but after she breaks up with Peter, the reveal has Geoffrey-as-Peter-as-Emily-as-Anne decide to rerecord her dialogue to give the relationship a happier finish.
* The Creator/SpikeJonze film ''Film/{{Adaptation}}'' is ostensibly an adaptation of the book ''The Orchid Thief'', but is actually a fictionalized account of screenwriter Creator/CharlieKaufman's attempt to adapt the book to film without troping it up for Hollywood. [[spoiler:The film gradually devolves into an extremely typical film where Kaufman becomes obsessed with the book's author and discovers her drug-laden affair with her guide in writing the book, exactly what Kaufman said at the beginning he was trying to avoid.]]
* The Spike Jonze film ''Film/BeingJohnMalkovich'' is a movie about a portal into a mind of an actor who plays himself. We even get to see a monkey having a flashback.
* ''Film/SynecdocheNewYork''. Just the fact that it's Creator/CharlieKaufman is not enough for him.
* ''Film/{{Grindhouse}}''.
* The premise behind ''Film/StrangerThanFiction'' is that the main character starts hearing someone narrate his life.
* ''Film/TheHolyMountain'', ''Film/ElTopo'', and anything else by cinematerrorist Alejandro Jodorowsky.
* ''Viva la Muerte'' (1971), a surreal western similar to ''Film/ElTopo''.
* ''Film/{{Scream 1996}}'' started a massive wave of self-referential, teen-focused horror films that ran through the [[TheNineties late '90s]]. By the time the fourth instalment comes along, the characters now realise that the rules the first movie subverted are now being subverted ''again'' and "the unexpected is the new cliche".
* Prior to ''Scream'', Wes Craven's initial flirtations with postmodern horror produced ''Film/WesCravensNewNightmare''.
* Most Quentin Tarantino films, including ''Film/PulpFiction'' and ''Film/KillBill.''
* ''Film/MoulinRouge!'' definitely. Melding of various media, meta-fiction, incorporation of anachronistic songs... it's crazy awesome. And very post-modern.
* ''Film/{{Ararat}}'', a film about making an ostensibly historically accurate film about the Armenian Genocide, is postmodern in and of itself. The film adds on to it with dramatic scenes broken by suddenly panning back to see the Director and Film crew, or by having an Art Professor storm onto a set and argue with the lead actor about how he's playing the artist she's spent her career on, with the actor arguing back while still in character -- while reminding you from this that even ''this'' is two actors playing roles.
* Creator/FedericoFellini's ''Otto E Mezo'' is older than all of these films and has characters discussing the set-up of scenes (they are trying to make a movie) and said scene is the very same scene we're watching. A lot of Fellini's films fit actually.
* ''Film/FunnyGames'': A [[{{Gorn}} Torture Porn]] / [[SlasherMovie Slasher]] film with NoFourthWall, and GenreSavvy killers who know they're in a Torture Porn / Slasher film and [[NoFourthWall break the fourth wall]] to [[TakeThat attack]] the fandom of Torture Porn and Slasher films, showing how the suffering of their victims is [[YouBastard is the audience's fault]] because Torture Porn and Slasher films are entertainment to them. They also [[spoiler: change the outcome of the plot by using a remote control to rewind to seconds before the victims successfully fight back, and [[LampshadeHanging lampshade]] this by saying "you shouldn't have done that, you're not allowed to break the rules" meaning that the victims can never win a Torture Porn or Slasher film because that's [[TheBadGuyWins "the rules"]] of the genre.]] Long story short, if you enjoyed it, then you didn't understand it.
* Godard's output of the '60s at least, such as ''Breathless''.
* The movie ''Film/TheNeverendingStory'' is about Bastian, a boy in "the real world", reading a fantasy novel about the world of Fantasia, but as the story goes along there are hints that he is having an effect on Fantasia. At the climax, not only does [[spoiler:the Child-Like Empress reveal that Bastian is the only one who can save the world of Fantasia]] but she also mentions that at the same time as he has been reading about Fantasia, there have been others watching Bastian in the same way.
* Almost any movie by Creator/ChristopherNolan covers post-modernism in some way. This is primarily due to his films revolving around a non-chronological timeline, the [[UnreliableNarrator "reliability of the narrator"]] and/or character insecurities, whether it be [[Film/BatmanBegins irrational fear]], [[Film/ThePrestige unhealthy obsession]], [[Film/{{Insomnia}} extreme]] [[Film/{{Following}} paranoia]], [[Film/{{Memento}} amnesia]] or [[Film/{{Inception}} recognising reality]].
* ''Incident at Loch Ness'' is a {{Mockumentary}} in which a film crew records Creator/WernerHerzog's attempt to film a documentary about the Loch Ness monster. When [[TroubledProduction difficulties arise]], Herzog becomes fanatical about completing the project, despite an air of doom over the whole thing. This is the exact setup of [[Film/AguirreTheWrathOfGod the films]] [[Film/{{Fitzcarraldo}} Herzog is known best for]], and the whole thing turns into a [[{{Homage}} pastiche of them]]. It's a remake of/tribute to Herzog's classic films that stars Herzog himself, with directing a film as his disastrous quest.
* [[{{Mockumentary}} Mockumentaries]] in general: they're works of fiction, but the "documentary" pretense eliminates the fourth wall.
* ''Film/MyNameIsBruce'', in which Creator/BruceCampbell plays a fictionalized version of himself, has some elements of this. Notably, at one point his character is attacked by a monster from one of the movies he (the character) filmed. Breaking that down again: a character who is fictional in-universe breaks through the wall (figuratively and literally) to attack an in-universe real-life character, who himself is a fictional version of a real real-life person. Is it happy hour yet?
* ''Film/TheCabinInTheWoods''. The official synopsis is "Five friends go to a remote cabin in the woods. Bad things happen. If you think you know this story, think again. [[spoiler:Each year, a shady worldwide bureaucratic agency puts on sacrificial rituals; if they aren't followed to the letter, ancient evil gods will destroy the Earth. One ritual team chemically and mentally manipulates five college students with HiddenDepths to become one dimensional horror archetypes and makes them choose one of the many monsters the agency has in their underground base to kill them. Everything goes to shit when, of all characters, ''TheStoner'', keeps his wits about him.]]" The film was intended by Drew Goddard and Joss Whedon to be a slam against torture porn and a "loving hate letter" to the horror genre, with many sincere horror references mixed with the satire against tired horror cliches.
* ''Film/SevenPsychopaths'' is about a screenwriter writing a script for a movie called [[TitleDrop Seven Pschopaths]] and ends up meeting said psychopaths. At one point the writer says he wants his movie to be a set up for a revenge story in the first half and then have the characters go off into the desert and talk the meaning of life for the second half. He says this as he and his friends are driving out into the desert to escape one of the psychopaths.
