A common plot for a VerySpecialEpisode: A character, typically [[LongLostUncleAesop a friend or acquaintance]] of TheHero, is revealed to be illiterate by some odd quirk of behavior. This is typically a shameful secret to them; the episode typically ends with their beginning to study, and the issue is never mentioned again.

This plot lends itself to mysteries because of the suspicious behavior used to cover-up illiteracy and the opportunity for a character to be cleared of crime because the crime depended upon being literate.

This trope has started to invite parody, and is probably on its way to becoming a DiscreditedTrope in relatively wealthy societies due to the vast majority of the people within possessing functional literacy. If it's still played straight, the character will probably be [[LIsForDyslexia dyslexic]], with the [[AnAesop Aesop]] being that this has nothing to do with being uneducated and should not be a source of shame. Characters are also occasionally revealed to be unable to read English (or whatever is the dominant language where they are living) due to being recent immigrants.

Stories set in or around the IndustrialRevolution (or similar time periods where universal education is a recent invention) may have the character in question quit school at a young age in order to support his family, or due to some other bit of the harshness of life. These characters simply do not have the time to learn how to read, having never had the security of life to allow for an education. By the time they do become secure enough in their livelihood to take the time, they are simply too ashamed to admit it and usually get by with only a very basic literacy, or (if they're old enough) claiming that their eyes aren't what they used to be.

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!Examples:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* Played for laughs in one episode of ''Anime/SamuraiChamploo'' where Mugen is revealed to be illiterate because of his habit of always ordering the same thing as his companions Fuu and Jin. A rather enthusiastic teacher acts as a DrillSergeantNasty and teaches him to read, and at the end of the episode, Mugen uses his newly acquired skills as a Graffiti artist as well as tagging his name on his companions' clothing... and possessions... [[CrowningMomentOfFunny and pet.]] Incidentally, using this trope is a good example of the AnachronismStew of the series: Mugen is a nineteen-year-old from Ryukyu who has been a criminal his entire life; realistically Fuu and Jin should have been more surprised if he ''could'' read.
* Played with in ''Manga/PokemonSpecial''. It is revealed that WildChild Sapphire is barely literate when she has to pass a written test for the chance to battle Roxanne, and of course, said Gym Leader mocked her and lectured her on the importance of reading. Sapphire's illiteracy can easily be attributed to her lifestyle... but also due to her lifestyle, she's well versed in Pokemon ecology and biology, meaning that once she had someone read the questions for her, she ended up the first person ever to score a perfect mark on Roxanne's test.
* In ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion'', Asuka portrays the recent immigrant version. She's been failing tests at school, but when Shinji is having issues with a math problem and reads it out loud, she solves it easily in her head. When he expresses his shock that she's not getting better grades, she reveals that it is because she can't read the kanji in the tests.
* Like the aforementioned ''[[Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion EVA]]'' example, ''LightNovel/BakaToTestToShoukanjuu'' does this with ButNotTooForeign Minami Shimada, who is Japanese but lived in Germany until the events of the series, so her reading and writing comprehension of kanji is poor, to the point that she is landed in Class F with the other protagonists, and [[spoiler: in the second season, we learn through a WholeEpisodeFlashback that on her first day at Fumizuki Academy, she even accidentally wrote her name wrong. This handicap is used in the end of the episode for a truly [[CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming stellar]] [[TearJerker moment.]]]]
* In a flashback in ''Manga/FairyTail'', Natsu says his DisappearedDad Igneel taught him how to read, but it turned out he only learned the words that have to do with food. Erza gives him a strict lesson that teaches him the other words in about three days. In the present, Natsu still has a little difficulty and reads very slowly, often having to sound the words out.
* Apparently, [[NationsAsPeople Japan]] assumed as much about [[TheMillstone Italy]] in ''AxisPowersHetalia'':
-->'''Germany''': Oh, this is a note from Italy.
-->'''Japan''': ''({{Beat}})'' [[CrowningMomentOfFunny Italy is literate?]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comics]]
* ''{{Bizenghast}}'': Edrear is shown to be illiterate. This is PlayedForLaughs when Edrear asks directions to a store called Jacys, and it is revealed to be directly behind him (and clearly labeled).
