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->''"Neo Olde Tokyo...? Who comes up with these names!?"''
-->-- '''Phoenix''', ''VisualNovel/PhoenixWrightAceAttorney''

When a major city or province is destroyed during TheEndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt, and it gets rebuilt AfterTheEnd, instead of going back to the original name for it (or [[IstanbulNotConstantinople naming it something else]]), it's common practice for the builders to tack on "New" or "Neo" to the original name, probably to show how this incarnation is nothing like the old, destroyed one. If there's still ruins of the old city left, you can bet that the remaining townsfolk will refer to it as "Old"-whatever, as a show of how much they want to forget what happened and move on.

Settlers and colonists also frequently use this in order to name new cities, countries, and planets after their homeland, whether the original still exists or not - in this case, it's to show that their new home will be built in a new, better version of the old. Because of {{Planetville}} tendencies, it's not uncommon to see entire planets named things like "New London".

Because of the phenomenon of CreatorProvincialism, the city in question will nearly always be [[BigApplesauce New York]] or [[TokyoIsTheCenterOfTheUniverse Tokyo]], although in the first case it's generally PlayedForLaughs, [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment for obvious reasons]].


[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
Note: Because [[TheTokyoFireball Tokyo is annihilated so frequently]] in anime, it tends to get this treatment a lot.
* In ''Manga/{{Akira}}'', [[TheTokyoFireball Tokyo was destroyed]] years before the story takes place. Since then, the city had been rebuilt as Neo Tokyo.
* In ''Anime/BubblegumCrisis'', the old city of Tokyo was destroyed by a '''Second''' Great Kanto Earthquake, and was rebuilt with the help of [[MegaCorp Genom]] into '''Mega'''tokyo (no relation to [[Webcomic/{{Megatokyo}} the webcomic of the same name]]).
* ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion'' has has an example of the second type: since the original Tokyo was nuked and submerged, and the city of Matsumoto was converted into the new capital and renamed "New Tokyo-'''2'''", New Tokyo-'''3''' (commonly just Tokyo-3 in English) is a ground-up purpose-built city over the location of Hakone that is intended to eventually replace Tokyo-2 as a capital city (persumably after all the [[{{Kaiju}} Angels]] are defeated). Also, the fleet in episode 8 moored in "New Yokosuka" (formerly Odawara), which serves as a port for the landlocked Tokyo-3.
* In ''{{Manga/ARIA}}'', the city where most of the story takes place is Neo Venezia on Aqua (formerly known as Mars) and is based on Venice.
* ''Anime/RomeoXJuliet'', an adaptation of William Shakespeare's ''RomeoAndJuliet'', takes place in the city of Neo Verona. No mention is made of an "Old Verona", however, the implication being that Verona is Shakespeare's one.
* New Namek in ''Manga/DragonBall'', established after the old Planet Namek was destroyed by Frieza.
* ''Anime/YuGiOh5Ds'' is set in Neo Domino City, a ShoutOut to the original ''Anime/YuGiOh'' taking place in Domino City.
** Which actually appears in 5D's as the run-down Satellite slums.
* Nation-wide version in ''Anime/MobileFighterGGundam'', where every country names their space colony "Neo-(country name)". For example, Neo Japan.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''ComicBook/BuckGodotZapGunForHire'' is based on the planet of New Hong Kong.
* The backup feature in the ''Comicbook/XMenNoir'' miniseries was a parody [[PulpMagazine pulp]] story set in New New New York.
* ''ComicBook/RogueTrooper'' is set on the planet Nu Earth, and includes cities such as Nu Atlanta, Nu Paree, Nu Georgia, and Nu Memphizz.
* Nueva York in ComicBook/Marvel2099.
* The Franchise/DCUniverse has New Carthage (which, as pointed out in the Real Life section, is pretty redundant) in New York, and the underwater city of New Venice, which Aquaman uses as a base.

* Neo UsefulNotes/{{Seoul}} in ''Film/CloudAtlas''.

