[[quoteright:309:[[VideoGame/TeamFortress2 http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/theannouncer-2_3706.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:309:She calls the game for both RED and BLU. [[note]]Image by [[http://makani.deviantart.com/art/mission-begins-in-five-102983857 Makani.]] In the actual game, she wears [[VisualPun purple]][[/note]].]]

->'''Storm Shadow:''' So why do you keep [the mask]?\\
'''James [=McCullen=]:''' So that I never forget the most important rule in dealing arms.\\
'''The Baroness:''' Let me guess: 'Never sell to both sides'?\\
'''James [=McCullen=]:''' Never get ''caught'' selling to both sides.
-->-- ''Film/GIJoeTheRiseOfCobra''

In any war, there are those that will benefit from the fighting and destruction that it causes. This trope is about when somebody realises this and dupes or manipulates a couple of different groups into fighting each other so that they can turn the chaotic scenario to their advantage.

They could be plotting to take over one of the factions once the war's finished. They could be trying to wipe out both factions. They could be trying to get one side to change from being a neutral party into an ally or perhaps they are trying to use the situation to look good, making the outsider seem like the reasonable party for their involvement in the conflict. Maybe they just want to use the war as a diversion so they can carry out their own plans. There are many ways to benefit, but the crux of the trope is that there is a conflict and somebody has plotted to make that conflict for their own benefit.

Supertrope to DivideAndConquer, which is specifically getting groups to fight to wear each other down so that the plotter can conquer them more easily, and WarForFunAndProfit, when someone plans to make money and/or gain amusement from the conflict. Related to the BatmanGambit, since this trope will often rely on some behaviour predictions and FlawExploitation and the KansasCityShuffle because such a plan is very dependent on misdirection. If the planner can still benefit by the misdirection failing, then it could be a XanatosGambit.

This is a risky EvilPlan to attempt, but not without backup perks. Should one side realize they're being played, they could turn against the manipulator, who in turn could "ally" himself with the remaining side for safety purposes. It would also continue to perpetuate the conflict while the manipulator prepares to reap the rewards (best-case scenario) or [[ScrewThisImOuttaHere get out of dodge]] (bad scenario).

An even ''rarer'' collapse involves ''both'' sides catching on and deciding that life would be better without the manipulator. This worst-case scenario is usually solved with the manipulator getting as far away from the now-incensed ex-pawns as possible, if such a possibility is available. If not, the manipulator [[BetterToDieThanBeKilled will likely succumb to the temptation]] [[DrivenToSuicide to cancel their own subscription to life]].

If a leadership of both sides is Playing Both Sides, that's RunningBothSides.

Overlaps with FalseFlagOperation.