* Cassandra Cain, [[ComicBook/{{Batgirl 2000}} Batgirl II]], was [[TrainingFromHell raised]] to be the perfect assassin by [[AbusiveParents her father]], who never even spoke in front of her, so she [[CuteMute didn't know how to speak]], much less to read. When she was taken in by the Batfamily, she spent her life as a crime-fighter. It was consistently depicted as a set-back, and eventually caused the rift between [[GeniusCripple Oracle]] and her, after [[ParentalSubstitute Oracle]] called her 'stupid' in the middle of a battle while Cassie was desperately trying to shut down a killer robot, hurting Cass deeply.
-->'''Oracle''': You're kidding--you still don't even know the damn ''alphabet''?! All those hours you spend practicing [[WaifFu martial arts]] and you can't spare the time to learn your #$%@ ''ABC'''s?! For God's sake, Cassie--how stupid can you be?!
** Cassandra Cain has it worse than most. The reason her dad never spoke to her is to encourage the language centers of her brain to 'read' body language. As such, besides the usual troubles of learning to read (and speak) later in life, her brain effectively developed in such a way that her ability to learn speech was almost completely demolished. Makes this a pretty big WhatTheHellHero moment for Oracle, as she's effectively not only hurt by being reminded of her embarrassing handicap, it ignored the fact that the only reason she is that way is because of severe emotional abuse (her father would randomly attack her as part of her training) for the first several years of her life, culminating in her killing a man while knowing exactly how horrified he is. [[TraumaCongaLine At age eight.]] That the only thing wrong with her brain is her difficulty with language is a sign of nothing short of HeroicWillpower.
* Meggan from the ''ComicBook/{{X-Men}}'' spinoff ''ComicBook/{{Excalibur}}'' was illiterate since her inhuman appearance kept her from going to school as a child. During the course of the series, several members of the team offered to help tutor her, and near the end, she finishes her lessons and has an average adult reading level.
* Also X-related, Catseye from the [[NewMutants Hellions]] was abandoned at birth since her mutation manifested early, and she spent much of her life thinking she was a cat who transformed into a human rather than vice-versa. Once discovered by Emma Frost, she went from complete illiteracy to grade school-level reading within a year, showing a hidden intelligence.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Fan Works]]
* This forms the premise of the ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' fanfic ''FanFic/TheTwilightHours'' in which Twilight Sparkle discovers Applejack is illiterate. It's eventually revealed that she had to drop out of school to work on the farm after her parents died.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Film]]
* ''Literature/TheReader'', there are hints throughout the first half, and then it's dramatically revealed that a character is illiterate... and it's a very important plot point that could rule the lives of several people. [[spoiler:This is a highly warped version of the trope, as the illiterate character commits crimes against humanity during the Holocaust]]
** Not only that but [[spoiler:said character originally worked at a Siemens at the beginning of the war until she was proposed for a promotion. It is hinted she didn't want to accept that promotion since then people would find out she was illiterate so she ''joins the SS instead''. Furthermore, both in the movie and in the book, it is mentioned at her trial that she would ask people sentenced to be gassed to read to her. In the book, the protagonist theorizes it was the other way around: she would ask people to read to her and ''send them to their deaths'' so they wouldn't reveal her secret.]]
* Parodied in a scene subtitled "Oscar Scene" in ''Film/WaynesWorld'', where Wayne finishes up a tearful lament with "And worst of all, I [[TropeNamer never learned to READ!]]" The fact that Kate Winslet won an Oscar for ''Literature/TheReader'' a decade later only makes the OscarBait joke even funnier.
* PlayedForLaughs in the second ''Film/HarryPotter'' movie:
-->'''Malfoy''': Why are you wearing glasses?\\
'''Harry disguised as Goyle''': Oh, um, reading.\\
'''Malfoy''': Reading? I didn't know you could read.
** Notably, Malfoy's line was ad-libbed during rehearsal by TomFelton, and they [[ThrowItIn kept it]].
* "Hoke" in ''Theatre/DrivingMissDaisy'' couldn't read, but he could somehow get a driver's license despite this fact. Since he was licensed in the 1940s, one presumes the requirements were different at the time.
* This is essentially the plot of ''Stanley and Iris'', starring Robert de Niro as illiterate cook Stanley and Jane Fonda as the widowed Iris who teaches him to read.
* In ''Film/{{Braveheart}}'', Murron tells William Wallace that she never learned to read, something that wasn't abnormal in the Scottish highlands in the 13th century.
* In ''Film/FiftyFirstDates'', Henry uses this as a trick to get Lucy to talk to him on one of the many days he introduces himself to her in the diner. He splashes water on his eyes and acts like he's crying until she comes to see what's wrong. When he confesses that he can't read the menu, she spends all morning sitting with him "teaching" him. He blows it though when he doesn't ask her for a second date (because he knows she won't remember) and she gets furious and reveals that she knew the whole thing was a ploy and went along with it because she liked him.