* ''Literature/TheMoteInGodsEye'' by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle has New Chicago and New Caledonia, which has the worlds of New Ireland and New Scotland. There's also New Annapolis on Earth, since the original was destroyed in [[WorldWarThree The Great Patriotic Wars]]. Incidentally, New Caledonia is also the name of a pacific island in Real Life.
* The capital city of Haven in David Weber's ''[[Literature/HonorHarrington Honor Harrington]]'' series is Nouveau Paris, which only underlines the fact that Haven is a stand-in for Revolutionary France. Passing mention is also made of Neo Geneva in an earlier book when the plot was still thick with the French Revolution [[RecycledINSPACE IN SPACE]].
** Inverted for stories taking place on Earth, which typically are set in the city of Old Chicago, which is the rebuilt city of Chicago, [[UnderCity on top of the remains of the original city of Chicago.]]
** Many other examples can be found there too. Off the top of my head, there's also New Berlin and New Britain.
* The ''StarWars'' novels have a planet that goes through severe upheavals every seven years or so, destroying everything on the surface. The planet's colonists [[{{Determinator}} don't let this stop them]], evacuating and rebuilding whenever necessary. One town has been called, over the years, Hopetown, New Hopetown, Newer Hopetown, Newest Hopetown, and Another Hopetown. The character who encounters this, one of Luke Skywalker's Jedi Apprentices, gives the colonists a severe WhatTheHellHero about this, especialy after an old friend of his is killed in one of the upheavals.
** In the ''[[Literature/XWingSeries X-Wing: Iron Fist]]'', there is a town on the planet Aldivy called "New Oldtown". The BigBad is horrified by this name, and when his [[TheDragon dragon]] is giving him a report about someone involved with the town, he interrupts constantly.
--->'''Zsinj''': "Surely you're joking about that name." [...]
--->'''Zsinj''': "You're sure he didn't destroy it because of that name."[...]
--->'''Zsinj''': "[[NeverSayThatAgain Don't ever say that name again]]. It annoys me."
*** After that, his second-in-command calls it the "[[TheScottishTrope hometown-whose-name-is-nevermore-to-be-said]]."
* The Creator/RobertAHeinlein juvenile ''Literature/BetweenPlanets'' has some early chapters set in New Chicago, Old Chicago having been nuked in a previous (non-world-ending) nuclear war some generations ago. Also, the capital of the Venus Republic is New London being named after the Earthside city.
* In Heinlein's ''Literature/TheMoonIsAHarshMistress'', many places on Luna are named after cities on Earth, such as ''Novy Leningrad'' (Russian for "New Leningrad") and ''Hong Kong in Luna'', often referred to simply as ''Hong Kong Luna'' or HKL.
* In the ''Literature/HyperionCantos'', quite a few planets were named after [[EarthThatWas Earth]]: New Earth, Earth 2, Earth City and Terra are some that are mentioned.
* In ''Red Handed'' by Gena Showalter, there is New Chicago.
* Lampshaded in John Zakour's ''Zach Johnson'' books; the World Council added "New" to EVERY place on Earth, a fact which is occasionally commented upon by the characters, who live in New San Francisco.
* According to ''The Compleat Literature/{{Discworld}} Atlas'', the current capital of the Egyptian FantasyCounterpartCulture Djelibeybi, built by Queen Ptraci for the purpose of getting as far away from the bloody pyramids as possible, is New Djeli.

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* {{Lampshaded}} in ''Series/DoctorWho'' where the Tenth Doctor explains that New New York (on another planet) is actually the thirteenth New York, so it's technically [[OverlyLongGag New New New New New New New New New New New New]] New York.
** In the expanded universe, when a military dictator seizes control of Britain, he renames it New Britain. In 3350, Britain on the recolonized Earth was also named New Britain, ruled by a supercomputer from the city of New London.
* The first season of the ''Series/BuckRogersInTheTwentyFifthCentury'' series took place in New Chicago.
* The [[spoiler: ill-fated]] colony of New Bajor, in [[Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine DS9]]
** There are also a couple references to the human (but not Federation) world of New Sydney, from all descriptions a regular WretchedHive mostly under the thumb of the interstellar mob.