[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* ''Anime/GhostInTheShellStandAloneComplex'': Kazudo Gouda plays both sides to incite rebellion in the refugee population of Japan and overthrow the Japanese Government. People would be brainwashed into suicide terrorist attacks on the refugee, then the phenomenon of "Blame the victim" would be stirred up in the main population to bring up resentment against the refugees. Eventually the refugees would be tricked into making an attack to cause the government to hit back and shift to an isolationist and militaristic policy.
* The plot of the ''Anime/DigimonFrontier'' movie was this. The villain started a race war to get humanoid Digimon to fight animalistic Digimon to unseal an evil in a can. Notably, the villain was able to pose as the leaders of both military factions.
* ''Anime/TransformersArmada'': [[spoiler: Sideways, working for Unicron]], who is manipulating the conflict between the Autobots and Decepticons in order to [[spoiler: encourage the hatred and anger of both parties so that Unicron can feed on it and become reborn. The Mini-Cons themselves, supposedly the all-powerful [=MacGuffins=] of the series, were specifically created so that the Transformers would fight over them.]]
* ''Manga/OnePiece'':
** [[MagnificentBastard Crocodile]] manipulates Alabasta into a civil war, first by having his Baroque Works agents discredit the king, and then supplying the rebels with weapons. Furthermore, he has agents in both royal and rebel army to keep the fighting going, all so he can wipe out both sides during the main battle, planning to take over in the aftermath.
** The Paramount War was instigated by Blackbeard turning over Portgas D. Ace to the World Government, as he knows that Ace's captain Whitebeard is AFatherToHisMen and will wage war to get him back. While the Navy is preparing for Whitebeard's attack, he sneaks into Impel Down to recruit its worst prisoners, and then shows himself at the War after both sides have apparently worn themselves down enough for him to swoop in and [[spoiler: kill Whitebeard and steal his Devil Fruit power.]]
* [[spoiler: Bahbem]] was playing both sides of the Human/Mulian conflict in ''Anime/RahXephon''. He helped the Mu develop their Dolems and find ways to work around the dimensional barrier, whilst also setting up TERRA to fight off any Mulian incursions. He didn't really care which side won, as long as it created an environment that would get the [=RahXephon=] to activate.
* ''Franchise/{{Gundam}}'': Anaheim Electronics from the Universal Century timeline is a milder example; they don't try to start wars, but they're more than willing to sell their [[HumongousMecha mobile suits]] to both sides in a conflict, regardless of any sort of moral complication (like say, the fact that the people they're selling to want to kill half the human population). A prime example of this comes in ''[[Anime/MobileSuitGundam0083StardustMemory Gundam 0083]]'': Anaheim builds three Gundams for [[TheFederation the Earth Federation]], then gladly sells the fourth (modified to look like a [[TheEmpire Zeon]] MS) to [[TheRemnant the Delaz Fleet]] after the Federation passes on buying it. A partial justification comes in the [[AllThereInTheManual background info]], which says Anaheim absorbed Zeon's old MS development firms after the One Year War, and thus has many members who are still loyal. This attitude of theirs is a major reason the Federation eventually creates SNRI, their own in-house Mobile Suit production company, so they don't have to rely on Anaheim exclusively.
** Haman Karn near the end of ''[[Anime/MobileSuitZetaGundam Zeta Gundam]]''. When Axis Zeon makes a surprise return in the midst of the Gryps Conflict, both the AEUG and Titans try to get her to join their side. She ends up playing the two against one another so that they'll wipe each other out, leaving Axis as the dominant power in space. It works, which leads to the events of ''[[Anime/MobileSuitGundamZZ Gundam ZZ]]''.
** Rau Le Creuset of ''[[Anime/MobileSuitGundamSeed Gundam SEED]]'' plays both the Earth Sphere Alliance and ZAFT against each other in the hopes of [[spoiler:[[OmnicidalManiac ending the world]]]].
* In the anime version of ''Manga/SoulEater'', Medusa resurrects the [[SealedEvilInACan Kishin Asura]], who then is coaxed into helping [[SiblingRivalry Arachne]]. Medusa then sells Asura's location to the [[BigGood DWMA]], so that the two sides will fight and weaken each other without her lifting a finger. Played with when Eruka later points out that both sides were so powerful that Medusa never stood a chance against either.
* In the second half of ''Anime/SDGundamForce'', we learn that Deathscythe the Knight of Darkness was manipulating both the Dark Axis and the Royal Knights during the invasion of Lacroa.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''ComicBook/FantasticFour'': Doctor Doom had one where he manipulated Slovakia and an Aesir worshipping country into a tense state. He then exacerbated things by splitting allegiances within the Avengers on the issue; Thor took the side of his worshippers and the others felt this was wrong of him and sought to oppose him. Then Doom gave Slovakia weapons to attack the other country but then used this as a pretext for his country, Latvaria which neighboured the other two, to intervene (i.e. invade) since the Avengers could not do so unbiasedly.
* One of Franchise/{{Batman}}'s {{Gambit Roulette}}s blew up in his face when Stephanie Brown tried to implement it to prove herself after he fired her as Robin. This led to the ''War Games'' storyline, wherein Gotham City was consumed in a MobWar that set almost all the city's gangs against one another. Almost all of them-Black Mask stayed out of the melee, fanning the flames until most of his competition had exhausted themselves before he finally struck and united all of Gotham's gangs under his own leadership.
* ''[[Comicbook/ArchieComicsSonicTheHedgehog Sonic the Hedgehog]]'': During the lead-up to the "Enerjak Reborn" Arc, [[MadScientist Dr.]] [[OmnicidalManiac Finitevus]] played both sides of the [[EnemyCivilWar Dark Legion Civil War]] against each other in order to test which of Dimitri's descendants would be worthy to become the new [[PhysicalGod Enerjak]].
* Happens a couple of times in ''ComicStrip/SpyVsSpy.'' The Grey Spy would often sucker White Spy and Black Spy into fighting each other, sometimes over her affections, and usually profit from it by either offing both of them, stealing the MacGuffin out from under their noses, or swindling them both with shoddy war materials.
* ''Franchise/{{Transformers}}'' fiction features the aptly named Doubledealer, a mercenary who hires himself out (discreetly) to both sides of the war so as to benefit himself. He has no real loyalties beyond self-interest--if he can make money or advance himself through a given mission, he'll do it. His IDW version escalates it to ChronicBackstabbingDisorder--it finally gets him killed when Hot Rod figures him out.
* ''ComicBook/{{Family}}'': Al is working for both current Don Gio and his rival Cane to turn them against each other, as his old partner Silver had promised Al that he would become boss of the Odysseus Family once both Gio and Cane were out of the way. Turns out Silver didn't want anymore family, period.

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* In ''Fanfic/WithStringsAttached'', John lures a whole bunch of skahs warriors to the AbandonedWarehouse where the Uneasy Alliance of [[spoiler: Brox and Co.]] and the Raleka wizards have stashed the Vasyn. The skahs promptly attack the Raleka guarding the warehouse in an attempt to get in, and the resultant chaos on the ground allows John and Ringo to make the attempt to sneak in via the roof.
* ''Fanfic/Digimon02TheStoryWeNeverTold'' reveals during [[WhamEpisode Chapter 64]] that this is the case with [[TheChessmaster Oikawa]] -- [[spoiler: in addition to brainwashing Ken into the Digimon Emperor and aiding Dragomon, he also created the Digi-Armors and [=D3s=] in order to make new Digidestined to counterbalance them, all while unwittingly draining data from the Digital World for his own goals.]]
* ''Fanfic/{{Ripples}}'': After the CivilWar breaks out on Meridian, Will/Van encourages her friend Tegus (who has since become a mercenary) to do this, making himself invaluable to both sides, ensuring that neither will ever betray him, for fear of him selling them out completely to the other.
* In ''[[Fanfic/GuardiansWizardsAndKungFuFighters Guardians, Wizards, and Kung-Fu Fighters]]'', it's quickly established after his first appearance that [[KnowledgeBroker Charles Ludmoore]] is doing this with the Meridian civil war. Not only is he an officially neutral figure who provides information and materials to both sides (for a price), but his two brothers are acting as his [[TheMole moles]] within both Phobos' court and the Rebellion's leadership, manipulating them all along a [[LongGame long-term plan]].