* ''Film/InTheMouthOfMadness'', especially towards the end of the movie.
* ''Film/TheWizardOfSpeedAndTime'' is a movie about Mike Jittlov trying to get support from Hollywood executives to make the movie you're watching - though you don't find that out until just before the credits roll.
* ''Film/AGuideToRecognizingYourSaints'' has its flashback scenes opening with the teenage protagonist announcing that he'll end up leaving everyone eventually - and features a montage of the characters addressing the audience to announce their motivations. During the present day portions, captions of the script will be shown alongside the characters saying their lines.
* ''Film/WaynesWorld'', as with the SNL sketch from where it was adapted, features Wayne and Garth, IdiotSavant metalheads who constantly break the fourth wall, especially with the multiple choice ending segment from the first movie.

* Creator/JorgeLuisBorges practically invented the thing. For example, you have "Literature/TlonUqbarOrbisTertius" that describes an attempt to create a whole world by convincing people it exists (the blurring between reality, story and belief being one quite central postmodern theme). Detailed reviews of non-existent books. Several of his stories feature the motif of a mutable past (because memory, its only vestige, is shifting).
* Early on in ''The Literature/{{Illuminatus}} Trilogy'', the narrator asks who he is and then says "oh, yes -- I'm a book". Later in the series, some characters come to the conclusion that the events are taking place in a book. [[spoiler:The super computer FUCKUP is first implied to be the author, but the characters disregard this "revelation" and conclude that the book they are in is outside their own universe.]]
* School textbooks are this, ''especially'' English and Language Arts books. Paragraphs about paragraphs, sentences about sentences, topic sentences about topic sentences, and so forth.
* ''Literature/TheCityOfDreamingBooks'' is narrated by the main character, who is a great fan of books and an aspiring writer himself, who constantly is addressing the readers with his musing on tropes and his own [[GenreSavvy Genre Savviness]], which [[IdiotBall isn't as high]] as one would expect. The novel is also a massive essay on the joy of reading books in general.
* In ''Franchise/TheDarkTower'' series, one of the BigBad's plans is to send his [[{{Mooks}} minions]] to our world and attempt to kill Creator/StephenKing in order to prevent the last few books in the series from being written, thus ensuring that the BigDamnHeroes will never stop him from [[EarthShatteringKaboom destroying the universe]]. Metaphysically speaking, stopping the last books from being written ''[[FridgeBrilliance would seem to qualify]]'' as destroying the universe, but it's not ''that'' [=PoMo=]. The katet's story happens no matter what happens to King. Killing him just means one of the two remaining lynchpins holding up the universe snaps in two, with [[EarthShatteringKaboom appropriate results.]] In other words, he's not the [[DeusExMachina god of the machine]], he's the MacGuffin.
* Mark Z. Danielewski's ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves''. [[spoiler:Navidson accidentally escapes the labyrinth by burning a book he has titled... ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves''. Which has the exact same number of pages as the book you're reading.]] It's a book about a book about a documentary about a labyrinth; but simultaneously, the book IS the labyrinth. Within the documentary within the book within itself.
* The ''Literature/ThursdayNext'' books embrace this to such an extent that it is the premise. Same for ''Barry Trotter'' parody novels by Michael Gerber. It's a parody [[spoiler:which is actually a book about trying to stop a movie which turns out to be said movie which is actually revealed to be a parody of the movie written by the main character who has been watching a movie based loosely off his own life, which involved trying to stop the movie from being made]]. There's even a disclaimer at the back from the author, claiming that [[MindScrew if anyone has worked out what's going on]] that they are to let him know at once.
%%* ''Literature/SophiesWorld'' by Jostein Gaarder.
* At the end of the book ''Literature/IAmTheMessenger'' by Marcus Zusak, when the main character, Ed, meets the person behind everything that's happened to him, it's strongly hinted that this person is in fact the author. He leaves behind a folder that turns out to contain the book's manuscript.
* J. Robert King's ''Rogues to Riches'' has this at moments. In fact, it was how the heroes got past an orc dungeon guard. They convinced him they were in a book, and they would help him get a bigger role. The epilogue sees the orc still sitting patiently, waiting for them to fulfil their promise.
* Kurt Vonnegut's novel ''Literature/SlaughterhouseFive''. The story constantly references other pieces of fiction in story. The first Chapter has the Author apologizing for how the book is written. This is reasonably common in Vonnegut's works. It's taken to its logical extreme in ''Literature/BreakfastOfChampions,'' in which the author, Kurt Vonnegut Jr., appears at the end of the book, is attacked by a dog from a previous novel and apologizes to one of the two main characters for making his life so miserable.
* Nabokov's ''Literature/PaleFire'' definitely qualifies, with its ''mise en abyme'', its unreliable narrator and its unconventional structure.
* ''Literature/TheNumberOfTheBeast'' (and most of Creator/RobertAHeinlein's other later works) involved the idea that any good enough piece of fiction caused a new universe to come into existence; its main characters visit Oz and other "fictional" worlds.
* As far a literature in general goes, there is a trend of reincorporating genre structures and tropes into the style and depth of "literary fiction". Many writers are referring to this blurring of the established lines as the post-modernist movement in fiction, as literature and genre as we know it today is commonly attributed to the Modernist movement.
* Every single Creator/ThomasPynchon novel; it's basically its CreatorThumbprint.
* ''Literature/{{Catch 22}}'', by Joseph Heller. The chapters themselves unfold non-linearly with existentialism as a heavy motif. The novel itself examines a fictional setting on the European front of World war 2, in particular highlighting the senselessness of the war in the form of absurdist black comedy.
* ''Literature/TristramShandy'', like Shakespeare, has been described as early [=Post Modernism=]. Its StreamOfConsciousness style and digressions within digressions within digressions are the most noticeable aspects of this, but perhaps more important are instances of PaintingTheMedium (like following the death of a character with a completely black page.)
* Creator/PhilipKDick 's novel ''Literature/{{VALIS}}''. When the novel begins, Dick opens by saying that it is a fictionalized account of his own encounters with Gnosticism/his schizophrenia, and he is writing the book to get a perspective on himself. The fictionalized version of himself is named Horselover Fat ("Philip" being Greek for "horse lover" and "Dick" being German for "fat"), and the book begins from Fat's perspective. Over time, however he begins to write in the first person including excerpts from his unpublished Exegesis. Eventually, Dick becomes the main character of the story and he interacts with his own fictionalized clone. As well as most of Dick's works, especially the now-Amazon-series-adapted ''Literature/TheManInTheHighCastle''.
* You are the main character of ''Literature/IfOnAWintersNightATraveler''.
* Some scholars consider ''Literature/TheConfidenceMan'' the first [=PoMo=] book. The novel by Creator/HermanMelville is one big MindScrew of social satire, religious symbolism and the author's own views, intertwined in a story that tests both the readers' and the characters' confidence in their morals.
* ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'' is about the relationship between the reader and the writer, and goes so far as to tell the reader to choose his or her preferred ending. It also has multiple layers of unreliable fictional authors, including a grossly fictionalized Creator/WilliamGoldman, and the only thing everyone in all the layers of the book agree on is a triumph of Surrealism: "True love is the greatest thing in the world except for cough drops." It doesn't get more postmodern than that in a novel.
* ''Literature/{{October}}'', in which the narrator regularly engages in pseudo-intellectual conversations with the reader, and several chapters are written in [[LeaningOnTheFourthWall shaped poems]]. Also, several events in the story exist only to cause confusion, and either don't actually happen, or [[HopeSpot are exaggerated by the narrator to sound better]].
* ''Literature/TheNewYorkTrilogy'' by Paul Auster is a post-modern trilogy of mystery novels. At the beginning of the first novel of the trilogy, ''City of Glass'', the main character receives a call from someone looking for a private detective named... Paul Auster. The main character later meets the character named Auster, but it is left unclear whether Auster is [[MediumAwareness aware]] that he is the author.
* ''Literature/TheThirdPoliceman'' by Flann O'Brien has been retro-actively called the first real "classic" of the genre, even though it was written in the 1930s.
* ''Literature/AnElegyForTheStillLiving'' is in many ways a story about stories. The author interferes in the plot a couple times, and the characters show signs of awareness that they are fictional. The main character eventually finds a copy of the manuscript and freaks out. He tries to fight doing what it says, but he can't help himself.
* Creator/UmbertoEco, one of postmodernism's leading theorists, writes [[{{Doorstopper}} 600-page books]] such as ''Literature/TheNameOfTheRose'', about scholars who spend their lives learning things from books and either go crazy or despair (or both) at trying to reconcile all these different grand narratives and the terrible things they lead other people to do.
* Everything written by Creator/WalterMoers. In ''Ensel and Krete'' the AuthorAvatar is constantly getting into rants about random topics. In the audiobook, there is a full two minute scene in which the narrator is only saying ''"brumli, brumli, brumli"'', just to provide an example that as a prize-winning writer, he can write anything he wants.
* Literature/{{Otherland}} by Creator/TadWilliams. So very much.
* NewWaveScienceFiction writer and University professor Creator/SamuelRDelany had always dabbled in blending SpeculativeFiction with [=Post Modernism=]. In ''Literature/{{Dhalgren}}'', he went so far into the postmodern world that he left many of his regular fans scratching their heads and wondering what happened. In addition to being thoroughly ambiguous as to genre (if any), the work is an existential {{doorstopper}} that ends exactly where it started, and, along the way, branches into multiple lines of story, which are printed ''side-by-side'' down the page, for page after page, leaving it up to the reader to sort it all out in whatever order he may find convenient.
* [[Literature/ThisIsTheTitleOfThisStory This is the title of this story, which is also found several times in the story itself]] by David Moser.
* ''Literature/TheTrueStoryOfTheThreeLittlePigs'' along with ''Literature/TheStinkyCheeseMan And Other Fairly Stupid Tales'' (both by the writer/illustrator duo of Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith) were arguably two of the first postmodernist picture books. The former is a FracturedFairyTale that has the Big Bad Wolf recount the story of the ''Literature/TheThreeLittlePigs'' from his perspective while the latter is a collection of Fractured Fairy Tales presented as a NoFourthWall production that's plagued with [[TheShowMustGoWrong constant problems]].

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* ''Series/ItsGarryShandlingsShow'' had Garry and his friends aware that they were in a SitCom, often talking directly to members of the audience, and manipulating the story to his own ends.
** Referenced by the ThemeSong as well: "This is the theme to Garry's show, the opening theme to Garry's show, this is the song that you hear as you watch the cre-dits..."
* The first series of ''Series/TheMightyBoosh'' especially, opens with Vince and Howard introducing the show in front of a curtain, and generally riffing on what's to come. This occasionally includes quibbling about changes in the script, and bitching about using up special effects money on Vince's hair. Occasionally they'll pause mid-episode to reference these facts. Vince is fond of breaking the fourth wall with a wink or a grin, and an episode in Series 3 has Howard pause and address the camera directly to point out that the audience has already seen the events he's about to summarise.
* In several episodes of ''Series/QuantumLeap'', the main characters figure out what their objective for the episode is by eliminating the possibilities that would be "too easy" for a forty-five-minute drama series. Also notable is that Sam interprets his situation as God himself intervening in the Quantum Leap project.
* ''Series/{{Moonlighting}}'' attracted a lot of attention for its two main characters' constant awareness that they were in a television show, which allowed the typical detective drama setup to become quite far-fetched and goofy at times. The series ends with the show being cancelled and the set taken down.
* Zack in ''Series/SavedByTheBell'' could not only break the FourthWall but ''stop reality at will''. This raises questions about the nature of Zack's existence. Is he a character, an actor, a first-person narrator, or... a deity? He extended the point further years later by guesting on ''Late Night with Jimmy Fallon'' to promote "his" show ''Series/RaisingTheBar'' and explain why he used the stage name Mark-Paul Gosselaar.
* The classic ''Burns And Allen'' show, in which George Burns would talk directly to the audience about the ongoing events of the episode. In later episodes, George Burns would watch the television along with the home audience so that he also knew what was going on.
* ''Series/StargateSG1'' is about as self-referential as you can get without breaking into parody territory... particularly in episodes involving ''[[ShowWithinAshow Wormhole]] [[StylisticSuck X-Treme!]]''.
* This trope was a staple of ''Series/ArrestedDevelopment''.
** It's also a major staple of ''Series/{{Community}}'', the natural comedic successor to AD.
* ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus'' frequently traded in this.
* ''Series/TheKidsInTheHall'' regularly broke the fourth wall, speaking directly to the audience and showing sets and props at the end or even during sketches. The Kids would often introduce themselves as themselves. One sketch even involved a comedy writer... who was living in a sketch... [[LogicBomb that he wrote]].
* The short-lived early '60s British series ''The Strange World of Gurney Slade'' featured Anthony Newley as a man trapped inside of a TV program.
* In a fourth season episode, "The Monster at the End of This Book," the leads of ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'' discover that someone has used visions of their lives as the inspiration for a series of horror novels. The books have the same titles as past episodes, and the writer's current manuscript is about what is happening to them right then.
** The title being a reference to a very postmodern ''Series/SesameStreet'' (!) book.
** This leads to a line that sums up the concept of the episode in a nutshell:
--->'''Dean:''' "I'm sitting in a laundromat reading about myself sitting in a laundromat reading about myself-- ''my head hurts.''"