* In ''Series/PowerRangersSPD'' the protagonists live in Newtech City - a bit of a stretch considering that it implies that there was a city called Tech and then ''another'' city with the same name. It's even more of a stretch given that the series takes place in 2025 - Those must be some ''fast'' builders.
** Of course, who do you think builds the cities after every single Megazord fight, huh?
* The short-lived TV version of ''Series/BirdsOfPrey'' is set in New Gotham. For Batman fans, it appears to take place in an alternate-continuity future following the "Cataclysm" and "[[Comicbook/BatmanNoMansLand No Man's Land]]" comic books arcs (in which an earthquake levels half of Gotham).
* In ''Franchise/StarTrek'', New Berlin is the largest city on the Moon. We also hear of (but never actually see) a city called New Seattle on a Federation colony world.
** Another New Berlin is also a Federation colony on the frontier. New Manhattan, New Providence, New France, and New Paris are also mentioned briefly. The ExpandedUniverse also has examples like New Siberia, New Sahara or New Reykjavik.
** In the ''Series/StarTrekVoyager'' episode "Resolutions", Captain Janeway and her handsome NumberTwo Commander Chakotay are abandoned on a planet for plot-related reasons so they can explore their {{UST}}. They decide to call the planet New Earth, but have to leave before an AdamAndEvePlot can occur.
* [[Series/BattlestarGalactica2003 New Caprica]].
** One wonders how non-Capricans felt about that naming choice.
*** [[IncrediblyLamePun Capricious]].
* In ''Series/TerraNova'', the title location, [[DontExplainTheJoke as the names translates to]] "New Earth".
* In the ''Series/{{Community}}'' episode [[Recap/CommunityS2E09ConspiracyTheoriesAndInteriorDesign Conspiracy Theories and Interior Design]], Troy and Abed build a blanket fort called Fluffytown. One season later, in the two-parter [[Recap/CommunityS3E13DigitalExplorationOfInteriorDesign Digital Exploration of Interior Design]] and [[Recap/CommunityS3E14PillowsAndBlankets Pillows and Blankets]], they build a pillow fort called New Fluffytown.
-->'''Voiceover:''' Its name: New Fluffytown. Its goal: to be a newer, fluffier town than Fluffytown.
* ''Series/HorribleHistories'', at the end of the pilgrims' song:
--> "My home was in Plymouth, let's call this New Plymouth!"
--> "I've got an idea, let's call this New Hampshire!"
--> "Wait, I'm from Newcastle, can we call this New Newcastle?"
--> "Nah!"
* ''Series/AlmostHuman'' has mentioned a New Pittsburgh.
* ''Series/FrontierCircus'': In "The Courtship", the T & T Circus visits New Atlanta, a town founded by refugees from Atlanta who are striving to keep the spirit of the antebellum South alive.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* ''TabletopGame/EclipsePhase'', taking place 10 years after earth is rendered uninhabitable by a RobotWar has several examples:
** Mars: Valles-New Shanghai
** Titan: New København (Copenhagen), New Quebec
** Asteroids: Nova York.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Rifts}}'' has the New German Republic.
* In ''TabletopGame/FadingSuns'' the capital planet of the Empire is currently named Byzantium Secundus, previously it was New Istanbul.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* In ''VideoGame/BattleClash'', New York, guarded by the WarmUpBoss Guido, is left in ruins. In the sequel, ''Metal Combat: Falcon's Revenge'', no one's bothered to clean up the rubble of the Statue of Liberty, but the inhabitants (those that are left, anyway) refer to the city as "Neo New York".
* Parodied with the "Neo Olde Tokyo" city of the ShowWithinAShow "The Steel Samurai" in ''VisualNovel/PhoenixWrightAceAttorney'' (an attempt to translate the meaning of "Neo Edo" in the original).
* In ''VideoGame/{{Warcraft}}'', Stormwind City was razed by the Orcs in the First War and rebuilt after the Alliance reclaimed the continent of Azeroth six years later. The original city is referred to as "Old Stormwind" in historical texts. The southeastern district of the city is called "Old Town" in-game, even though it's architecturally identical to the rest of the metropolis and was ostensibly (re)built at the same time.