* In ''Film/BlueThunder'', the heroes discover a conspiracy inside the U.S. government to stir up problems in the Los Angeles barrios by inciting racial tension between whites and Hispanics. They intend to prove the value of the title helicopter by using it to suppress the resulting violence.
* The Clone War in the ''Franchise/StarWars'' prequel trilogy has this at the core of its EvilPlan. The early stages of the conflict get Naboo's ambassador to the Senate, Palpatine, made into its new Chancellor. Then the escalation prompts the Senate to give Palpatine emergency powers to deal with the Separatists. Of course, should he fail to do so, it's no skin off his back as he's leader of the Separatists too.
* ''Film/{{Yojimbo}}'': This Creator/AkiraKurosawa film, one of the most classic examples of this plot, involves a wandering ronin who, coming across a town dominated by two rival criminal factions, engineers an EnemyCivilWar between them, at least partially for kicks. the film inspired a number of remakes:
** ''Film/{{A Fistful of Dollars}}'' transports the setting to TheWildWest.
** ''Franchise/{{Zatoichi}} Meets Yojimbo'' is a crossover film.
** ''Film/LastManStanding'' transports the setting to the NewOldWest, which is 1920s America during prohibition.
** ''Film/SukiyakiWesternDjango'' a Japanese re-imagining of ''A Fistful of Dollars'', which was inspired by ''Yojimbo''.
* Common in many of the ''Film/JamesBond'' movies. For example:
** The core of Ernst Stavro Blofeld's EvilPlan is to pit powerful countries against each other while watching them wear themselves down, so that SPECTRE will strike at the right time, often for WarForFunAndProfit through elaborate {{False Flag Operation}}s and {{Batman Gambit}}s.
*** Blofeld's plan in ''Film/FromRussiaWithLove'' is to stage an elaborate revenge scheme against 007 for the death of [[Film/DrNo Dr. No]] by stealing the LEKTOR cryptographic device from the Russians. Bond will be assigned to recover the device, where SPECTRE's hired assassin Red Grant, will kill Bond. They will then leak compromising photos of Bond and the Russian pawn, Tatiana Romanova, to the press and then sell the device back to the Russians, with neither the British nor the Russians knowing that this was set up by Blofeld.
*** ''Film/{{Thunderball}}'': The SPECTRE meeting shows them distributing Red Chinese narcotics in the US while simultaneously killing an anti-metal specialist who defected to the Soviets on behalf of the French Foreign Ministry.
*** SPECTRE's plan in ''Film/YouOnlyLiveTwice'' is to start a conflict between the US and USSR by stealing each country's space capsules and then blaming the other.
*** ''Film/{{Spectre}}'': Blofeld masterminds a [[FalseFlagOperation series of terrorist attacks]] in order to trick the governments of the world into setting up a joint intelligence and surveillance sharing network... which, thanks to his [[TheMole moles]], he'll have total access to, allowing SPECTRE to permanently stay one step ahead of their enemies by anticipating their next move and then destroying them.
** Karl Stromberg's plan in ''Film/TheSpyWhoLovedMe'' is to start a ''nuclear'' conflict between the US and USSR by stealing each country's ''submarines'', then blaming each other by making the stolen submarines attack their opposite countries.
** Georgi Koskov's plan in ''Film/TheLivingDaylights'' is to get the British and Soviet intelligence agencies to duke it out while he gets away with his embezzlement of Soviet government funds.
** In ''Film/TomorrowNeverDies'', this is exactly what Elliot Carver's plan is. He intends to use the impending war between Britain and China to gain exclusive broadcast rights in China for himself, deliberately amping up the tension himself the entire time.
* ''Film/LuckyNumberSlevin'' turns a gang warfare into a full-blown KansasCityShuffle.
* In ''Film/LordOfWar'', ArmsDealer Simeon Weisz criticizes fellow arms dealer and VillainProtagonist Yuri Orlov for simply selling weapons and not caring about the politics of who he sells to, which frequently involves selling to both sides of a conflict. Weisz likes to see himself as something of a political activist as well as an arms dealer: he sells guns to sides that he wants to see win and which will promote Weisz' pro-America, pro-Israel, pro-Capitalism agenda. Orlov points out that Weisz sold to both sides in the Iran-Iraq War, prompting the latter to reply that he wanted "both sides to lose".
* Tom Reagan in ''Film/MillersCrossing'' plays both sides in a mob war in order to make sure his boss comes out on top. [[spoiler:[[MagnificentBastard It works.]]]] This is rather common in film noir, largely thanks to Creator/DashiellHammett's works ''Literature/RedHarvest'' and ''Literature/TheGlassKey'', which inspired ''Film/MillersCrossing'' and ''Film/{{Brick}}'', among others.
* Mentioned in ''Film/GIJoeTheRiseOfCobra'', when James [=McCullen=] discusses his ancestor who was locked in an iron facemask after being convicted of selling weapons to both sides (which we actually saw in the film's prologue).
* Franchise/MarvelCinematicUniverse:
** In ''Film/IronMan3'', [[spoiler:Killian]] intends to do this with {{the War on Terror}}: [[spoiler: if he controls both the world's greatest terrorist (the Mandarin) and the world's greatest superpower (the USA through its vice-president and soon to be president), he effectively controls war and can make a lot of money.]]
** ''Film/CaptainAmericaTheWinterSoldier'' establishes [[spoiler: HYDRA]] as past masters at this, orchestrating [[spoiler: the Cold War and the War on Terror]] in order to achieve world domination by showing mankind TheEvilsOfFreeWill, eventually leading to [[spoiler: S.H.I.E.L.D. being effectively dismantled and discredited and a small organisation under Coulson that is constantly hounded by the authorities]].
* In ''Film/XMenFirstClass'', Sebastian Shaw cunningly manipulates both the USA and the USSR, exploiting the vices and vanity of their military elite to provoke WorldWarIII.
* In ''Film/TheHungerGamesMockingjayPart2'', as it turns out [[spoiler:Plutarch Heavensbee has been playing Presidents Snow ''and'' Coin against each other, all in his efforts to bring real democracy to Panem. Katniss is his ace in the hole]].