* In ''Film/CorkyRomano''.
* A variant in ''Film/{{Drumline}}'', where the main character never learned to read music.
* Shirley in ''Film/ALeagueOfTheirOwn'' (Mae teaches her with a romance novel).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Literature]]
* Davos Seaworth in ''Literature/ASongOfIceAndFire''. Due to his lowly origins, the smuggler-turned-knight-turned Lord never learned how to read. It's his elevation to Hand of the King that prompts him to learn, alongside his young son.
** This applies to the majority of common people in Westeros. Only nobles, maesters, septons etc. can usually be relied upon to be literate. In one scene Arya Stark is trying to show Hot Pie how to read a map, and he's astonished that she can actually read the place names written on it (unaware that she's actually nobleborn).
* Brutha from the Literature/{{Discworld}} novel ''Discworld/SmallGods'' is illiterate and remains that way through the duration of the book. He more than makes up for it, however, with his incredible memory: he recalls literally ''everything'' he experiences with perfect clarity.
** Seeing as Brutha's the prophet of a religion, this is likely a reference to [[UsefulNotes/{{Islam}} Muhammad]] who similarly achieved prominence and spread a religion, but only learned to read at the end of his life.
** And also played with in Brutha's case because at one point he's called upon to memorize the contents of an entire library so that it can be reproduced even if the library is destroyed by Omnian fundamentalists. This being the Literature/{{Discworld}}, the books start to "leak", he gains the information without having understood the words that he memorized.
** Harry King, a former mud lark and now-recycling-mogul, never bothered to learn letters either. He hires people to read things aloud to him, but thinks of written words as a distraction to the business side of things.
* Garion in the ''{{Belgariad}}'' had his family ''deliberately'' keep him illiterate and socially isolated on a distant farm. This is because he's TheChosenOne, and his coming and the great deeds he must perform were written down as prophecy ages go... and they don't want him reading or hearing about any spoilers. When he's already too far into his epic quest to back out ''then'' they finally allow one of his traveling companions [[spoiler:(the one he's supposed to marry later, so they get lots of quality time together)]] to tutor him. The prequel, ''Belgarath the Sorcerer'', gives another reason: [[spoiler:one of his ancestors nearly threw Aloria into civil war after reading the prophecies and getting a swelled head, and they'd rather history not repeat itself. Or rather Polgara would rather it not. Belgarath thought it was a stupid idea(which it was), especially given unlike the one who messed up Garion did not know his heritage already, so there was no real worry.]]
* Also from DavidEddings, Sephrenia is deliberately illiterate in the ''{{Elenium}}'' trilogy. This is her own choice, however; she speaks both the Elene and Styric languages fluently, though Styric is her native tongue (And she can read Styric). She doesn't want to learn to read the Elene language because she doesn't want to accidentally become confused in a situation where she needs to think and speak very quickly in Styric (the language in which one casts magic).
* ''The Verger'' by Somerset Maugham is about a man whose illiteracy bars him from promotions in the local church, so he looks for alternatives and [[spoiler:by opening tobacco shops makes a fortune.]] The last line makes the story. Go on - [[http://www.miguelmllop.com/stories/stories/theverger.pdf read it.]]
* Aunt Sissy in ''{{A Tree Grows in Brooklyn}}'' never learned because her immigrant parents didn't realize they were supposed to send her to school until she was too old to start.
* ''A Judgement in Stone'' by Ruth Rendell is well-known for its opening line of "Eunice Parchman killed the Coverdale family because she could not read or write." Eunice, the family's maid, is obsessed with keeping her illiteracy a secret from everyone throughout the story, and the family's learning of it leads her to kill them all.
* Larten Crepsley in ''TheSagaOfDarrenShan''. Considering his upbringing as a child laborer turned vampire's assistant, it's understandable.
* In the HoratioAlgerJr book ''Ragged Dick'', young Dick realizes that his illiteracy will be an obstacle in his plan to lift himself by his bootstraps. He solves this by finding another orphan who was able to get some schooling before being kicked out on the streets, and allowing the boy to sublet his room in exchange for tutoring.
* Being literate is comparatively uncommon among most of the population of {{Redwall}}. Most of the Abbeydwellers learn enough of the basics to function, but most vermin and a few of the Long Patrollers don't really need to read.
* Literature/JakubWedrowycz's academic education is limited to three years of elementary Russian school, so he barely knows Latin alphabet (he never bothered to brush up on it in over 80 years).