* In combination with PunnyName, ''VideoGame/{{Mother 3}}'' has New Pork City.
* In ''VideoGame/TimeSplitters2'' (a series which thrives off of pastiches of stock settings) there is a level set in Neotokyo in 2019.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Civilization}} 3'' and its expansions, when a faction runs out of unique city names from its predefined city list, new cities' default names will go back to the top of the list, adding "New" to the original city name. This can result in a few oddities (New New York) and {{Easter Egg}}s (Neo Tokyo, [[IstanbulNotConstantinople Not Constantinople]]). When the city list runs out after then, it starts numbering cities, e.g. Thebes 2. .
* ''VideoGame/BarkleyShutUpAndJamGaiden'' takes place mainly in post-cyberpocalypse New York, aptly renamed as Neo New York. At one point, the characters visit Proto Neo New York, which is now an abandoned wasteland.
* ''VideoGame/{{Freelancer}}'' has quite a few of these. New Tokyo, New Berlin, New London are the capital planets of Kusari, Rhineland, and Bretonia, but strangely, Liberty's capital name is [[OddNameOut Manhattan]]. That said, Manhattan ''is'' in the New York system - so all the capital systems start with New.
* ''VideoGame/ArmoredCore: Another Age'' does this. Several locations from previous ''Armored Core'' titles, like Isaac City, are featured, however they've now been supplanted by newer cities of similar name. Isaac City in particular is now divided between Neo and Old Isaac City.
* ''VideoGame/MegaRace'' featured a few tracks in [=NewSan=], named after San Francisco. One such track went over a bridge probably intended to evoke the Golden Gate Bridge.
* Creator/HideoKojima's '80s cyberpunk game ''VisualNovel/{{Snatcher}}'' takes place in "Neo Kobe City."
* ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'':
** In a few levels of ''VideoGame/{{Halo 2}}'' and the entirety of ''VideoGame/Halo3ODST'', the action takes place in [[NeoAfrica New Mombasa, Kenya,]] a cosmopolitan industrial port city centered around Earth's first space elevator. The more run-down municipalities surrounding New Mombasa are what's left of "Old Mombasa".
** ''VideoGame/HaloReach'' has New Alexandria on Reach.
** ''VideoGame/{{Halo 4}}'' has New Phoenix, Arizona, which was formed when Flagstaff and "Old" Phoenix grew so much that they merged into a single metropolis.
** The expanded universe has a galaxy full of these, including: New Legaspi, New Manila, and New Paris on Mars; the colonies of New Caracas, New Constantinople, and Newsaka; Nueva Lima on Madrigal; and New Stockholm on Sansar. We even have the city of New Jerusalem on the planet of New Jerusalem.
* ''VideoGame/EscapeVelocity'' has a bunch of planets and moons named this way. In the third game there's a planet called Neo New York that was apparently depopulated by a plague.
* Inversion: the prologue portion of ''VisualNovel/{{Policenauts}}'' takes place in "Old L.A." in 2040, which is the city that used to be Los Angeles after the actual Los Angeles relocated to the north.
* The setting of ''[[{{VideoGame/Contra}} Contra Force]]'' is actually called "Neo City", even though the game takes place in 1992 (the present year when the game came out). While ''Contra Force'' [[DolledUpInstallment has nothing to do]] with the rest of the ''Contra'' series, the localization staff at Konami attempted to establish a connection between it and ''Contra III'' by claiming that the Occupied City stage in ''Contra III'' was actually Neo City in ruins.
** Maybe they should rebuild it and call it [[IncrediblyLamePun New Neo City]].
* A majority of ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyVII'' is set in the city of Midgar, a metropolis built by the MegaCorp Shinra Inc. Shinra's master plan is to build a new city on a scale meant to handily eclipse Midgar's. Its name? "Neo Midgar," what else?
* Official ''Videogame/CrashBandicoot3Warped'' artwork refers to the future-themed setting as "[[BigApplesauce Neo York]]"... [[FridgeLogic that is]], [[BadFuture what wo]][[CrapsackWorld uld happen]] [[TheBadGuyWins if Cortex managed to]] TakeOverTheWorld.
* ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 2}}'' has New Reno.
** And later on in the series the eponymous [[VideoGame/FalloutNewVegas New Vegas]]. New Vegas is largely intact after the war, with only neglect and age wearing her down; the reason she's call "New" Vegas is due to who's running the city and the casinos.
** The first and [[MultipleEndings possibly]] second of which are part of the New California Republic. And in ''VideoGame/Fallout4'' it seems that New Vegas is [[spoiler:[[CuttingOffTheBranches now a part of the New California Republic]]]] according to brahmin caravaners along with the fall of [[spoiler: Caesar's Legion.]]
** The Chosen One's home village of Arroyo has, over the years, grew and became New Arroyo and became the capital of the state of Arroyo.
* One of the cities in the game ''VideoGame/JustCause'' is named "Nuevo Estocolmo", being an obvious reference to Stockholm, capital of the developers' native Sweden.
* ''VideoGame/MarioKart7'' and ''VideoGame/MarioKart8'' have Neo Bowser City, set in a futuristic metropolis, with lots of bright lights, shiny towers, and flying vehicles for backdrops.
** Averted in the PAL release, where it's just called Koopa City.
* ''VideoGame/MarioAndLuigiDreamTeam'' and ''VideoGame/MarioAndLuigiPaperJam'' has Neo Bowser Castle, the final dungeon.
* ''VideoGame/{{Miitopia}}'' has New Lumos, a [[CyberpunkWithAChanceOfRain rainy futuristic city]], where a multitude of brightly coloured neon lights shine into the [[AlwaysNight perpetual night]].
* In ''VideoGame/MegaManZero'', Neo Arcadia is the name of both the last bastion of civilization [[AfterTheEnd after the cataclysmic Elf Wars]], and the [[KnightTemplar totalitarian regime that rules it]].
* New Los Angeles in ''VideoGame/XenobladeChroniclesX''.
* ''VideoGames/CallOfDutyAdvancedWarfare'' has New Baghdad.
* The monsters' capital city in ''VideoGame/{{Undertale}}'' is called New Home. This is because their king Asgore [[GiverOfLameNames is really bad at naming]], so that's the best he could come up with after they migrated from the original city of Home.
* ''VideoGame/RememberMe'' takes place in Neo-Paris.
* Act 1 of ''VideoGame/DiabloIII'' takes place in a growing village called New Tristram which is located a short distance from "Old" Tristam, where the original ''VideoGame/{{Diablo}}'' was set.
* ''Cyber Cycles'' has the Neo Yokohama course.
* Prototype builds of ''VideoGame/SonicTheHedgehog2'' have a "Neo Green Hill Zone", named after GreenHillZone from [[VideoGame/SonicTheHedgehog1 the previous game]]. [[WhatCouldHaveBeen It was renamed to Aquatic Ruin Zone for the release build.]] The name would later be reused for the first zone of ''VideoGame/SonicAdvance''.
* ''[[VideoGame/FASTRacingLeague FAST Racing NEO]]'' and its UpdatedRerelease ''FAST RMX'' have the Neo UsefulNOtes/{{Kyoto}} course.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* Blink and you'll miss it, but ''Webcomic/LastRes0rt'' has Slick Giovanni, the don of ''Third'' Jerusalem on Planet Arael. We'll be optimistic and assume the original is still intact, although we don't know anything about the second.
* In ''Webcomic/SchlockMercenary'' when a ship's deck is flooded Tagon compares it to "Third Orleans", which the author's footnote assures the readers is not even on the same planet as New Orleans. There's also a Tokyo^3 in South America.
* ''Webcomic/RoninGalaxy'' has New Edo on the Moon.
* [[http://www.webcomictelethon.com/d/1077.html This]] ''WebComics/{{Starslip}}'' Katrina tribute strip has "New New New Orleans" and "New-to-the-fifth-power Jersey".

[[folder:Web Originals]]
* ''Literature/VoidDogs'' features the "celtic revival" planets of Nova Hibernia and Nova Caledonia. (New Ireland and New Scotland)

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Thundercats}}'' had New Thundera when Thundera magically reformed.