* Caleb Trask, in ''Literature/EastOfEden'' took part with his businessman friend Will in war profiteering, buying beans for two cents a pound over fair market value, establishing a monopoly, then selling those beans for more than ten cents a pound over market value several weeks later in the heat of UsefulNotes/WorldWarI.
* Creator/DashiellHammett's novel ''Literature/RedHarvest'', which was an indirect inspiration for ''Yojimbo''.
* In Creator/NeilGaiman's ''Literature/AmericanGods'', [[spoiler: the BatmanGambit Odin and Loki have been working on together is to goad the home-grown modern gods into fighting the immigrant gods to the death, so both Odin and Loki could feed off ensuing battle]].
* In David Edding's ''Literature/TheBelgariad'', Nyissa attempts to do this. They feel threatened by the impending war between the super powers on either side of them, and so try to keep in the good books of both sides in order to switch to the winning team and therefore survive.
* ''Literature/TheSumOfAllFears'' contains a plot of this sort in both book and movie form.
* #9 of ''Literature/TheThirtySixStratagems'' is practically this.
* ''Literature/HonorHarrington'' has [[spoiler: Mesa]] doing this to Manticore and Haven for a variety of reasons. Things are starting to come unravelled as of the latest books though.
* ''Literature/ASongOfIceAndFire'': This is Petyr "Littlefinger" Baelish's preferred modus operandi. As the series progresses and it becomes clear that there are a lot more than two "sides" involved, it's more like he's trying to engineer the whole war to be one grand XanatosGambit.
* ''Literature/ComradeDeath'', a short story by Gerald Kersh, features an ArmsDealer who specializes in this. There are two separate scenes of him selling weapons to one nation only to turn around and sell countermeasures to their enemy immediately after. Ultimately, his company becomes a monopoly and wars fought are entirely supplied by him.
* ''Literature/TheDemolishedMan'': Ben Reich, the VillainProtagonist, funds both {{muggle}} [[FantasticRacism anti-Esper extremists]] as well as the more extremist Espers, who want to rule over normal humans. Reich does this because human/Esper cooperation (especially in law enforcement) is a threat to him.
* ''Literature/{{Jhegaala}}'' appears to be inspired by ''Literature/RedHarvest'' and involves former-assassin Vlad returning to his hometown and finding it a nasty, corrupt place. The two groups responsible for this are a coven of witches and a merchant's guild, and Vlad ultimately plays the two against each other to destroy them both.
* ''Literature/VorkosiganSaga'':
** Byerly Vorrutyer in ''Literature/ACivilCampaign'' is conspiring with both the Richars camp and the Dono camp in the struggle for who inherits the Vorrutyer Countship, and telling each side that he's their spy in the enemy camp. Whose side he's really on doesn't really become clear until the end.
** In ''Literature/TheVorGame'', the vampish Commander Cavilo is obviously [[GambitPileup playing all sides against each other]], and sends Miles back to the Dendarii fleet in the belief that ''he'll'' do the same with the pro- and anti-Miles factions within the command structure there. Miles has trouble figuring out who Cavilo is ''really'' working for; [[spoiler:he discovers that it ''was'' going to be the Cetagandans, but in the end, she's really only in it for herself]].
* In ''Literature/TheHobbit'', Gandalf fools the trolls by imitating their voices to keep them arguing until the sun comes up and turns them to stone.
* The title character of ''Literature/MaraDaughterOfTheNile'' decides to do this when she finds herself being maneuvered into being a agent of two opposing sides. Then she starts BecomingTheMask and everything starts falling apart.
* The Gentleman from Adam-Troy Castro's [[SpiderMan Sinister Six]] trilogy has spent most of his life doing this, calling himself an investor in chaos.
* In the ''Literature/AgeOfFire'' series, [[ActionGirl Wistala]] does this with the Wheel of Fire dwarves (who betrayed and killed her family) and Thane Hammar (who killed her ParentalSubstitute). First, she gains the confidence of the dwarf king Gobold Fangbreaker, and then talks him into setting up a diplomatic meeting with the thane. Then she and her friends spread rumors on each side that the other is planning betrayal, leading to a conflict that results in open war between the thane's forces and the dwarves, during which she leaks vital strategic information to Hammar, leading to massive dwarf losses and a siege of their city. Finally, she sabotages the dwarves' defenses, leading to a massive free-for-all in their city, during which [[spoiler: she kills Fangbreaker and leaves Hammar [[DoWithHimAsYouWill at the mercy of the dwarves]]]].
* In the ''Literature/HammersSlammers'' novel ''The Sharp End'' a survey team from the titular mercenary regiment goes to a planet run by two competing drug cartels to evaluate them as potential clients. Instead they find a WretchedHive torn apart by both gangs' drug-addled "soldiers" and are so disgusted that they decide to manipulate the two into wiping each other out before the company can mobilize. "Helping" both sides with covert raids and exacerbating the situation until [[spoiler: one gang manages to kill the leaders of the other, and the Slammers team kills their leaders in turn. Then the Cartel they were supposed to be exporting to gets sick of their fighting and brings in a rival mercenary regiment. But then it turns out that the ''government'' of the planet hired Hammer's Slammers to clean house.]]
* In the ''Literature/ErebusSequence'', Dino discovers that letters of "advice" from a mysterious Lord Erebus are being received by both the traditionalists and the reformists. The escalation of conflict is largely due to Erebus warning each one about what the other is allegedly plotting.
* A major plot twist in ''Literature/TheLostFleet'' series is the gradual realisation by the protagonist that the [[ForeverWar century-long war of attrition]] his government and their enemy have been fighting has been stage-managed by a third-party with designs on the territory of both. [[spoiler: Including sneaking in planet-killing superweapons as a TrojanHorse in the form of [[PortalNetwork the hypernet gates]].]] And nobody would have been any the wiser if not for a fortuitous string of improbable coincidences so unlikely that it's attributed it divine intercession in-universe, [[MaybeMagicMaybeMundane which might be true.]]

