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When most writers want to write about discrimination and oppression, they stick to real-world examples -- after all, there are plenty of those. Some writers, however, wonder: "[[RussianReversal What if it were the other way around]]?" What if blacks had enslaved whites? What if India had colonized England? What if [[LadyLand women had all the power and men had to stay in the kitchen]]? And so on and so forth. There may be a semi-plausible AlternateHistory explanation for the switch, but just as often it simply is that way.

Often this is not just an interesting what-if, but a way of making a point, saying to the privileged group "well, how would ''you'' like it if...?" This tends to be {{Anvilicious}}, though [[SomeAnvilsNeedToBeDropped not always in a bad way]]. The message may also be that power corrupts, and no matter who's on top, things will always suck for the group on the bottom, and [[CaptainObviousAesop discrimination of any kind is wrong]].

On the other hand, in certain cases the barbarism of the now-powerful group can be played up too much and the whole thing can [[UnfortunateImplications seem as though it came out of some dislike or distrust of the group in question]] ("Look how much worse things would be if ''they'' were in charge"). Or, alternatively, the work may be disparaging towards the now-oppressed group (which is usually an AcceptableTarget due to being in power in the real world), and suggest that they deserve to be treated badly.

Compare JustTheIntroductionToTheOpposites, BlackLikeMe, and ColorMeBlack.


* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcWsTwvtyOI This]] South African ad shows white people disadvantaged and black people in positions of privilege. Essentially, it's a reverse of Apartheid.

[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* In Creator/YuuWatase's short manga story "Perfect Lovers," a heterosexual couple is transported into an alternate dimension where homosexuality is normal and heterosexual relationships are illegal.
* In ''Manga/{{Ooku}}'', after [[{{Gendercide}} a disease kills off a large percentage of the male population]], feudal Japan becomes a female-dominated society, with women as leaders and warriors and men viewed as sex objects too delicate to fight (or farm, or fish, or...).
* In ''Manga/JyuOhSei'', the PenalColony planet of Chimera is controlled by four "Rings" (Night, Ochre, Sun, and Blanc) which are primarily divided by skin color. When Thor and Rai are sent there, the Blanc Ring is least powerful of the four, and thus the formerly pampered twins (who are about as white as one can possibly be without having Albinism) find themselves at the bottom of the social ladder
* ''Anime/CodeGeass'' involves Japan being occupied by the harsh Holy Britannian Empire, ironically mirroring UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan's escapades during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* In the ComicBook/HouseOfM miniseries, Wanda creates a new world through her reality warping powers where mutants are the dominant species and humans are deemed second-class citizens and given the slur "[[FantasticSlurs Sapes]]." Most notably, Magneto and his family rule Genosha as an aristocracy and super-powered individuals like Franchise/SpiderMan and Miss Marvel are only tentatively accepted as equals to mutants.
* In the Creator/ECComics story "Hate!", an all-American everyman who leads a mob to kill his Jewish neighbors by burning their house down finds out that he was adopted and that his real parents were Jewish. He then is victimized by his Jew-hating former friends.

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* It's a common plot in the ''WebComic/{{Homestuck}}'' fandom to flip the [[FantasticCasteSystem Alternian hemospectrum]], and [[ForWantOfANail explore the potential effects on the personalities and relationships of the main characters]]. ''FanFic/BeTheSeadwellerLowblood'' and ''FanFic/HemoStuck'' are two of the best-known examples.