** When the Winchester research the books online, Dean is irked by [[BrokenBase fan criticism]], intrigued by the [[FanGirl "Deangirls" and "Samgirls"]]... and [[{{Squick}} horrified]] by the slash fans.
--->'''Dean:''' "They do know we're ''brothers'', right?"
--->'''Sam:''' "It doesn't seem to matter to them."
** Supernatural seems to enjoy having at least once postmodern-esque episode per season, at least since season four. There's "The Monster at the End of This Book" in season four (after which Chuck, the author, becomes a recurring character), "The Real Ghostbusters" and "Changing Channels" in season five, and "The French Mistake" in season six. The last one takes "The Monster at the End of This Book" to new levels of meta: it features a ShowWithinAShow-- the show being ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'', and Sam and Dean have to pretend to be [[Creator/JaredPadalecki Jared]] and [[Creator/JensenAckles Jensen]], who in turn are meant to be playing Sam and Dean... ItMakesSenseInContext.
* ''Series/NorthernExposure'' did this to the point that, in one episode, the characters all gathered in the town square to discuss the problem of their motivations for a particular scene. Hardly an episode went by without at least one character breaking the fourth wall or referencing their "characterhood".
* ''Series/RedDwarf'''s ''Back to Earth'' mini-series was so full of references to itself and (very obviously) ''Film/BladeRunner'' that it was set to bursting, as the crew find out that they are just fictional characters created by BBC writers. [[TwistEnding Though the ending did turn the whole concept on its head.]]
* The [[GainaxEnding final episode]] of Brazilian sitcom ''Toma Lá Dá Cá'' had the character portrayed by the show's main writer being handed a laptop to write an ending that saves the cast from a rebellion.
* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtGSXMuWMR4 This news report]] from Creator/CharlieBrooker on the visual language of news reports. However in ''Series/{{Screenwipe}}'', he did Lampshade this trope by showing a shot of Brooker typing in the line about his show being Post Modern into the script itself.
* [[Series/SlingsAndArrows Darren Nichols]].
* In ''Series/{{Seinfeld}}'', where Jerry Seinfeld played a fictionalized version of himself, there was a plotline, where he was involved in the creation of a TV series in which he starred as a fictionalized version of himself.
* ''Series/{{Glee}}'' has its moments, with characters mentioning their tendency to sing, a couple of characters interacting in their voice overs, Rachel referring to herself as an [[TheIngenue Ingenue]] etc. And the writers are definitely very aware of what they're doing, and when it follows well trod plot paths they make sure to throw a lampshade or two in.
** At one point a character is found watching a video online. The video in question? It was a drug-induced dream sequence of a DIFFERENT character.
* ''Series/NedsDeclassifiedSchoolSurvivalGuide'' has the main character (and occasionally his friends and teachers) give advice to the viewer at some point during an episode.
* Brazilian sitcom ''Os Normais'' goes one step further from NoFourthWall: besides liberal use of AsideGlance for InnerMonologue sake, there are mentions and/or requests of the flashbacks before they appear - once, a flashback was requested in the kitchen... and it arrived before in the living room, to which the people there were bewildered - and mentions of the fictional nature of the show (in one of their [[TheMasochismTango many]], [[SlapSlapKiss many]] arguments-follwed-by-splits, the female protagonist said "Now there'll be two shows, 'She-Normal', with me, and 'He-Normal', with him!").
* In ''Series/{{Lost}}'', the definitive postmodern TV show, every character operates under a "Grand Narrative" of the universe, such as science, faith, or capitalism. That's then immediately undercut by flashbacks which show their conceptual models of reality have more to do with their parental issues than any objective reasoning. In the end, the show hints at many truths but endorses no grand narrative, leaving the viewers who thought "the Answers" were the point of it all stuck out in the cold.
** The show also contains numerous intertextual references to books, showing how both the characters and the show are all stitched together from different pieces of fiction.
* ''Series/AngieTribeca''

* The comedy folk song "The Anti-Singalong Song" relies on this trope to make it funny, as its performers cheerfully persuade their audience to sing about how they ''won't'' sing along.
* In the song "An Attempt to Tip the Scale" by Bright Eyes, Conor Oberst, in the middle of a fake interview in the song, at one point says, "Can you make that sound stop please?" The interviewer says "Yes." And the music in the background of the interview stops.
* Music/TheBeatles song "Only a Northern Song" references itself, telling how it was intentionally written badly.
** Screwed around with by Music/WeirdAlYankovic in "This Song Is Just Six Words Long".
* In the song "Signed Curtain" by Matching Mole (a post-Soft Machine project which includes Robert Wyatt), the lyrics consist of references to song structure:
-->This is the first verse
-->This is the first verse
-->This is the first verse, first verse...
-->And this is the chorus
-->Or perhaps it's a bridge
-->Or just another part of the song that I'm singing
* The second verse of Music/TheRamones' "Judy is a Punk" begins with "second verse, same as the first", and indeed ''it is''. Verse three begins with "third verse, different from the first" and, again, ''it is''.
** This is probably a reference to Henry the 8th by Herman's Hermits
* Post Modernism is also an art movement in music. Postmodernist music is often defined as a reaction against Modernism and its overt atonality. Like postmodernist literature, postmodernist music often likes to blur the boundary between tonality and atonality (dissonance), high art (classical) and low art (pop, rock music), between performer, composer and listener (chance music, conceptual music, etc...), and between musical forms.
** The form everybody knows would have to be ProgressiveRock.
** {{Industrial}} music, especially noise and some forms of EBM.
** Avant-garde metal, in all its iterations, from early NuMetal to mathcore.
** Music/{{Devo}}, if you believe the title of [[http://web.archive.org/web/20120717102724/http://devo.devaluate.com/Devolution.pdf this essay]] by their former associate Bob Lewis.
* Music/{{Wire}}, especially on ''Pink Flag''.
* "In vernünftigen Grenzen" by Swiss band "Die Aeronauten" is a volley against postmodernism (read: everything is ironic, everything is just a game, everything is meta, nothing matters) as a moral attitude.
* Music/TheKillers' "Spaceman", discussing the state of what is real with anti-realism. Taken even further by [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hc16Y9fiCvQ the music video]], and then that goes further with the ending of the video showing the soundstage on which it was contained and filmed.

* ''Radio/RoundTheHorne'' would often stop in the middle of sketches and break down in to (scripted) verbal fights between the actors.

* ''Theatre/SixCharactersInSearchOfAnAuthor'' is technically absurdist (a movement that came between modernism and [=Post Modernism=]), but it provides early examples of many of the metafictional elements that became popular in [=Post Modernism=].
* In the musical ''Theatre/IntoTheWoods'', the narrator is a character of his own. He insists that he isn't part of the story, but still perishes at the hand of a character after which the story becomes quite chaotic.