* Played with in ''{{WesternAnimation/Futurama}}'' with New New York. Old New York is currently ruins found in the sewers of New New York. The pilot episode actually gives the impression that New York was destroyed and rebuilt ''twice'', but the movie Bender's Big Score reveals that one of these was just a few buildings being knocked down because of Bender's antics.
* ''[[WesternAnimation/TeenageMutantNinjaTurtles2003 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles]]'' variation: Although the 2105's Manhattan seen in ''Fast Forward'' is officially "New New York", as evidenced by several signs, it is still usually called "New York".
* ''WesternAnimation/SherlockHolmesInTheTwentySecondCentury'' had New London as the capital of Britain. We were never told what had happened to the old one.
* The 31st-century set ''WesternAnimation/{{Legion of Superheroes}}'' cartoon has New Metropolis in the place of Metropolis. In the 41st Century, the ruins were christened Neo Metropolis, making this a double example.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' episode "Go God Go Part II", Cartman and some [[{{everythings better with otters}} otters]] visit the ruins of New New Hampshire.
* ''Franchise/RoboCopAlphaCommando'' features a number of cities undergoing with, including Detroit becoming "New Detroit" with no word as to what happened.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* New Delhi, India.
** Right next to Delhi, India.
* Right after Katrina hit New Orleans, the Internet started buzzing with jokes about "New New Orleans".
* Any number of place names in North America are this. New England, which has towns/cities named New Bedford, New Britain and New London (among others), itself is named after England. New Orleans is named after Orleans, France. {{Subverted}} with New York, which was named for the Duke of York in 1664, the man who would become James II of England and VII of Scotland. OK, so ''he's'' named for the City of York, England. And before then, New York was named New Amsterdam... [[note]][[Music/TheyMightBeGiants Why they changed it, I can't say. The people just liked it better that way.]][[/note]]
* This is TruthInTelevision for many places named by colonists; New Zealand, for example.
** In Canada, The Province of Quebec (and the rest of the French territory in America) was once known as "Nouvelle France/New France". New Brunswick is named after a territory in Germany that was once ruled by a relative of the British king, and Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland". "Newfoundland", meanwhile, is ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin.
** What's now northern Quebec used to be controlled by the British, and was called New Britain. California was also originally going to be called New Albion.
** But then, there is a place called Neu Kamerun (New Cameroon) in Germany...
* UsefulNotes/NewJersey is named for [[UsefulNotes/TheChannelIslands an island off the British coast]], while New Hampshire is named for an English county.
* New South Wales, [[LandDownUnder Australia]]. As mentioned in ''Down Under'' by Bill Bryson, no-one's sure if this is meant to be a new Wales of the South, or a new South Wales. Especially since Captain Cook (who named it) wasn't even ''from'' Wales.
** On the whole, Australia tends to avert this. Partly because many of the "New" names had already been taken by the (at the time) newly formed United States. Instead many places such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perth Perth]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Ipswich Ipswich]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newcastle,_New_South_Wales Newcastle]] (to name but a few), are named directly [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perth,_Scotland for their]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipswich British]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newcastle_upon_Tyne counterparts]] with no modifiers.
* New Spain, now know as Mexico.
** And then New Mexico continues the process.
* New Guinea. A little odd, since Guinea is a country in Africa. Nearby are the islands of New Britain and New Ireland. Also in the South Pacific is the island of New Caledonia.
* Naples (Napoli to its actual inhabitants) comes from words Neo Polis, "New City". The name was given by Greek settlers thousands of years ago, and it stuck.
** There are about six towns called "Neustadt" (new town) in Germanym and even more if you include all variants like ''Neustadt an/in/an der …'' (“New Town at/in/at the …”).
* New Lanark, Scotland. About one and a half miles from Old Lanark, Scotland.
* Carthage literally means "New City" (Qart-Hadasht). The Carthagenians founded another city of Qart-Hadasht in the south of Spain, which ended up being called Carthago Nova by the Romans ("New New City"), who were unaware that "Carthage" meant "New City" already. "Carthago Nova" was eventually mutated and shorted to Cartagena in Spanish. In the New World a few centuries later a city was founded called Nueva Cartagena...