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* In ''Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'' season 4, the part-man, part-demon, part-robot Adam incites violence between soldiers and demons in order to get a big pile of body parts for making more monsters like himself.
* In the "Pillows And Blankets" episoce of ''Series/{{Community}}'' Jeff gives a RousingSpeech to one side of the conflict that lifts their morale and prompts them to go on fighting. We then find out that he gave the same speech to the other side. As long as the conflict is going on, classes are suspended and [[{{Dismotivation}} Jeff does not have to do any school work.]]
* ''Series/CriminalMinds'' once featured a Charles Manson {{expy}} who intended to spark a race war between Caucasians and Native Americans.
* In the ''Series/DoctorWho'' serial "Frontier in Space", the Daleks exacerbate tensions between Earth and the Draconians, hoping to spark a war that will weaken both sides and allow the Daleks to conquer both empires.
* ''Series/{{Farscape}}'': In season 4, Crichton and his shipmates incite a riot between the techs (Kalish) and soldiers (Charrids) of the bad guys (Scarrans) to cover their escape.
* ''Series/GameOfThrones'': Varys seems to be playing ''absolutely everyone'' in his pursuit to be doing the good of the Realm. Tyrion hangs a {{lampshade}} when he discusses his work with Daenerys suggesting that he had subtly been in charge of the assassination attempts for Robert while also undermining it at the same time.
* In the ''Series/ModernFamily'' episode "The Last Walt", Haley asks Gloria if she can have a pool party at their house. She overcomes Gloria's resistance by saying she'll have "her uncle" chaperone. Gloria's son Manny, who technically ''is'' Haley's uncle even though he's younger than her, only finds out he's the chaperone when the party starts.
* For a short time during ''Series/PowerRangersSPD'', Piggy plays three sides: SPD, Gruumm, and Broodwing. [[spoiler:After helping Grumm capture the rangers, he has a HeelRealization and decides to help them escape and SaveTheWorld]].
* In ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'''s season 7 finale, [[MagnificentBastard Crowley]] plays the Winchesters and [[BigBad Dick Roman]] against each other, ensuring that he's the season's only true victor. [[spoiler: It works; by the time the finale's over, Roman's dead, and the Winchesters are divided and powerless.]]
* In the ''Series/TheXFiles'' episode "Kill Switch", the AI sets up two rival drug gangs to have a shoot out in order to kill the real target, the hacker trying to get at the AI. And that's the AI's sense of humor.
* [[spoiler: Tony Almeida]] does this in the seventh season of ''Series/TwentyFour'' by first working with the heroes and later the villains all in his attempt to get close to the season's BigBad and kill him in revenge.
* ''Series/ThatMitchellAndWebbLook'' had a hilarious sketch where [[Film/CasinoRoyale2006 a secret agent confronts a supervillain in a casino]] (guided by two guys in a van by earpiece), each using progressively worse puns and comebacks. Only when they use the same one do they realize the van guys are getting money from both sides for the same job.
* On ''Series/{{Dominion}}'', [[ArchangelUriel Uriel]] appears to be doing this with [[BigGood Michael]] and [[BigBad Gabriel]], as she promises both individually that she'll fight on ''his'' side during the coming war. The season finale reveals that she actually intends to use TheChosenOne to destroy both of them, as she believes that that is the only way to stop all the fighting.
* ''Series/ItsAlwaysSunnyInPhiladelphia'': When Frank plans to retire and his kids Dennis, Dee & Charlie fight over who will inherit the bar, Mac decides to play both sides so he'll stay manager either way. [[WhatAnIdiot He tells Dennis, Dee & Charlie this at every opportunity.]]