* ''Theatre/{{Spamalot}}'' is positively brimming with this. The most fall-off-your-seat-hysterical one being the show's love theme entitled "The Song That Goes Like This". Also the Lady of the Lake's "Whatever Happened To My Part?"
* ''Theatre/RosencrantzAndGuildensternAreDead'', especially when [[spoiler:Guildenstern "kills" the Player]], and when Rosencrantz shouts "Fire!" and comments that no one is moving.
* ''Theatre/McQueenOrLeeAndBeauty'', which also hits into the surrealist and absurdist movements. Its presentation (dancing mannequin props/stagehands/characters?) is not only what grounds it in the postmodern - the development of the story and the unique influence is a very postmodern factor, too.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid2'', released in 2001, among all of the things it attempted, is regarded as the first fully postmodern savaging of video games, sequels, and video game ''players''. [[WhatTheHellHero Attacking the consumers]] went over [[TheScrappy exactly as well as you'd expect]], though it didn't quite succeed at its goal of getting people to stop liking the ''Franchise/MetalGear'' series. See [[http://www.deltaheadtranslation.com/MGS2/DOTM_TOC.htm this document]] for a full explanation of the game's postmodern subversion of genre conventions and player expectations. See also [[MGS2Ending this page]] for an explanation of the game's MindFuck of an ending, which included, among other things, telling both Raiden and the player that they are mindless puppets who do what they're told and "lack the qualifications to exercise free will."
* ''VideoGame/{{BioShock|1}}'' and ''VideoGame/{{Portal}},'' two games released Fall 2007, played with [=Post Modernism=] when they both drew attention to how every game with a plot boils down to players taking orders from someone else and then doing exactly what they're told. They're listed together because of the interestingly opposite points each game made on the subject. ''Bioshock'''s point was "you're not a hero, you're a mindless drone doing what he's told", and the point of ''Portal'' was "maybe that's so, but you don't ''have'' to be".
%%* ''VideoGame/{{Harvester}}'', by the nature of its plot, takes this idea to the extreme.
* The AcclaimedFlop ''VideoGame/SpecOpsTheLine'' certainly qualifies. [[spoiler: It was marketed as your typical modern military shooter, and for the most part it acheived its IntendedAudienceReaction by showing the [[WhatTheHellHero unece]][[PlayerPunch ssary]] brutality the genre has had by subverting the general tropes involved in the [[GenreDeconstruction genre]], and [[DeconstructorFleet deconstructing]] them.]]
* ''VideoGame/HyperdimensionNeptunia'', being a series of Moe versions of video game consoles as characters has everyone [[NoFourthWall speaking directly to the player and making fun of their own personality quirks.]] Neptune is all about this. At one point the CPU's start playing a videogame with themselves as characters while they already are in a videogame.
* ''VideoGame/EternalDarkness'' won acclaim for itself by choosing to bypass the character and aim its scares directly at the player. It had fakeouts like making it appear that the magic spell you were casting misfired and your character died, or that your video feed had come loose in the middle of a battle, or that your Gamecube had reset, or that the game had decided to format your memory card -- up to a decidedly non-HeroicBSOD -- way scarier than any monster could possibly be.
* ''VideoGame/{{Killer7}}'' does this by removing your freedom of movement in a way that can be interpreted as done to point out the linearity and straightforwardness of the game, and how you can't control your fate. Because of a problematic control scheme, and the linearity itself and extreme MindScrew in storyline, welcoming was mixed at best.
* Creator/{{Suda 51}} continues this trend in ''VideoGame/NoMoreHeroes'', a game that satirises WideOpenSandbox games by giving you a huge open city to explore and then letting you realise that there's piss-all to do with your freedom save for storyline events that are unlocked in a very linear fashion. And playing with your pet cat. Much like the previous examples, most people didn't appreciate the developers sacrificing gameplay just to prove a point, and the open world aspect was removed from the sequel. Also, both games are Suda ridiculing the player. See Travis Touchdown, the loser otaku who spends all his money on anime and fights rather than moving out of a hotel? ThisLoserIsYou! The empty sandbox plays into that, as the only locations are a few nerdy stores and Travis' various jobs. Despite having a beautiful beach nearby. [[MisaimedFandom Nevertheless, many fans think he is awesome.]] No doubt Suda finds this hilarious.
* ''VideoGame/AlanWake''. An example is when a writer who wrote himself out of existence in his own stories, wrote into existence a childhood memory (and MacGuffin) of the main character... in a story the main character himself wrote after writing the other writer back into existence.
* The concept behind ''VideoGame/OmikronTheNomadSoul'' was that the player's soul had been sucked into their computer and that they were able to directly inhabit the bodies of the characters they were controlling.
* All of Creator/LucasArts' adventures had the characters talking directly to the player and many would refer to their own artificiality.
* The Avatar, the FeaturelessProtagonist of the ''VideoGame/{{Ultima}}'' series from ''VideoGame/UltimaIV'' onward, was rather directly stated in ''VideoGame/UltimaIV'' and all games afterward to actually be the player himself, using his computer to journey from the "real world" to the realm of Brittania. The player/Avatar enters Britannia physically in person through a Moongate. At the beginning of ''VideoGame/UltimaVII'' on the other hand, the BigBad Guardian taunts the player, and by the extension the Avatar (or other way around) through his/her computer monitor.
* The 1980 Apple ][ game ''Series/ThePrisoner'' played with ideas of reality, just as the [=TV=] show it was based on did. At the start, the player is given a 3-figure number xyz, which they must not reveal to their enemies. At one point, the game will appear to crash with the error message "Syntax Error at line xyz". If the player types "LIST xyz" (as would be a common reaction to Apple ][ bugs --- surprise! [[ViolationOfCommonSense You're still in the game, and you just lost.]]
* The Creator/{{Infocom}} game ''Deadline'', where you are a detective solving a murder, features a novelization of the game within the game. If you flick to the last page of the novel to find out how it ends, you find it ends with the detective shooting himself. Disgusted with yourself for cheating, you pull out your gun and shoot yourself.
* ''VisualNovel/UminekoWhenTheyCry''. The post-''Legend of the golden witch'' tea party alone uses a combination of AnimatedActors and BreakingTheFourthWall to produce a powerful MindScrew when the reader realizes that not only is this all ''canon'', everything in the preceding novel was as well. And it just keeps getting more and more meta from there.
* At a seemingly random moment during the story, the action in ''Videogame/EarthBound'' is interrupted by a dialogue box asking the player in no uncertain terms to input their real, full name. Due to the way it's worded and the fact that it comes out of nowhere, players tend to, instead of inputting "FAGBALLS" like they usually would, comply fully. It isn't brought up again until the final boss fight, [[spoiler:where the BigBad EldritchAbomination Giygas can only be defeated via [[ThePowerOfFriendship a party member praying for help from every ally they met on their journey]]. It works for a while, but then you start to get chilling messages about "your prayers being devoured by the darkness." That is, until one final prayer is heard by the most powerful ally the party has: you, the player, addressed by name.]] It's a CrowningMomentOfAwesome no matter how you slice it. They did it again in ''Videogame/MOTHER3''. [[spoiler:After the apocalypse, all the characters specifically tell YOU that they're okay.]] The MOTHER series in general has a habit of making jokes that only make sense in the context of a JRPG.