* This is the whole point of the film ''Film/WhiteMansBurden'', where blacks are the racial majority who've generally been in positions of power and privilege in America and whites are the unprivileged minority.
* ''Babakiueria (Barbeque Area)'' is an Australian film that does this with imperial Aborigines taking over and oppressing white Australians.
* ''Franchise/PlanetOfTheApes'' involves apes keeping humans in cages and using them for experiments.
* In the film ''Film/AlmostNormal'', the gay protagonist enters a world where homosexuality is the norm - and straight people are the ones viewed as being "deviant".
* A deleted song from ''Disney/MaryPoppins'' tells the story of the Chimpanzoo, a zoo where humans are locked up in cages for the animals to look at.
--> "Laughs, laughs, nothing but laughs / But you know who's laughing at who? / It's the animals there who giggle and stare / at you in the Chimpanzoo!"
* A variation in ''Film/CowboysAndAliens''; even though it is not the Native Americans doing the oppressing, the white Americans still find out what it's like to be completely outmatched by an invading army they could not have imagined and getting their people captured/wiped out and their land ravaged. The tie-in comic brings it to truly {{anvilicious}} levels by having a white American loudly saying the aliens "can't do that just because they've got better weapons", and receiving a dirty look from a Native.
* The short film ''[[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1821524/ Love Is All You Need?]]'' is about a world in which homosexuality is the norm and a heterosexual teen is bullied by her peers.
* The 2014 movie ''Film/{{Persecuted}}'' imagines a United States where freedom of religion isn't already guaranteed under the Constitution, where the U.S. was founded as a Christian nation, where Christians are being persecuted in America, and where Evangelicals use rosaries.