* In Season 2 of ''Machinima/RedVsBlue'' we learn that Vic, the Blue team's contact with Command, also acts the same for the Red team. [[spoiler: In The Revelation, it's revealed that there never was a war between Red and Blue; Project Freelancer use the UNSC's worst soldiers as fodder for combat simulations, with the teams unaware of it. Season 14's OriginsEpisode shows that the Blood Gulch Outpost was set up to hide the Alpha AI, and Vic's job was to keep the ForeverWar going.]]

* Mr. Lamb in ''Radio/TheMenFromTheMinistry'' episode "Bringing the House Down" ''accidentally'' pulls this off by first helping his secretary Mildred fight against City Council's attempt to re-house their family (since they want to clear the entire street and build a new office building in it's place) and then helping the City Council to force a stubborn family to leave. He never makes the connection because his focus on cleaning the department office as well as his general idiocy.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* Chaos God Tzeentch from ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'' definitely qualifies. Although all 4 Chaos gods want to destroy the Imperium, enslave all life, and so on, Tzeentch will often hatch schemes through his followers, then betray said followers. Just because it's fun. Tzeentch's plans are even engineered to fail so that another plan can take its place, just so he won't be left the final victor with nothing to do.
** Genestealer cults too: They usually infiltrate and manipulate both the government and dissident groups to cause a continuous world-wide civil war until the hive-fleet arrives.
* The Followers of Set do this a lot in ''TabletopGame/VampireTheMasquerade''. Because of a mix of [[ReligionOfEvil ideology]] and [[PragmaticVillainy pragmatism]], Setites prefer to stay out of the fighting between the Camarilla and the Sabbat, except when it comes to making backroom deals for supplies and secrets. Arguably the best part for them is how few Kindred would [[SlaveToPR willingly admit to dealing]] with the [[ReptilesAreAbhorrent serpents]], so they [[KarmaHoudini don't get a lot of flack for their double-dealing]].
* In ''TabletopGame/MagicTheGathering'', Jace Beleren was roped into such a scheme as a teenager: he was taken in by the sphinx Alhammarret due to his huge psychic potential to aid the former in his duties as an arbiter of peace. However, after being sent on his "first" mission to read the minds of an army's command structure supposedly to aid in this, he found to his shock a memory of one of the officers receiving intel from Jace: Alhammarret had been sending him to sell intel between both sides this whole time and wiping his memory immediately afterwards. Naturally Jace wasn't very happy about this.
* In the ''TabletopGame/{{Planescape}}'' setting, there is the Blood War: an eternal war between [[ChaoticEvil demons]] and [[LawfulEvil devils]], each striving to define the true nature of evil. Between them sit the [[NeutralEvil yugoloths]], who ''constantly'' play both sides. And both sides know they're being played, but neither can afford to spurn the yugoloths because to do so would tilt the war against them.
** There's also a conspiracy based out of [[CityOfAdventure Sigil]] which tries to keep the war running so neither side has time to turn their attentions on anyone else. They forge and ship countless weapons to both sides of the Blood War, and a couple published adventures use them as a hook or convenient plot device. This conspiracy is run by [[spoiler:a trio of [[OurAngelsAreDifferent celestials]].]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* In ''VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoIII'', Donald Love has the player incite a gang war between the [[spoiler: Colombian Cartel and the Yakuza]] in order to bring down real estate prices. In ''ViceCity,'' Avery has Tommy do the exact same thing between the Haitians and the Cubans, with Donald taking notes (they even use the same wording).
* ''VideoGame/{{Bully}}'' has Gary orchestrating [[spoiler: a massive, all-out brawl with simultaneous Jocks vs. Nerds and Preps vs. Greasers conflict, which was made possible by his earlier plan to pit the Townies against the Academy kids and frame Jimmy for everything they did.]]
* Most ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'' games have two or more sets of enemies that will happily fight each other. It is possible to engineer a situation where one side narrowly beats the other, allowing you to mop up the remaining forces.
* ''VideoGame/{{Iji}}'': in several sections of you can take advantage of fighting between Tasen and Komato forces.
* ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 2}}'': Few encounters are as pleasant as the ones where you meet two groups of gangsters fighting each other. Stay out for the first part, attack one side if it's winning too easily, then wipe out the other side afterwards. Then loot the large number of powerful weapons they drop.
* Two of the four endings in ''VideoGame/FalloutNewVegas'' revolve around this. When siding with either of the local superpowers, [[TheFederation the New California Republic]] or [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain Caesar's Legion]], the player averts this trope. When siding with [[TheChessmaster Mr. House]] or [[ICanRuleAlone going rogue]], pitting the militarily superior NCR and Legion against each other becomes instrumental. In Mr. House's case, he also wants to make sure that the [=NCR's=] defeat is mitigated, as he needs their tourism for his own economy.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Doom}}'' series has monsters that are programmed to fight one another if you can get them to either blast/wallop each other or if you splash them and trick them into fighting other demons. This allows a player to clear seemingly impossible scenarios, like the [[OhCrap room with the Cyberdemon and 18 Barons of Hell]]. Additionally, some monsters just plain don't like each other, such as the Baron of Hell and the Cacodaemon, a feud lampshaded in the original Doom.