* ''Videogame/RetroGameChallenge'' is a video game about the 8-bit era of video game history.
* ''Videogame/BatenKaitos'' (by the same writer as ''Chrono Cross'') has the player take the role of a disembodied spirit who observes the main characters with their knowledge. Sometimes they will even turn towards the screen and ''address the player'', with a [[PaintingTheMedium gap in the voiced dialogue]] where [[HelloInsertNameHere the player's name]] should go.
* In ''Shadows of the Servants'', your character is one of many who were summoned by a voodoo witch to investigate and break a troublesome curse. At the end, it's revealed that the means by which she summoned up potential curse-breakers is ''the game itself''.
* In ''VideoGame/SpaceQuestIVRogerWilcoAndTheTimeRippers'', your character spends the intro and the outro in ''Space Quest IV''. Most of the game is spent using a TimeMachine to go through a number of ''Space Quest'' games, including the very first one (where your 256-color character gets grief from some monochromatic bikers for being pretentious). The other two games are possible future titles: ''Space Quest X: Latex Babes of Estros'' and ''Space Quest XII: Vohaul's Revenge II''. How does your character find out he's in his future? By [[BreakingTheFourthWall looking up at the screen's edge where the game's title is displayed]]. In ''Space Quest X'', you can visit a video game store at a space mall, where you can buy a hint guide to the game you're currently playing in the bargain bin. Furthermore, at the end of the game, you find a MagicFloppyDisk that contains, among other things, a copy of the game you're playing. If you happen to delete that, the game will immediately exit without warning.
* ''VideoGame/TheStanleyParable'' is an interactive postmodern art piece dealing with the question of the player's ability to make decisions, whether that be with or against the Narrator's wishes. One of the good endings comes from following the Narrator's directions exactly, while ironically, the story shows that the player character is free from control. However, not even the Narrator himself is safe from being controlled, as other endings demonstrate.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Undertale}}'', saving, resetting, and gaining [[ExperiencePoints exp]] are all parts of the plot, and a few of the characters will comment on your actions in past playthroughs, to the point where if you get the GoldenEnding, one of the characters will [[spoiler: beg you not to reset the game because everyone is so happy]]. This is taken a step further in the [[spoiler: Genocide route, where the player must go out of their way to eradicate all life in the Underground. If this is done, it becomes impossible to achieve a good ending. ''Permanently''.]]
* ''VideoGame/EatLeadTheReturnOfMattHazard'' stars a video game character who's aware of his role, and the plot involves the new owner of his franchise trying to replace him with his own original character; Matt rebels against this and finds himself exploring other video game genres via being hacked into them, [[spoiler:eventually even fighting the game's team of developers.]]
* Developers "Arcane Kids" (creators of ''VideoGame/SonicDreamsCollection'' and ''Bubsy Visits The James Turrell Retrospective'') have elements of this. Sonic Dreams Collection is a massive TakeThat at elements of the Franchise/SonicTheHedgehog fanbase, for instance.

[[folder:Web Animation]]
* WebVideo/TheGuild: - the song [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urNyg1ftMIU Do you wanna date my avatar]].
* ''WebAnimation/HomestarRunner'' cartoons tend to play with the notion that, since the characters are all in a cartoon anyway, cartoons in the cartoon world of ''Homestar Runner'' are more or less instantly malleable.
** In a Strong Bad Email, Strong Bad brags that he has the only extant copy of the ill-fated Limozeen Saturday-morning cartoon, which was cancelled before the first episode even finished airing. When Strong Bad mentions this, cut away to the cartoon, with Teeg Dougland saying, "I've got some bad news, boys; we've been cancelled." This is a cartoon, meaning that technically the animators would have known that months ahead of time. Meta. Later on, Crack Stuntman, the not-taking-his-job-seriously voice actor of the Cheat Commando leader Gunhaver started making obnoxious demands about his character, leading to on-the-spot edits to make Gunhaver a lover of massage chairs or to add Crack's girlfriend as a cast member. Finally the director creates a character to replace Gunhaver until they can find an actor who doesn't have his head stuck up his ass.
** In an Easter Egg in Strong Bad's one hundredth email, Limozeen congratulates him, and then Larry says, "We're from the band Limozeen!", startling the others. One of the others says, "I think it says that at the top of the screen." Replies Larry: [[LampshadeHanging "Well I didn't know that!"]]
** At the end of the two-hundredth episode, the same Easter Egg is seen, re-edited and dubbed over to make it relevant to the two-hundredth episode.
** Sbemail Virus. [[http://www.homestarrunner.com/sbemail118.html Just watch it, it's freaking weird.]]
* ''WebAnimation/BarbieLifeInTheDreamhouse'' explores some trappings of being a doll, such as never showing physical aging signs, and having hair that never grows back when cut. The series also openly acknowledges the likelihood that {{Franchise/Barbie}} is too perfect for her own good. For example, she admits having trouble keeping track of all the jobs Mattel has given her over the years. Also, as a pseudo-reality show, Barbie and the gang frequently comment to the viewers. They initially limit themselves to ConfessionCam sequences, but they gradually become more aware that the viewers possibly watch ''everything'' they do.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* ''Webcomic/{{Opplopolis}}'' is pretty [[Creator/ThomasPynchon Pynchonesque]] in general, but for example, a race of aliens are [[http://www.opplopolis.com/issues/3/2 initially introduced]] as an apparent fantasy of Marvin's but return [[http://www.opplopolis.com/issues/7/3 four issues later]], apparently aware of the characters in the comic, including events that haven't happened yet. These aliens live in a city called Oppleopolis (with an "e").
* Kris Straub's ''Webcomic/CheckerboardNightmare''. A webcomic about a webcomic character trying to become famous. The [=Post Modernism=] and humor are milked for all they're worth -- then milked some more.
* The theme has continued, albeit in low-key fashion, in ''Starslip Crisis'', his sci-fi strip. It was originally titled and publicised as ''Star'''shift''' Crisis''. ''Star'''slip''''' ran in parallel, complete with duplicate website, until an accident with an "alternate universe" engine destroyed one of the ships. A spinoff will feature space ships and crews from ''other webcomics''.
* Where many works use NoFourthWall as a source of easy jokes, ''Webcomic/OneOverZero'' takes it as the basic grounding upon which the characters interact with their world and each other -- often with great seriousness.