* Both the book and stage version of ''Literature/NoughtsAndCrosses'' (black people are in power; white people are victims of discrimination).
* The novel ''Blonde Roots'' by Bernardine Evaristo is a pseudo-AlternateHistory novel taking place in a world where "blak Aphrikans" enslave "whyte Europanes" for the transatlantic slave trade. The title and premise are a flip on ''Literature/{{Roots}}''.
* From a single AlternateHistory anthology (although some of these are a bit iffy):
** "The Wandering Christian" by Eugene Byrne and Creator/KimNewman (Judaism becomes the major world religion; Christianity all but wiped out)
** "Hush My Mouth" by Suzette Hayden Elgin (African former slaves rise up and seize power in the United States after the Civil War; white Americans all but wiped out)
** "The English Mutiny" by Ian R. [=MacLeod=] (India colonizes England)
** "Islands in the Sea" by Creator/HarryTurtledove (Islam becomes the major world religion; Christianity is practiced only in a few small areas)
* Creator/HarryTurtledove likes this kind of irony and often uses it:
** In both his epic fantasy-retellings of the American Civil War and World War II, the slaves and the subhumans due for extermination are the white, Aryan-looking blondes.
** In ''Literature/RuledBritannia'', the English Protestants must go underground after the Spanish invade and hand power over to the Catholics. Many of the occupying forces in England are Irish.
** In the ''Southern Victory'' series, the Confederate Goebbels expy is a Jew. At one point, a character muses that if blacks were not scapegoated for the CSA's problems it would probably be the Jews.
*** In the same series, the rump United States joins the Central Powers and defeats Great Britain. This results in Quebec and Ireland (covering the whole island) becoming independent, CP-aligned republics, with Anglo-Canadians and Irish Protestants becoming second-class citizens in their countries.
** In ''The Disunited States of America'', the states broke away into separate countries due to the Constitution never being passed, as the weaker Articles of Confederation couldn't keep them together. The southern states, as you'd expect, remain oppressive to black people, although they eventually abolished slavery. This oppression caused black rebellions, and one in Mississippi was successful. The victorious black people there then treated the whites much as they themselves had been earlier.
* Creator/RobertAHeinlein's controversial ''Literature/FarnhamsFreehold'' posits a future where the members of a white family are the slaves of cannibalistic black masters. The cannibalism is what pushes it over the edge into "Black people are worse" territory.
* One Creator/SheriSTepper novel, ''Literature/SixMoonDance'', is about a repressive matriarchal society. Tepper has a very feminist message in a lot of her work, so this is sort of like "examining demographics that would lead to men being oppressed in the same way as women".
* Steven Barnes' ''Lion's Blood'' series is set in an {{alternate history}} world where African civilization and Islam became the dominant forces in world culture. The main story is set in an alternate American south, centering on a young (black) nobleman and his (Irish) freedman.
* Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's story ''The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Feather''. It involves inmates taking over an aslyum which "coddled" them and treating their former doctors, now the inmates, in a BedlamHouse way. It has a kind of FamilyUnfriendlyAesop: [[TheFarmerAndTheViper If you treat those weaker than you with kindness, they'll just take advantage of you and then do worse.]] One interpretation of the story is that it's a metaphor for Poe's views of American blacks (which, considering that he was a proponent of slavery, isn't terribly implausible). The film ''Film/StonehearstAsylum'' was based on this story, and is [[SocietyMarchesOn far more sympathetic to the patients]], given the kind of "[[ColdBloodedTorture treatments]]" used in 19th century insane asylums.
* ''Literature/GulliversTravels'' with the talking horses domesticating the human "Yahoos" as farm animals. Also, the horses had a strict hierarchy based on color... with the darker ones in charge.
* In Katherine Kerr's ''Polar City'' books, blancs (i.e., whites) are a lightly oppressed minority.
* In a FantasyCounterpartCulture version, ''Literature/FloraSegunda'' has the largely European-flavored (though apparently California-dwelling) Califans conquered and ruled by the pseudo-Aztec Huitzils.
* In Waberi's "In the United States of Africa", Africa is the largest superpower while the Western world as we know it is plagued by the very maladies that current Africa faces, from the perspective of an adopted white French girl.