* ''VideoGame/LastScenario'' and ''VideoGame/ExitFate'': SCF clearly likes this trope. Both of his freeware [=RPG=]s involve it in some fashion.
* In ''VideoGame/ModernWarfare2'', [[spoiler:General Shepherd deliberately engineers a war between the USA and Russia to make America stronger by giving them an enemy to unite against. He does so in cooperation with the radical Russian terrorist Vladimir Makarov, who expects Russia to win the war instead.]]
* In ''VideoGame/FarCry2'', the Jackal is engineering a conflict between the two rebel factions by selling weapons to both sides. [[spoiler:He isn't trying to make money from this, though. He wants the factions to fight each other so that neither of them will attack the country's civilians while he helps them escape.]]
* In ''VideoGame/KingdomHeartsII'' on the second visit to [[Disney/AladdinTheReturnOfJafar Agrabah]], Sora calls Iago out on doing this after Iago leads them away from Jafar after Iago tries to make an excuse on why he did it.
-->'''Sora''': Iago, you're supposed to be our friend. But you've been playing both sides just to make sure [[DirtyCoward you save yourself]].\\
'''Donald''': I knew you were still a bad guy!
* The first part of ''VideoGame/TalesOfVesperia'' revolves around two villains trying to start a war between the Empire and the Guild Union. Though they war is narrowly averted, the tension between the two factions remains a plot point for the remainder of the game.
* [[spoiler: Zelos]] does it to all ''three'' sides in ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphonia'', although he can pull a HeelFaceTurn depending on story path.
* A missing in ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyXIIRevenantWings'' requires you to do this.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Mercenaries}}'', it's generally work for all of the factions, to maximize the amount of money you get and vehicles you can buy. It becomes a careful balancing act once the factions you work for want each other dead.
* In ''VideoGame/SilentStorm'', when the player first encounters Thor's Hammer, they are supplying the enemy (Allies or Axis, depending on the campaign) with advanced PoweredArmor. Then you discover that they're giving those to your side as well. This makes their end-game clear. Cripple both sides, and you can pick up the pieces with technology that neutralizes the PoweredArmor advantage.
* The ''VideoGame/KingdomOfLoathing'' "Mysterious Island of Mystery" is inhabited by Frats and Hippies who the Council would like to see wipe each other out in time for the tourist season. Though the Obligatory Pirates remain out of sight during the war you incite, it's possible to get them to strike the finishing blow, bombing them all back to the stone age.
* ''VideoGame/DeusExInvisibleWar'' allows the player to do this between the WTO and The Order. [[spoiler: Turns out to be subverted, because the Illuminati is actually running both sides. Later, the player can play this straight with the Illuminati, the Templars, and Apostle Corp. ]]
** On a more humoristic note, there is a whole subplot about [[spoiler: the ruthless competition between the Pequods and [=QueeQuegs=] coffee chains]]. It is eventually revealed that [[spoiler: both chains are secretely owned by the same company, which controls and organize the "coffee war" to make even more money]].
* Wrathion in ''VideoGame/WorldOfWarcraft'' allies himself with both the Alliance and the Horde, telling players he supports their side in the conflict, regardless of which faction they belong to. [[spoiler:He's not trying to DivideAndConquer them, instead he's worried that an outside enemy is coming, and the Alliance/Horde [[DividedWeFall war has to end]].]]
* The "Clan War" questline in ''VideoGame/{{Borderlands 2}}'' has the player doing this with the feuding Zaford and Hodunk families.
* At the end of ''[[VideoGame/AssassinsCreedI Assassin's Creed]]'', [[spoiler:Robert de Sable]] finds himself with the advantageous position of being able to convince both his Crusader brothers and the Holy Land defenders, the Saladin's Saracens, that they need to group together and deal with the Assassin brotherhood, as Altaïr has been assassinating key people in both. [[spoiler:However this plan gets snuffed when Altaïr addresses King Richard directly at Arsuf and calls out de Sable's plan, to which Richard actually acknowledges Altaïr's claims and allows [[TrialByCombat God to sort out whose position is correct by pitting de Sable against Altaïr in armed combat]], to which Altaïr obviously wins]].
* The Administrator of ''VideoGame/TeamFortress2'' is revealed to be doing this in the online comics, playing both the RED and BLUE teams against each other. Why, though, is unknown, though it's implied to have something to do with Australium.
* This is an important strategy in ''VideoGame/TheLastFederation''.
* ''VideoGame/ShinMegamiTenseiIVApocalypse'' reveals that [[spoiler:this was the case in ''IV''. While the apparent main villains of ''IV'' were Merkabah and Lucifer, ''Final'' reveals that they were actually the two halves of Satan. Satan's boss is YHVH, who was responsible for the war in the ''IV'' universes by creating both the Law and Chaos factions]].
* On the Howling Abyss map in ''VideoGame/LeagueOfLegends'', the Piltovan merchant at the north end of the bridge will greet both Ashe and Sejuani with 'Welcome! The next queen of the Freljord!'
* Hilariously done, of all places, in ''VideoGame/Spyro2RiptosRage'' Every level involves you helping a group of creatures, often against another group of creatures, in exchange for a Talisman. All Spyro really cares about is the Talisman, which he needs to fight the game's BigBad, so he'll head to the Zephyr stage and help the Land Blubbers fight the Breeze Builders, then swing by Breeze Harbor to help the Breeze Builders prepare their counterattack against the Land Blubbers.