* The "Not Officially Sabrina Online Construction Set" (or NOSOCS), a parody freely editable by anyone of the FurryComic ''WebComic/SabrinaOnline'', postmodern to begin with, took a turn for the ridiculously postmodern during 2008, and actually managed to be fairly consistently clever.
** Sadly, most traces of it have vanished from the Internet and old links just lead to advertisement and malware traps.
* The basic premise of ''Webcomic/RealLifeComics'' is a character based on the cartoonist who is a cartoonist and knows he is a character in his own cartoon. At some points Greg the character gets into arguments with Greg the cartoonist about such things that his daughter was already born in real life, but he hadn't yet figured out how to draw a baby in the comic, so his comic wife is still pregnant.
* In ''Webcomic/MSFHigh'' they think it is just a side effect of the magic, but most characters realize their school partially runs on tropes and the TheoryOfNarrativeCausality; naturally, they exploit this.
* Most of the cast ''Webcomic/BobAndGeorge'' are aware that they are in a Megaman sprite comic. They are also often aware of the plot of the games they are based on - and frequently have to recreate. There's also the Author, who interacts with his characters from time to time, and the Shadowy Author, whose true identity isn't revealed [[strike:until the very last story arc]] ''ever''.
* ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'' can be seen as a postmodern take on the fantasy genre, with characters and plotlines regularly existing primarily to comment on popular ideas within the genre. And that's before you take into account the constant [[NoFourthWall breaking of the fourth-wall]]. The core concept is even weirder; they don't represent an actual ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons'' campaign, but they are fully aware that their world runs on those rules. Complete with dice rolls, and the rules of physics depending on you remembering what they are.
* Andrew Hussie of ''Webcomic/MSPaintAdventures'' loves playing with the pseudo-InteractiveFiction structure of the various series. ''Webcomic/ProblemSleuth'' in general has NoFourthWall whatsoever, it disappeared completely right around the time the titular character ''consulted Website/GameFAQs'' to get the answer to a particularly challenging puzzle. Another puzzle in ''Webcomic/ProblemSleuth'' was only passed by the characters reloading to a save state located ''after'' the puzzle was solved. That's right, they resorted to abusing SaveScumming ''in-universe''.
* ''Webcomic/{{Homestuck}}''. From a character scratching the second CD of Homestuck (no, not [[TheGamePlaysYou Sburb]], ''Homestuck'') with a record needle and causing the comic to glitch out until it's repaired, to a character escaping the destruction of their universe by flying through their fourth wall and into the fourth wall of the second half of the comic, to a HostileShowTakeover that's only solved by the author bursting through the ''[[MindScrew fifth]]'' wall and beating a major villain upside the head with a broom, to characters getting commands from people at consoles identical to the commands used to link pages, to long discussions of [[YouCantFightFate how time follows a preestablished narrative]], to a reveal, [[MundaneMadeAwesome with much fanfare]], that characters can now ''talk directly to each other'' instead of going through instant messaging and spritelogs, it's postmodern enough to make your head hurt. At one point, Caliborn started speaking through a strange computer to a person who was apparently acting as narrator. When he got pissed off and [[http://www.mspaintadventures.com/007395/ started whacking the computer with a magical crowbar]] (warning: music), the whole ''screen'' shook as well, links and all, causing the little candy corn at the top of the screen to fall onto the table in the image and bounce around, all as though the MSPA website itself were somehow contained in that computer.
* So if MSPA was postmodern ''to begin with'', [[http://dizzy.pestermom.com/?p=csa01marisa0281#comment-5734 what is]] [[Webcomic/TouhouNekokayou Create.swf Adventures]]? First CSA just a MSPA-style interactive comic. Then the [[BreakingTheFourthWall characters begin talking to the readers]], which isn't that special. Then the readers get attacked by the characters. [[http://dizzy.pestermom.com/?p=csa01marisa0145 Like, literally.]] ''[[FourthWallPsych And there is a non-fourth-wall-breaking explanation!]]'' But then it gets silly again...
* ''Webcomic/PennyArcade'' often acknowledges that the [[AuthorAvatar characters]] are writing a webcomic, and there have even been strips where the characters discuss their plans for other strips. And they freely interact with fictional characters in the real world, or enter game worlds as themselves. Sometimes they even have different fictional characters acknowledging they're fiction, or other fiction in their own worlds.
* ''Webcomic/TheAdventuresOfDrMcNinja'' does this in the AltText in [[http://drmcninja.com/archives/comic/17p53 comic 17, page 53.]]
* ''Webcomic/TheWayOfTheMetagamer''. NoFourthWall, AuthorAvatar, AltText presenters, MediumAwareness, physical [[PlotHole plot holes]] used as gateways to other works, time-traveling changing history by actually changing [[StripArchive previously uploaded comics]] need we go on?
* What about ''Webcomic/{{Roommates}}''? MegaCrossover MetaFic FanWebcomic with almost NoFourthWall and MediumAwareness, where the TheoryOfNarrativeCausality and {{Fanservice}} are acknowledged forces of "nature", readers are encouraged to think EverybodyIsJesusInPurgatory and plant as many {{Epileptic Tree}}s as they can, with so many {{lampshade|Hanging}}s it makes hard to see the sun, an AuthorAvatar, a world built on {{Transfictionality}} so much it questions the reality of RealLife (probably the only work on Wiki/TVTropes with a Fridge Existential Angst entry), and it also shows signs of running on the ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve of the readership.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* ''Podcast/WelcomeToNightVale'' is considered a postmodern response to the Information Age. Operating on principles of NothingIsScarier and mundane approaches to supernatural events. The story is basically a news broadcast which is very vague on the actual news it delivers.
* Jean-Luc Godard's ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGmBul4ySdE&feature=related The Last Starfighter]]''.
* Played with in later episodes of ''WebVideo/KateModern'', when Gavin becomes convinced that his life is being turned into an online TV show, and complains that people keep [[CelebrityParadox mistaking him for a professional actor]] (he was played by Ralf Little, best known for ''The Royle Family'' and ''TwoPintsOfLagerAndAPacketOfCrisps''). In "Fictionality," he muses, "How do I even know I exist?"
* ''WebVideo/DoctorHorriblesSingAlongBlog'' starts off presenting itself as the video blog of a mad scientist. Eventually it turns into a musical, but we keep on checking back in with Dr. Horrible during the first two acts as he tells his audience what's going on. In the third and final act, we get zero blogging from him and instead get a relevant newscast. The last shot, only two words long, raises unanswered questions about what the actual root state of the whole thing really ''is'' -- is it a story told by the main character [[UnreliableNarrator filtered through his perspective]], a story told by the main character who recounts things accurately, a story where the main character [[NoFourthWall talks a lot to the audience]], a story about an AuthorAvatar telling a story, or a story about the main character [[WildMassGuessing trying to adjust for a fragmented state of mind by telling it two different ways]]...?