* In Creator/KirillMoshkov's ''Special Expert'', Legioner Tauk is sent to a LostColony, whose population is predominantly black, with the whites being treated as second-class citizens. Since Tauk is himself white, he has to pass himself off as a servant, while another agent, a black woman, can freely pass herself off as a member of the societal elite. She does explain to a local man that back on Earth, it is their people that used to be subservient to the whites. The man has a hard time believing it.
* Creator/WilliamTenn's story "Eastward Ho!" is set in a post-nuclear-war future where Native Americans are in power, and the oppressed whites keep fleeing further and further east. Eventually they plan to sail to the land of freedom--Europe.
* The hero of Creator/JosephConrad's ''Literature/HeartOfDarkness'' ruminates on the colonial relationship by invoking the Roman invasion of Britain and wondering aloud how the Ancient Britons saw the colonial system from the other side. Later he suggests a counterfactual scenario:
-->''The population had cleared out a long time ago. Well, if a lot of mysterious [blacks] armed with all kinds of fearful weapons suddenly took to travelling on the road between Deal and Gravesend, catching the yokels right and left to carry heavy loads for them, I fancy every farm and cottage thereabouts would get empty very soon.''
* Many of the stories in the Literature/ChicksInChainmail quintet, edited by Creator/EstherFriesner, deal with the male-female issues by gender flipping, or other plot device, some well-done, and some belaboring the point.
* ''Literature/BlackLikeMe'' is an account of journalist John Howard Griffin's dyeing his skin black and living in an area he had visited as a white man and describing the differences.
* ''Literature/SaveThePearls: Revealing Eden'' is a controversial {{dystopian}} novel in which the white minority ("pearls") are oppressed by the black majority ("coals") after ozone depletion kills off people with low melanin. The pearls have to wear {{blackface}} in public. The author, by-the-by, is white.
* In the dystopian future of ''Literature/TheForeverWar'', the protagonist is a relativity-time traveler, and upon one of his later returns to earth he finds that population pressure has made homosexuality the socially-acceptable choice. His subordinates--particularly the females--are creeped out, and behind his back call him "queer." He's understanding, realizing how they must feel about serving under a "sexual deviant."
* ''Literature/TheWarOfTheWorlds'' has a variant in which the Martian attack on England is meant to parallel the real life subjugation of Africa by the British; the invaders have more advanced technology that makes their conquest frighteningly easy, and [[spoiler:diseases that the defenders are largely immune to but which the invaders have never encountered before holds the invasion back]]. As the TropeMaker for AlienInvasion, this is what has led to similar subtext appearing in [[FollowTheLeader derivative works]]. The book specifically says that, before humans judge the Martians too harshly, they should remember events like the extermination of the Tasmanians (which had happened just decades earlier). Should they expect more mercy from alien beings than they gave to other humans who they colonized? The entire novel can be read as a massive TakeThat against imperialism and Wells own country in particular, showing what the British Empire did overseas happening to England.
* Aliette de Bodard's "Xuya" AlternateHistory universe is based on the idea that the Chinese colonised the Americas from the West coast in the fifteenth century and then formed an alliance with the Aztecs against the Spanish. As a result by the twentieth century North America is divided between an independent Chinese-culture state called Xuya, a modern-Aztec-culture Mexica Empire, and a much smaller English-speaking nation centring on New England that is very much the poor underdog to the other two. A couple of stories depict white English-speakers in Xuya or Mexica in a manner that reflects this trope, although it definitely isn't the main focus of the series.
* In Creator/RayBradbury's 1951 short story "The Other Foot," the population of Mars is entirely black. Because the planet was colonized within recent memory, adults have memories of segregation and lynchings, and when the news arrives that a rocket manned by whites is entering the atmosphere, a furious mob gathers, planning to institute Jim Crow laws in reverse. [[spoiler:They are ultimately deterred when it's revealed that Earth has been bombed out after a nuclear war, and the story ends with the survivors settling on Mars and the hope of a new start for humanity.]]
* In ''Literature/ASongOfIceAndFire'', after Daenerys frees the slaves of Astapor the council she leaves in charge is quickly overthrown by a former slave and butcher named Cleon, who takes the highborn boys to be trained as Unsullied-i.e. eunuch slave soldiers.
* In "Literature/WhenTheWorldIsAllOnFire", the trope is discussed when the Native American cop kicks the white refugees off the reservation. A woman asks him why he won't share the land; he responds, "We tried that, lady, and look where it got us."