* [[Literature/InheritanceCycle Eragon]] never learned to read (a fact that surprises Brom, since his uncle Garret was literate). Of course, [[InstantExpert it only takes a month of instruction for Eragon to be literate enough to gather information from government records, and only a few months after that for him to read philosophical discourse and write epic poetry (in a different language)]].
* A touchy subject for Todd in ''ChaosWalking''. He never learned to read beyond a few words, and he can't even read his own mothers journal. Leads to a heartwarming moment wherein Viola reads out her journal for him.
* The [[NamesToRunAwayFromReallyFast aptly named]] BloodKnight Zsadist of J.R.Ward's ''Literature/BlackDaggerBrotherhood'' series is illiterate for ''well over a century'' [[spoiler: until he fell in love with the aristocratic vampire Bella, and learned to read in order to be "[[CrowningMomentOfAwesome worthy of courting]]" her. Before then, Zsadist made no effort to change his illiterate state, though there were hints it ''did'' bother him, since it not only inconvenienced him but also forced him to rely on others - mainly his twin, Phury - to accomplish simple tasks. Once he recognized his feelings for Bella, he worked relentlessly with his tutor, Mary, with all his hard work at last culminating in him writing, [[CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming "I love you"]] to Bella in a squiggly, childlike handwriting.]]
* Although there are newspapers and bookstores around, a point is made that illiteracy among lower-class people is common in ''Literature/ABrothersPrice'', since mothers make more money if their daughters work alongside them than if they're off in schools. Men are almost never taught to read. Cullen Moorland admits that his cousin tried to teach him, but he claims she was a poor teacher, and anyway it's not like his wives, once he's married, will let him read. The Whistlers, seriously thinking about courting him, feel differently.
* In ''Literature/GuardiansOfGaHoole'', Soren's mate Pellimore had never known to read until Soren taught her. And from there... the love blossoms...
* In ''ComicBook/TransformersLastStandOfTheWreckers'': There was a back-up story where Springer is in a coma and put in the care of Roadbuster on their base. Roadbuster passes the time by reading to him, having to learn to do so, because he's spent millions of years fighting. He continuously struggles and eventually reads almost all 331 cataloging their adventures to him, twice, the second time trying to get the more complex words right. He doesn't read 113, because they both know it's a lie, but he does reveal some circumstances that Springer never knew.
* Comes up by way of CultureClash in PatriciaCWrede's ''Literature/TheRavenRing''. It's mentioned in one scene that the protagonist can't read, and it's implied that this is normal for her people, who have a strong OralTradition. She has no idea why her rich city-born companion is embarrassed to have brought the subject up.
* A large theme in Literature/CaptiveOfTheOrcs. Very few Orcs can read. Even high ranking Orcs are usually illiterate. On the other hand, the Luminean Exiles have near-universal literacy.
* Bards in the ''{{Literature/Deverry}}'' series are ''forbidden'' to read. They believe that if a bard learns so much as the name of a single letter of the alphabet, his Agwen (Muse/Patron goddess) will desert him forever. They pass on all their lore through oral tradition.
* {{Spenser}} encounters a college basketball star who can't read in the novel ''Playmates''.
* In ''{{Literature/Matched}}'', most people don't know how to read, since reading and books are outlawed.
* Inverted by ''Literature/{{Tarzan}}'', he somehow taught himself to read English from some books his birth parents had, but didn't know how to speak it. In fact when he first meets other white people they assume he's a different man from the Tarzan who wrote the warning sign outside his parents' cabin because he can't understand their speech.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* [[TheBully Denny Blood]] from ''Series/BadGirls'', after her mother writes her a letter of apology for abandoning her and begs her to read it.
* Jimmy Hickock in ''Series/TheYoungRiders'' is a perfect example of this trope and one episode is devoted to his shameful secret being discovered by the other Riders. It is referred to in passing in later episodes, though.
* In one episode of ''Series/HamishMacbeth'', Hamish's friend TV John is revealed to be illiterate. Being a mystery series, his illiteracy was the impetus for suspicious behavior.
* The first ''Series/RumpoleOfTheBailey'' story has Rumpole proving that a confession was coerced because the defendant can't read or write, and thus couldn't have written it/known what he was signing.
* There was an episode of ''HeadOfTheClass'' where the star basketball player couldn't read. The smart kids tried to get him to be passable enough to pass his SATs so he could get into a college program; then he decided to turn pro right after high school; then he came clean and said he'd take a year off to learn to read. And of course he never showed up again.