* ''Roleplay/SurvivalOfTheFittest'', in V3, exhibits this, mainly with Wade Wilson and Quincy Archer. Wade Wilson is repeatedly BreakingTheFourthWall, telling off his own narrator as he grows more and more insane. [[MetaGuy Quincy Archer]] wrote a CharacterBlog before he came to the island, mainly about how Survival Of The Fittest was fake and about the tropes it used. Considering who Wade Wilson is [[{{Deadpool}} named after]], this really doesn't come as a surprise.
* The point of TheAbridgedSeries.
* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPv7BIbyUoo Meta Anti Poop]], takes all the editing techniques of WebAnimation/YouTubePoop, and yet instead of mocking the original like most poops, it actually embraces it by refusing the go OffTheRails. It's still funny.
* Ladies and Gentlemen, the amazing [[http://www.elsewhere.org/pomo/ [=Post Modernism=] Generator]], created by Andrew C. Bulhak.
* WebVideo/SomeJerkWithACamera calls out [[Film/EscapeFromTomorrow Randy Moore]] for [[YouKeepUsingThatWord misusing the term]] in the third part of his Escape From Tomorrow review. [[https://youtu.be/m_Y9Q5HI4yI?t=19m0s Observe.]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/AquaTeenHungerForce'' is often cited as an example of post modern humor.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' often features meta-references, such as the characters somehow becoming aware of Kenny dying in each episode. One such instance was in "Christmas in Canada", in which the boys are not only worried about missing presents but also their "Christmas adventure". And who can forget "Canceled", where they discover the whole world was a reality show run by aliens (in itself a parody of the PlanetOfHats trope).
* Cartoons such as ''WesternAnimation/{{Animaniacs}}'', ''WesternAnimation/{{Freakazoid}}'', and ''WesternAnimation/TinyToonAdventures'' make enormous use of this comedy. For example, even if you were in a space station orbiting Mars, JustForFun/CandleJack would get y[[spoiler:oink! That was pretty silly of you, don't you think?]]
* ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' has become the most unapologetically postmodernist show on television, and gets more postmodern each season.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' too had a couple of forays into [=Post Modernism=], just like they touched on everything else over the course of their extended lifespan. They made a reference to their real-world merchandise enterprises, the 'I didn't do it' episode where they all embrace their status as one-dimensional catchphrases, a couple of episodes where they take stock of how far along the plot is or how everything will be returned to normalcy for next week. Sometimes they call attention to the fact that they always wear the same clothes and never age or grow and have yellow skin.... Most impressive example is the 'Behind the Laughter' episode where we are expected to believe that these cartoon characters are actually actors with 'real' lives outside of the show they put on for us every week. Also this trope might include those episodes that poke fun at the nerdiness of The Simpsons' fan community.
-->'''Marge:''' Hmm, should the Simpsons get a horse?\\
'''Comic Book Guy:''' Uh, excuse me, I believe the Simpsons already ''had'' a horse which forced Homer to work at the Kwik-E-Mart, with hilarious results.\\
'''Homer:''' Does anyone care what this guy thinks?\\
'''Everyone:''' NO!
* The above are only following in the footsteps of the original masters of [=Post Modernism=] in animation: ''WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes'', the most famous example being "WesternAnimation/DuckAmuck".
* A common in-joke in the ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' fandom is that [[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} Pinkie Pie]] is fully aware of the Fourth Wall and that she is inside a work of fiction. While [[WordOfGod staff working on the show]] have stated that scenes in which she appears to be looking at the 'camera' are simply mistakes on the part of animators, [[{{Fanon}} some fans refuse to believe that.]]
* The beloved episode of ''WesternAnimation/EdEddnEddy'' where they, among other things, drag the moon down from the sky and remove Jimmy's outline. It's not so much BreakingTheFourthWall as it is wreaking havoc on the other three.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Duckman}}'' periodically delved into this. The most notable example is the episode "How to Suck in Business Without Really Trying", about a Creator/{{Viacom}} {{Expy}} creating the character Duckman to represent the Creator/USANetwork and make merchandise. Although they must con Duckman out of his name to go through with a show based on Duckman, in a universe that has an existing Duckman.
* ''WesternAnimation/DogCity'' revolves around Eliot Shag, a canine animator, and his detective character, Ace Hart, as they engage in fourth-wall breaking conversations regarding the animation and storytelling process of each episode of the ShowWithinAShow.
* ''WesternAnimation/GarfieldAndFriends'' gains a lot of mileage from the characters' awareness they're in a show, either as AnimatedActors or outright cartoon characters. The fourth wall is often acknowledged and broken. And it's not uncommon to have plots like Garfield walking into an action cartoon by accident, or Bo having to act out all the parts of an episode after most of the cast is abducted.
* ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDad'' started becoming post-modern, such as many of the things Roger does.
* ''WesternAnimation/RickAndMorty'': Rick Sanchez is postmodern to almost {{Medium Aware|ness}} degrees in the way he instantly spots tropes wherever he goes.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Marshall [=McLuhan=], Canadian philosopher, sociologist, and the father of media studies, may well have been a living TropeCodifier for [=Post Modernism=]. Aside from coining the phrase "The Global Village", he also had a lot of really ''out there'' theories. He stated that "The Medium is the message, and therefore the content is the audience". He believed that [[MakesSenseInContext light bulbs were an information medium]], and proclaimed "I refuse to appear on television, except on television" meaning that, if interviewed, he'd never set foot in a TV Studio himself, but rather talk through a TV screen. One can only imagine what he'd think of Wiki/TVTropes... We know [[NewMediaAreEvil exactly what he thought of the internet.]] Remember, the term "global village" was an insult and we're very seldom beyond sophomore-level here.
* In a reference to Creator/ReneMagritte's "It's not a pipe" drawing, the city of Potsdam, Germany, has build its new Landtag building in the form of an old castle that was destroyed during [=WW2=], with the slogan "Ceci n'est pas un château" (It's not a castle) on its side. Of course, since it's not a castle, it only ''looks'' like one.
* The world itself is a postmodern masterpiece, because, for all we know, it isn't even real. Every day the world seems even more like a postmodern parody of itself, and therefore, you don't exist, and are no more than a character in someone else's mind.
* On a more serious note, the period following the end of World War 2 up until the present day is generally called postmodernity in literary and historical analysis, marked by the shift in societal attitude and pervasion of mass media which was the impetus for the codification of the philosophy. There is significant debate in certain circles about whether postmodernity has ended, when it ended, how to name and characterise its successor if it has, and even whether postmodernism's construction makes its end a possibility. Not because the philosophy 'solved' reality or anything so egotistical, but because a far greater shift than previous would be needed to make irrelevant its core tenets and codification.