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* ''Series/{{Sliders}}'' had one episode where women were the dominant gender. Another where Mexico won the Mexican-American war so Americans were the day laborers. And some others that get just bizarre.
** In the first case, Arturo gets involved in politics by running for mayor. Wade is against this, as she believes his "equal rights" campaign will ultimately lead to a patriarchy. Interestingly, Arturo actually wins the election, although a miscount results in him leaving before the official results are announced.
** The pilot episode has Quinn listening to a radio broadcast about Americans illegally crossing into Mexico in search of jobs. This is the same world where [[ColorCodedForYourConvenience traffic lights]] are inverted (green means stop, red means go).
** A mild case in the first episode involving the Kromaggs, when the heroes slide into a world where US was largely colonized by France, and Arturo is being made fun of for being English.
** In one episode, There is a world where Kromaggs are timid docile creatures who wouldn't hurt anyone. Humans oppress them and put them in labor camps.
* The ''Series/TwilightZone'' episode "The Eye Of The Beholder", in which beauty is a pig nose and cleft palate while movie-star looks are a deformity.
* ''Franchise/StarTrek'':
** In one episode, an androgynous race views any gender identity as an illness to be cured. Since all of the androgynous culture were played by female actors, it additionally had overtones of "separatist butch lesbian feminists oppress straight femme women". Jonathan Frakes suggested that the alien that gets romantically involved with him, and identifies as a female be played by a man, with the others portrayed by a mix, but [[ExecutiveMeddling Paramount didn't approve]].
** In another episode, a race of humanoids is ruled by women, while men are their servants and sexual playthings. They also have more diminutive bodies, just to reinforce this.
** On still another episode, a child-alien persecutes the adults on the ship for imposing rules on children.
** In another episode, Worf travels to an alternate universe where the Bajorans are enemies of the Federation and they overpowered the Cardassians.
* In one episode of ''Series/RedDwarf'', the crew visit a parallel universe where women are the dominant gender. Their entire history is gender-flipped, so Hamlet was written by Wilma Shakespeare, Nellie Armstrong was the first person on the moon, and men organised equal rights marches and burned their jockstraps in the '60s. Oh, and [[MisterSeahorse it's the men who get pregnant]].
* Sexism and Gender Stereotypes are played with in the weird little German-UK SF series from the 1970's - Star Maidens. In which, two men escape from the planet Medusa which is ruled by women and where men are badly mistreated and head for Earth because one of the men has heard it's ruled by men. They are pursued by a couple of their female mistresses. Let's just say it wasn't subtle and leave it at that.
* One season of ''Series/TheTwoRonnies'' had a serial called "The Worm That Turned" in which men were oppressed in a fascist female-dominated future England. It was about what you'd have expected at the time.
* It's mentioned in ''Series/TimeTrax'' that, in the [=22nd=] century, the OneWorldOrder has whites as a minority. Darien is once derogatorily called a "blanco" (Spanish for "white").