* Constantinople, being the new capital of the Roman Empire, was sometimes called "Nova Roma" even before the old Rome fell to the barbarians, as when the Roman Empire was split into its Eastern and Western halves, Rome was the capital of the West and Constantinople was the capital of the East. The early Tsars sometimes referred to Moscow as the "Third Rome".
* Russia has Novgorod (New City), which, in an ironic case of NonIndicativeName, is one of the country's oldest historical cities. And also there is Nizhny Novgorod (Lower New City).
** Novgorod is called such because it was founded by the settlers from nearby Ladoga to whom it indeed was new. The only thing that this happened [[LongRunner somewhere in the 9th century]]. Because of the said historical significance, it is also often called Veliky (Great) Novgorod despite being nowadays a small and somewhat unimportant town, much smaller and less developed than its Volga namesake. The (still existing) town of Ladoga itself is now quite appropriately called ''OLD'' Ladoga.
* A smaller-scale example exists with Shinjuku, one of the 23 special wards of {{UsefulNotes/Tokyo}}. The name literally translates as "New Lodge", a rather appropriate name as it was one of the least-damaged parts of Tokyo after the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake. Consequently, a lot of new development is located here - it is one of the few areas of Tokyo with many skyscrapers, several of the facilities used in the 1964 Olympics were here, and it contains the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, which houses most of the administrative offices of the prefecture.
* As a matter of fact, Tokyo itself is something of an example, the name translating as "East Capital", in contrast to the country's previous capital, Kyoto ("Capital City"). Nothing happened to Kyoto (in fact, Kyoto fared better than Tokyo, having been spared the devastating fire bombing that Tokyo underwent in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII), but the city of Edo had become the political center of Japan as early as the 17th century, and the Emperor moved his capital there in 1869, renaming the city Tokyo and making it the official capital.
* A rather literal example is with New Taipei City, which is not the same city as Taipei the capital of Taiwan and in fact both completely surrounds it and is more populous. It was formerly known as Taipei County (still a separate legal entity from Taipei) but got upgraded to the status of special municipality in 2010 and took the current name so that [[OneSteveLimit there weren't two cities called Taipei, one of which is the capital and one isn't]]. Its official name in Mandarin is Xinbei ("New North"), which just plays into this trope again ("Taipei", or "Taibei" if you go strictly by [[UsefulNotes/ChineseLanguage Hanyu Pinyin]], translates as "Tai(wan's) North"[[note]]Many of Taiwan's cities are similarly unimaginatively named - there's also Taichung (Taiwan Middle), Tainan (Taiwan South), and Taitung (Taiwan East)[[/note]]). (There had been discussions about just merging the two into one large municipality along with Keelung, but the City and the County were governed by opposing sides of the two main political rivals in Taiwanese politics so we get the previous.)
* Further along the vein of geographically distinguished cities, in mainland China, there is the city of Beijing ("Northern Capital") and the city of Nanjing ("Southern Capital"). [[note]]The Chinese name for the Japanese capital of Tokyo meanwhile is Dongjing ("Eastern Capital", a direct translation of the Japanese name since the Japanese language's Kanji characters are based on Chinese characters and often share meanings, if not pronunciation.)[[/note]]
* Novovoronezh is a "factory town" serving the eponimous nuclear power station 38 km from Voronezh proper in Southern Russia. Its population of ~40000 largely consists of the station personnel and their families.
* Salisbury, also called ''New Sarum'' and its predecessor ''Old Sarum'', later famous as one of England's worst “rotten boroughs”.
* Inversion in Guatemala. When the capital city was destroyed in 1776 (which by this time was practically a RunningGag), the goverment had to be relocated to a new valley and create a new city. Today the capital is known as Guatemala City, while the previous one is known as Antigua Guatemala (Old Guatemala).
* The city of Huambo in Angola was formely known as Nova Lisboa (New Lisbon), named after Lisboa (Lisbon), the capital of Portugal.