* There was an episode of British tv series ''BlackBooks'' where a character was going to turn up to the bookshop to do a reading of his autobiography. Said character is a mafioso type ex-con who can't read (the autobiography was ghostwritten by "the guy who wrote the Music/SpiceGirls book").
* Keith Miller from ''EastEnders''.
* ''MySoCalledLife'', "Why Jordan Can't Read". Subverts the single episode aspect in that Jordan doesn't start his tutoring right away (plus he's already been held back at least a year), and the fact that it pervades his character throughout the rest of the series. And that he can write music.
* One ''KateAndAllie'' saw Kate trying to teach the building's handyman to read. When he rebels at children's books, she presents him with an adult romance novel, which he is instantly able to read.
* ''Series/FamilyMatters'': At least two instances:
** Eddie wants to enroll in a college where athletics is valued over academics, and plans to forsake his studies for a NBA-worthy basketball career. That is, until he meets a supermarket stockboy/bagboy who was a former college standout ... until suffering a career-ending injury, after which his illiteracy is exposed.
** 3J, the CousinOliver of ''FamilyMatters'', was introduced in an episode where Urkel is his Big Brother (an episode paying homage to the organization).
* One of Wesley's new friends on ''MrBelvedere'' pays him to write his book reports, finally admitting that he never learned to read because his family moved around a lot. Wesley starts teaching him, but he starts going to remedial classes by the end of the episode.
* In an episode of ''TheDrewCareyShow'' which spoofed cheap attempts to win an Emmy, Drew had to single-handedly discover a cure for Kate's terminal illness. The only problem is, he never learned to read.
* Used several times on ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' due to its being set in the 19th century (and to champion reading programs, because of continued illiteracy):
** In an early first-season episode, Laura was ashamed at how poorly she could write and pretended to recite a poem she'd written about her Ma, but her written words didn't match what she said. (This was also in part because Nellie Olesen, whom she had just met, had cruelly mocked her when it was apparent to her she couldn't read or write.) When Caroline found out, she turned this into a heartwarming moment between mother and daughter.
** Another first-season episode sees Caroline take a substitute teaching job at the school, and the children cruelly mock a teenager when he cannot intelligently answer the questions or read what was on the blackboard. Caroline calls off school for several days while she privately tutors the lad.
** Mr. Edwards gives two examples of this, then subverts it:
*** In an early episode, he wants to date the lady who works at the post office, so he sends himself letters addressed to himself from a fictional woman. Because he can't read, the letters are blank.
*** After he's married and adopts the woman's kids, he doesn't want his kids to know he can't read, though nearly everyone else, even Mary and Laura, knows. John Jr. (the eldest of Mr. Edwards' sons) finds this out, but only after Edwards is attacked and nearly killed by a grizzly bear.
*** In later episodes, he presumably learns to read as if he'd never had a problem. He's seen reading all sorts of things, including a bedtime story to a monkey.
** In the fourth-season episode "Whisper Country," a secretly illiterate female preacher tries to run Mary out of her teaching job in a remote farming community. When the woman continually misquotes the Bible and gives completely incorrect teachings, Mary suspects the woman's secret and challenges her to show her the verse to back her claims. The woman, in a fit of rage, holds up her Bible (thinking it held a magical power that would kill Mary), but when the tactic failed, the woman admitted she could not read.
** Averted in the 1978 episode "Harriet's Happenings." In an episode where Mrs. Olesen helps her publishing cousin start a newspaper in Walnut Grove, the fountain of misinformation starts a gossip column. After Nellie loses a spelling bee contest to the son of German immigrants, Mrs. Olesen -- in a fit of ego and one-upmanship -- sarcastically congratulates the winner and reveals his parents are illiterate. True, the boy's folks could not read English ... but they were fluent in reading German, something Charles eventually exposes in the episode's climatic scene, where he [[AnAesop denounces the newspaper as "yellow journalism"]].
* None of the Norsemen in ''Series/{{Vikings}}'' know how to read or write, which is TruthInTelevision since RealLife Vikings were illiterate and unable to record their own history, especially in the earlier years of paganism. The only main character who can do either is Athelstan, but he's also a very well-educated [[UsefulNotes/AngloSaxons Anglo-Saxon]] monk from Christian England, not pagan Scandinavia like the Vikings.
* Similarly seen in another 19th century show, ''Series/DrQuinnMedicineWoman'', which found that several citizens of the town--Jake, Hank, Myra--couldn't read, though they all learned at some point in the show's run.