* The Music/ViennaTeng song "No Gringo" (poor Americans illegally cross the border to Mexico looking for work)

* The Amazons are a gender-flipped warrior race where the men are lucky if they end up as slaves and aren't killed right out after they were used for sex for propagation. And the women have to remove a breast so it doesn't get in the way of their bow. So everything is worse when women rule.

[[folder: TabletopGames]]
* In the ''GURPS Alternate Earths'' AlternateHistory of Ezcalli, early exposure to Old World diseases from Carthaginian traders allowed Native Americans to develop resistance early, while the Roman Empire collapsed in infancy, leaving Europe open for Mongol-dominated Asia, Christian African kingdoms, and subsequent Aztec raiding fleets to plunder its squabbling villages for slaves.

* ''Theatre/ZannaDont'' (being gay is normal; being straight is stigmatized). The play makes reference to the use of surrogate mothers, sperm donors etc. explaining how they reproduce.
* OlderThanFeudalism: There was a Greek play in which the roles of master and slaves are reversed, and it turns out the slaves make the situation even worse, spending more time beating their former masters than getting anything done, with the obvious message being that [[StatusQuoIsGod slaves should just accept their place in the world]] [[HappinessInSlavery and be happy that the free people took care of everything]].
* [=EgoPo=] Classic Theater has produced a [[RaceLift race-swapped]] version of ''UncleTomsCabin'' with white slaves and black masters. Read about it [[http://www.citypaper.net/cover_story/The_Race-Swapped_Uncle_Toms_Cabin.html?page=1&c=y here]].

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The conflict between the Templars and the Mages in the ''Franchise/DragonAge'' franchise is a result of this. To summarize, long ago the mages used to rule over ordinary humans and keep ordinary humans as slaves. Then a woman named Andraste inspired an uprising against them, and a new religion was formed around her after she was betrayed and killed. Unfortunately the people who founded the religion believed that ''all'' mages were like their previous mage oppressors, so to make sure that never happened again, the religion teaches mages from the time they're born that they're full of sin and must redeem themselves, and mages are given no choice but to be shipped off to "Circles" to learn to control their magic. Thus, where mages used to persecute ordinary humans, now the mages are the ones being persecuted ''precisely because'' the ordinary humans never got past their pain at their previous enslavement. And just to complicate matters even ''further'', there ''are'' still mages around who enslave ordinary humans, namely the Tevinter Imperium, which some of the now-persecuted mages end up joining in hopes of turning the tables on the Templars, and that's not even counting the desperate mages who turn to blood magic and really ''do'' go crazy. Potentially, this cycle could go on forever.
** Also, the series flips the traditional dichotomy in a StandardFantasySetting where the elves are a majestic, technologically and/or magically advanced race with far greater power than the humans. That was the case a long time ago, before the ancient elven civilization fell to Tevinter, a human empire (although ''VideoGame/DragonAgeInquisition'' challenges this account, along with many other aspects of the lore). Now the elves are a powerless, persecuted minority, akin to Jews in medieval Europe, while the humans are the dominant political power in all of Thedas.
** On a RealLife level, the Chantry is a not-so-subtle TakeThat at the Catholic Church for its failure to allow women to become priests, since the Chantry is run exclusively by women, and there's many times throughout the series than you can confront Chantry priests over their failure to include men in the priesthood. Incidentally, the arguments heard are exactly the same as what you hear in RealLife, just with the gender pronouns flipped.
* In ''VideoGame/TheElderScrollsVSkyrim'', this happens a ''lot'', both in the backstory and in the time that this game takes place. The Dunmer had previously enslaved the Argonians, but by the time of Skyrim the Argonians rose up against their masters and now the Dunmer have been driven away from the Black Marsh. The Thalmor faction of the Altmer (high elves) persecute the Nords for allegedly being a threat to the Altmer's very existence, and they got the Empire to ban Talos worship. The Nords, as revenge for Thalmor persecution, persecute all the elves, including ''innocent'' Altmer as well as the Dunmer (who had no hand in the Thalmor's behavior) and Bosmer (ditto). The Nords also persecute the Khajiit for supposedly all being sneaky thieves and won't give the Khajiit legitimate work, but in response the Khajiit all ''do'' become sneaky thieves so they can survive amongst the Nords at all. Meanwhile, when the Nords first landed in Skyrim, the Falmer (snow elves) attacked their settlement of Saarthal because the Falmer were suspicious of Nord expansion. So as revenge the Nords started persecuting ''the Falmer'', which drove them underground where they were enslaved by the Dwemer, only now the Falmer wish to destroy the Nords right back. And then there's the fact that the Nords persecute the Argonians and Dunmer just for not helping the Stormcloaks, so now they discriminate against the Nords right back and refuse to help them. If all of that sounds like a mouthful, let's just say that the Nords tend to be on both ends of this trope a lot (either flipping the persecution they receive from others, or starting the initial persecution and then having it flipped on them).
* This drives a great deal of the plot in ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphonia''. At first glance, it looks like just a case of the Desians (who are half-elves) being assholes to the humans, since when you start the game the Desians have humans rounded up and taken to a ranch. Later in the game you discover that the reason the Desians are persecuting the humans is because previously, the ''humans'' were being assholes to ''them'' (and to complicate matters, the full-elves ''also'' treat the half-elves badly). In fact, the motivation of the BigBad is that [[spoiler:the BigBad is a half-elf who finally couldn't put up with discrimination anymore, so he deliberately set up the Cruxis organization to bring forth the Age of Lifeless Beings, except that Cruxis then attracted half-elves looking for payback against the humans]].
** And then in the sequel, ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphoniaDawnOfTheNewWorld'', the people from Teth'ealla are still discriminating against the people from Sylvarant, so the Vanguard is formed to allegedly fight on Sylvarant's behalf, only the Vanguard ends up persecuting the people from Teth'ealla.