* ''ComicBook/{{Buck Godot|Zap Gun for Hire}}'': Buck does it in multiple arcs. A great one is at the end of the Psmith arc, where he ''starts off'' with playing two sides while both of them are standing '''right next''' to him. [[spoiler: The Psmiths believe him, Der Rock the Destroyer doesn't. Which turns out to be a mistake, since he was being truthful to Der Rock. But that was exactly what Godot was counting on. It ends with him getting paid by Der Rock (since he had done the job he was supposed to) getting paid for the job the Psmiths were supposed to do (but failed to because of Godot trickery) and getting paid for aiding in the capture of Der Rock (without actually betraying him, he got himself captured by not believing Godot.)]]
* ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'':
** The IFCC [[spoiler:grant Vaarsuvias massive arcane power because they know that having it will encourage the elf to attack Xykon, thus tying both Xykon and the Order up in a conflict while their pawns move in and snap up the MacGuffin]].
** This is also the way Tarquin and his former adventuring party are working on unifying the Western Continent. They act as advisors to the three major kingdoms on the Western Continent and manipulate the battles that take place.
* In one arc of ''Webcomic/SchlockMercenary'' the team cook gets pickpocketed in a rough neighborhood and the company decides to get the money back by hiring themselves out to the thief's gang. And then it turns out the other gang also hired them and they apprehend both gangs, and then they get paid to bring them to juvie.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/AladdinTheSeries'': One episode had Nefir the imp trick the Odifferans into believing that Aladdin had stolen a sacred artifact, so that they would attack Agrabah, [[WarForFunAndProfit and supplied both sides with weapons for an exorbitant fee]]. Once his intentions were revealed (as was the fact that Nefir himself stole the artifact), both sides threatened Nefir into rebuilding Agrabah and refunding both sides' money.
* On ''WesternAnimation/TheSpectacularSpiderMan,'' Norman Osborn is paid by the Big Man to make supervillains while ''also'' getting paid by the police to build those villains' {{Tailor Made Prison}}s.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes'' short "The High and the Flighty", WesternAnimation/DaffyDuck is a novelties salesman who supplies for both WesternAnimation/FoghornLeghorn and the barnyard dog in their ongoing prank war. He is found out when he accidentally sells them the same gag (the Pipe Full O'Fun Kit No. 7) and decide to [[EnemyMine team up]] against Daffy to trap him in his own device.
* ''WesternAnimation/BobsBurgers'': In "Beefsquatch", Bob and Gene have their own cooking segment in a local talk show and try to sabotage each other. They both enlist Louise, not knowing the other one has also called upon her "services." Louise then happily comes up with ways of messing with both Gene and Bob. Eventually however she [[EvenEvilHasStandards gets disgusted at Bob and Gene's competitiveness]] and quits.
* An episode of ''WesternAnimation/TheTransformers'' showed that the Quintessions had been doing this to a pair of warring planets for hundreds of years. When the two sides found out about this they promptly cancelled the war.
* In the "Kurward Derby Arc" of ''WesternAnimation/RockyAndBullwinkle'', it's shown that Boris is not only on both sides of feud between the [[Series/HatfieldsAndMcCoys Hatfuls and the Floys]], but were their ''[[RunningBothSides leaders]]''. Fearless Leader was so impressed that he awarded Boris the Pottslyvania Two Face medal.
* One episode of ''WesternAnimation/Ben10AlienForce'' has con-men Kevin and Argit sell weapons to both sides of a conflict to make money. Their friends are not happy to learn they were doing so.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* War Profiteers in every war ever fought.
* [[WorldWarII/TheNeutralNations The Swiss and the Portuguese during World War II]]. They did profitable business with both sides.
* [[UsefulNotes/ThirdWorld Numerous countries]] took aid from both the United States and the [[GloriousMotherRussia Soviet Union]] during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar.
* Ho Chi Minh took advantage of aid and equipment from both the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Vietnam War. He was able to get away with it because the PRC and USSR had been at each other's throat for some time by the mid 1960s, but the US and NATO had not yet discovered the 'Sino-Soviet split', and both countries wanted to project an image of unified world communism to the West. Being the [[TheChessmaster master manipulator]] that he was, it is likely that Ho knew this and the whole scheme was a deliberate BatmanGambit.
* A few wars in Ancient Greece (e.g. The Corinthians during the Peloponnesian War) began with a such a plot. Typically, side A would deviously provoke a proxy of side B to invade one of their own proxies. Side A thus gained a pretext to invade the proxy of side B, prompting side B to declare all-out war on side A. The advantage was that, in the heavily morally charged political climate of Classical Greece, side B would appear to have been the aggressor.
* Zeno, Emperor of Byzantium, pulled off one of these in A.D. 488 when he induced Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, to invade Italy, which was then held by King Odoacer. Both men were nominally servants of the Emperor but actually independent rulers who were constantly causing trouble; by getting them to go to war with each other, Zeno ensured that the Empire would be rid of at least one set of troublemakers, no matter which side won. This could be considered an instance of DivideAndConquer, except that the Emperor didn't follow up his successful gambit (Theodoric won) with a conquest of the Ostrogoths. Although, a few decades later, Justinian did manage to conquer the Ostrogoths and much more.
* During the UsefulNotes/SpanishCivilWar, Polish government sold (mostly obsolete) arms and equipment to both sides of the conflict. Although one could expect a right-wing military dictatorship to support Franco only, more weapons were actually delivered to the Republican side. This is understandable considering how dire was Poland's geopolitical situation at the time and how desperately it needed funds to modernize its own army.