* Nog on ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' doesn't learn to read until Jake, who's younger, teaches him. He manages to get into Starfleet Academy a few years later with only about two years of semi-formal schooling.
** Although it's more likely that Jake is teaching him how to read human script, since Ferengi has its own system of writing.
* In ''Series/TheMagnificentSeven'' TV series, one episode did this for tracker Vin Tanner.
* There was an episode of ''Series/TheFactsOfLife'' where Tootie's boyfriend turns out to be illiterate.
* In an episode of ''Series/ThirtyRock'', Liz and Pete suspected that Tracy might be illiterate. He wasn't, but he played along [[TheSlacker to get out of work]].
* Episode of ''Series/TheCosbyShow'' where Creator/SammyDavisJr played the grandfather of one of Cliff's patients. Claire tricked him into revealing his illiteracy. Later, he enrolled in classes so that he could read to his great-granddaughter.
* In ''Series/OceanGirl'', the son of ORCA's head woman was revealed to be illiterate because he was dyslexic. Mike was a jerk who used his dyslexia to get out of things, until Neri helped him learn to read. Then he [[HeelFaceTurn turned good]].
* On ''MamasFamily'', Mama and Iola get fed up with the crappy job their church lady president is doing and plan to impeach her...until Mama discovers that it's because she can't read.
* In an episode of ''Series/HighwayToHeaven'', Jonathan (the angel) discovers a co-worker couldn't read when he sends the guy into a storeroom to get a box of pies. Of course, Jonathan should have also guessed the guy was an idiot because there were two boxes of pies, and the guy didn't open either to see what was inside. Instead, he left the storeroom and came up with some excuse for why he couldn't retrieve them.
** Another episode had Jonathan helping a young man who had been a star basketball player in high school, but his illiteracy was exposed when he became injured and he couldn't stay in college. He takes a job at an after-school program teaching basketball and the kids tell him about their reading teacher when he confesses that he can't read. She helps him learn to read and they begin dating.
* Matt Parkman in ''Series/{{Heroes}}'' can't read due to his dyslexia, although this does not seem to hamper his detective skills at all. He sucks at Scrabble though.
* Seth from ''Series/NedsDeclassifiedSchoolSurvivalGuide'' is revealed to be illiterate when his girlfriend catches him giving sports tickets to nerds in exchange for them doing his homework, because he, well, can't. The episode ends with, you guessed it, Seth studying to learn how to read. Yay tropes.
* Salvatore, one of the contestants on the seventh season of ''Series/HellsKitchen'', revealed in one episode that he never learned to read. He was assigned to take the orders from the patrons, but because he couldn't read, he also couldn't write intelligibly. Ramsay started to tear the mickey out of him but was pulled up short when Salvatore revealed that after immigrating to America, he took a job to help support his family instead of going to school.
* Parodied in ''Series/WillAndGrace'' when Grace panics when her boyfriend Nathan is less excited about her birthday gift of a book than Karen's gift of a motorcycle. He solemnly informs her that he can't read, and she immediately softens and apologizes, to which he replies "I can read! You've seen me read!"
* ButchLesbian "Walter" from German TV series ''Hinter Gittern - der Frauenknast'' (English: "Behind bars - The Women's Prison").
* ''Series/GoodTimes'': Unclear. In one of her criticisms of the series, Esther Rolle complained about over-emphasizing the character of J.J., whom Rolle (in a 1975 interview with ''Ebony'' magazine, contended was illiterate but yet was popular among audiences for his clownish antics. In actuality, it had never been explicitly mentioned whether or how well J.J. could read, although several episodes prior to 1977 revolved around his academic struggles.
* In an early episode of ''Series/SavedByTheBell'' (back when it was still called ''GoodMorningMissBliss''), a bully is revealed to be illiterate, which is why he forced others to do his homework.
* On ''Series/CharlesInCharge'' one of Charles' friends is revealed to be illiterate when a fire breaks out and he can't read the instructions for a fire extinguisher.
* Charlie on ''Series/ItsAlwaysSunnyInPhiladelphia'' is on the fringe of this trope. When under pressure, he can scrawl out basic English, and seems to be able to read basic words, but when he writes for himself, it's a secret, illegible script.
** Also, a subversion. The Gang has no interest in helping Charlie learn how to read or write, and [[IgnoranceIsBliss neither does he]].
--> "Goddammit Charlie, your illiteracy has screwed us again!"