[[folder:Web Animation]]
* ''WebVideo/UltraFastPony'' gets weird with its FantasticRacism. Fluttershy is a former slave, and the institution of slavery in Equestria is clearly a reference to slavery in the US. Now that she's freed, Fluttershy is actually angry that slavery was completely abolished, because she wants to have slaves of her own. She tries to make the animals her slaves instead, but she's "[[CatchPhrase just so bad with animals]]!"
-->'''Fluttershy:''' Oh, I get it. It's okay to have Fluttershy do everything ''her'' owners say. But as soon as ''she'' gains ownership of her own farm, suddenly it's all "Equal rights" and "Slavery is not okay anymore!" In the name of the black smoke in the sky, I demand reparations!

[[folder:Web Original]]
* There is a growing number of anti-bullying Internet videos such as [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CnOJgDW0gPI this one]] which depict worlds in which being gay is the norm and heterosexuality is seen as deviant, forcing the (usually) straight protagonists to hide their sexuality or be bullied for it and ostracized by their families. Interestingly, and perhaps [[UnfortunateImplications unfortunately]], these shorts will sometimes depict a reversal of gender roles. For example, the video linked to shows a female-dominated Catholic Church, and there is a blink-and-you'll-miss-it reference to American football being a girl's sport.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* In an episode of ''WesternAnimation/TrippingTheRift'' ("You Wanna Put That Where?") the crew find themselves on a gay planet where heterosexuals are condemned to die. [[Spoiler: They escape punishment by putting the community's leader as straight as a distraction, then presumably leave him to die]].
* In ''WesternAnimation/UltimateSpiderman'', Spider-Man travels to a {{Gender Flip}}ped world. Spider-Girl (real name Petra Parker) is a bit disdainful of a boy taking on her title, there's a reference to Georgia Washington, and the female Green Goblin [[PoliticallyIncorrectVillain mocks Peter]], so it can be assumed that sexism went the other way in this universe. Interestingly, both of these tropes combined means that the same people still discriminated against the same people throughout history (herstory?).
* In ''WesternAnimation/AquaTeenHungerForce Colon Movie Film for Theaters'', when two white government agents shoot a time-travelling Abraham Lincoln, who's covering the Teens' escape in a wooden rocket ([[MakesJustAsMuchSenseInContext doesn't make much sense in-context, either]]), they suddenly find themselves tied to a horse-cart with a black slave driver cracking a whip at them.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* [[http://notalwaysright.com/white-in-new-jersey-what-a-concept/1785 This Not Always Right post has a customer attempting this.]] It comes off as head-scratchingly ridiculous.
* This sort of thing has happened when different groups get the upper hand in a closely-divided country. Some prime examples are:
** Protestants and Catholics taking turns persecuting each other during the European Wars of Religion (including the UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar) whenever the ruler changed (either through succession, conversion, KlingonPromotion, or conquest). England's history is a prime example: Henry VIII was famous for persecuting Protestants mercilessly until that whole divorce thing, at which point he started persecuting Catholics; when his Catholic daughter Mary became Queen, she persecuted Protestants; and when Mary was succeeded by Elizabeth, she started persecuting Catholics again.
** The same was more or less true when the Middle East was under Byzantine rule. Oriental and Eastern [[UsefulNotes/OrthodoxChristianity Orthodox]] Christians took the place of Protestants and Catholics, with the favor of the local governor being the variable.
** In the interminable wars between the Byzantine and Sassanid Persian Empires in the 6th and 7th centuries, UsefulNotes/{{Jerusalem}} would inevitably change hands. Since the Byzantines were Christian and distrusted the Jews, every time they took over the city, Jerusalem would be purged of its Jewish population. Whenever the Persians--Zoroastrians who distrusted Christians as possibly loyal to Constantinople, but had no problem with the Jews--took the city, they slaughtered the Christians and spared the Jews. This happened ''several times'' over a relatively short period of time before the Muslim conquests put an end to that by destroying Persia completely and taking a huge bite out of Byzantium; when they took Jerusalem, they surprised everyone by slaughtering nobody.
* The fact that Christians were brutally persecuted at many points in AncientRome is quite well known. Less known, however, is that once Christians took power in the Empire, pagans were persecuted in turn. Pagan temples were destroyed, rituals were outlawed, property was seized, magistrates declared criminals if they refused to enforce these laws, and eventually pagan belief itself was [[IllegalReligion banned under penalty of death]]. Individual pagans, largely priests, were put to death for practicing their religion, which was forced underground just as Christians had been. This was echoed in many countries that were then converted to Christianity in later centuries too-the choice of becoming Christian was often involuntary, with kings who had taken up the religion afterward compelling their subjects to as well. Often this does not show up in the accounts [[WrittenByTheWinners for some reason or other]].
* The Rwandan genocide was partially a result of this. Without getting into who was persecuting who at which time, let's just say that the Tutsis used to be in elite positions, but then the Hutus engaged in revolutions, purges, etc. By the time of the genocide, the Hutus were trying to get rid of Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
** Averted with post-Apartheid SouthAfrica. There was the fear that the new regime would actively persecute white people with violence equal to those used by the Apartheid Regime. NelsonMandela went out of his way to make sure this did not happen and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission underscores just how far his presidency went to try and appease both white and black people.
* A study done decades ago in a real class promoted and demoted blue- and brown-eyed pupils to show the effects and issues of racism and other -isms. The children, regardless of being told about the study, stated that they came to feel superior or inferior, and had trouble re-adjusting even years later.
* The StanfordPrisonExperiment was a study done with college students which had some be jailers, and some jailed. The jailers were somewhat oppressive, but only somewhat. After a time, they switched. The once-jailed-now-jailers were much more oppressive. The experiment's validity has been questioned, though, since it had the experimenter (Philip Zimbardo) actively involved (in the role of warden) and didn't screen whether participants who became violent were already prone to this. It cannot be replicated to find out whether its results were valid, [[SocietyMarchesOn as modern ethical rules prohibit doing so]].
* DoubleStandardRapeFemaleOnMale, TheUnfairSex, and MenAreTheExpendableGender are full of examples of situations that would be viewed as horrifying if the genders were reversed, but because the victims are men, are played for laughs (or otherwise trivialized) instead.
* Music/{{Eminem}} grew up in an all-black neighborhood, and was viciously bullied for being white.