* Lex on ''Series/TheTribe'' is an arrogant, tough, streetwise character... who never learned to read or write beyond a very low grade school level. The series implied several times that he had Dyslexia. It's a major source of insecurity for him, and he does try to improve his skills more than once.
* In ''TheSharpEnd'', Carmichael is illiterate, and Celia Forrest (his employer) uses a tape recorder to provide him with his daily to do list.
* On ''Series/TrueBlood'', Sam's teenage brother Tommy never learned to read because his parents were constantly on the move and exploited his {{Animorphism}} to win dogfighting matches to support themselves, so he never went to school and they weren't concerned with educating him themselves (Sam himself was put up for adoption and had a normal childhood until his powers developed). He does learn to read during the TimeSkip between seasons 3 and 4, and in a touch of realism, is shown to still have trouble with silent letters and has to sound out the words while writing.
* In ''Series/TheWaltons'' episode, "The Scholar," an illiterate but proudly self-sufficient African-America, Verda Grant, woman asks John-Boy to help her learn to read in secret. The boy is proud to help, but his youngest sister spots them and inadvertently uses their exposes them to her teacher to excuse why she is not getting her homework done. When the teacher offers to help the woman herself, Verda assumes John-Boy betrayed her. Eventually the truth is found out and the two reconcile.
* ''Series/{{Porridge}}'': "Bunny" Warren claims to be in prison because he could not read the sign: "Warning, Burglar Alarm". He also gets Fletcher to read him letters from his wife. It is strongly implied that he is actually dyslexic.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Music]]
* The woman to whom Music/BobDylan is singing in "One More Cup of Coffee (Valley Below)" can't read books. Like her mother and sisters, she can read the stars.
* Country singer Paul Overstreet once recorded a song called "Johnny Can't Read," a song that championed literacy programs.
* The get-away driver played by NoelFielding in the music video for Blue Song by MintRoyale can't read clocks at the very least, so he listens to [=CD=]s in the car that are the same length as the time the bank robbers need him to wait. When the song ends, he knows to start the car.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Newspaper Comics]]
* The titular ''{{Crankshaft}}''.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* Wrestling/JohnCena would say this word for word during some interviews/debates to get the crowd laughing.
--> ''(while in an in-ring debate with Wrestling/BobbyLashley)'' And the worst part of it is... ''([[ChewingTheScenery starts crying heavily]]) I never learned to reeeeaaaad!''
* Less comedic example: Wrestling/BobBacklund really ''was'' illiterate for most of his adult life. Despite graduating college, he didn't teach himself more than basic literacy until he was 42.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Radio]]
* The ''Mark & Brian Radio Program'' had as a recurring sketch of Brian as an out of work voice over guy. He's when just speaking to someone. But the moment he starts reading from the script he mangles the words horribly and inevitably sets his co-stars into {{Corpsing}}.
--> This month, we're proud to offer the 1960 Oscar winning film ''[[Film/{{Spartacus}} Spar-tackus]]''. ''Spar-tackus'', from leggendary director [[Creator/StanleyKubrick Stanley Kubbrick]], is the story of a glad-ai-ator who leads a violent revolt against the Romulan empire. Starring [[Creator/KirkDouglas Kirk Deglaze]], [[Creator/LaurenceOlivier Laurence Oliviary]], and Tony Curtis. It will make you stand up and say "I am Spar-tack-us."
** The sketch has since been used in the show's SpinOff podcast, ''Podcast/TheBrianAndJillShow.''
* ''AdventuresInOdyssey'' had the episode "Cousin Albert" were Lucy discovers that her basketball star cousin Albert cannot read. Albert says that basketball is all he ever wanted and that he doesn't need to learn how to read. He changes his mind after he was beaten in a one-on-one game with the school janitor who also couldn't read.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* The Barbarian class of 3rd Edition ''DungeonsAndDragons'' has this trope as one of the quirks of the class. In order to be able to read and write, a barbarian must either spend two skill points on "Literacy" or take a level in another class. The reason for the illiteracy varies, such as whatever society he came from having an oral tradition or something similar, but the barbarian entering civilization will have a few problems.
* ''{{GURPS}}'' acknowledges that while this is more of a skill, it can be a serious advantage in low tech levels. Conversely, illiteracy is a serious disadvantage in high tech levels.
* Keeping the general populace illiterate is a control method implemented by the Coalition States in ''{{Rifts}}''. Even high-ranking members of the military are not literate by default. The standard "Dead Boy" armor suit can read aloud written text to its wearer.
* In ''TabletopGame/{{Ironclaw}}'' only Mages and a few other careers like Dilettante (one of two playable forms of nobleman) are automatically literate.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Theater]]
* In Theatre/TheAdventuresOfTomSawyer, Huck Finn, being a local [[StreetChild vagrant]] has never learned to read. The Widow Douglas takes pains to teach him, however, and by the end of the play, he can read at least a little and is proud of it.
* In the stage version of ''Disney/BeautyAndTheBeast'', it's revealed that the Beast only has rudimentary reading skills (at best) and is embarrassed by it. When a song from this version, "Human Again", was animated for the IMAX version of the original film (where it had been a CutSong), this detail was included in a short dialogue scene.
* This sets off the main plot of ''Gutenberg! The Musical'', as the town's inability to read helps spur Gutenberg to invent the printing press. Most notably, a woman's inability read accidentally kills her child (she mistakes jelly beans for medicine. It's that kind of musical).
* In ''Theatre/TheUnsinkableMollyBrown'', Molly grows up on a farm just as illiterate as her father and her brothers. However, she has certain ambitions, and the one that begins the refrain of her theme song is, "I'm goan' to learn to read and write."
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The little-known game ''Freedom!'' has a slave trying to escape from the American South. If the player character is illiterate, signs will be displayed with unintelligible characters.
* Nino from ''[[VideoGame/FireEmblemElibe Fire Emblem 7]]'', who learned to use magic tomes by watching Sonia and imitating her chants (something that gets her a lot of respect from fellow mage and potential love interest Erk). Her supports with Canas has him teaching her how to read.
* Sissel from ''VideoGame/GhostTrick'', which almost leads to some complications early on in the plot. Apparently, it's because of his GhostAmnesia. [[spoiler:Except it's not. He really NeverLearnedToRead, because he was a ''cat'' when he was still alive.]]
* Books in ''YggdraUnion'' can only be used by "the literate" (an in-game item condition), Nietzsche and Milanor are ''greyed out in selection''. Guess what that meant?
* In ''RedDeadRedemption'' the main character John Marston's wife [[DeterminedHomesteadersWife Abigail Marston]] admits that she's illiterate. At one point she suspects that her husband has received a love letter from another woman. Unable to read it herself she asks John to read it for her.
* In ''VideoGame/DragonAgeII,'' [[PlayerCharacter Hawke]] can make a gift of a book to Fenris, prompting him to admit that - thanks to his background as an escaped slave - he's never had the opportunity to learn how to read. Hawke can offer to teach him, if the player chooses.
* Player characters in ''VideoGame/{{Ancient Domains of Mystery}}'' may start the game illiterate, depending on the chosen class, race and Learning stat.
* In ''KidIcarusUprising'', Pit, upon [[spoiler: seemingly falling to his doom]] claims to have never learned to read.
* In the opening chapter of ''VideoGame/DragonQuestV'', the hero is only 6 years old and can't read well. The few times he is able to read something, he has an older friend with him. This doesn't apply in later chapters, though, and you can go back and reread several signs you couldn't when you were young.
* In ''CrashTagTeamRacing'', one of the many quotes that [[BoisterousBruiser Crunch Bandicoot]] says upon having his vehicle destroyed in a race is a claim that he never learned to read.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Webcomics]]
* ''{{Terinu}}'' is unable to read because his species was genetically uplifted to be a SlaveRace, so their built dyslexia was considered a security measure. So far he's managed to hide the fact from his friends.
* ''KarateBears'' [[http://www.karatebears.com/2010/12/karate-bears-cant-exactly-read.html can't exactly read the menu either]]
* Due to her being a standard BarbarianHero, Tiffany from ''{{Exiern}}'' never learned to read, but is more or less okay with it. It is PlayedForLaughs though when it comes to her [[http://www.exiern.com/?p=51 choice of attire]] though. And PlayedForDrama when she doesn't realise a voiceless character is writing "[[http://www.exiern.com/?p=1570 Get help]]" which Tiffany interprets as "I have magic runes".
* [[MeaningfulName Minmax]] from ''{{Goblins}}'' traded in his literacy (as well as other basic functioning skills) [[SacrificedBasicSkillForAwesomeTraining for more fighting abilities]].
* Gunnora from ''Webcomic/AlfdisAndGunnora'' never learned to read, but is trying to teach herself in her spare time. This becomes somewhat significant when Alfdis sends her a written message.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Web Original]]
* Lelouch, Suzaku and Kallen are unable to read in ''CodeMENT'', PlayedForLaughs. Though Lelouch has shown the ability to write (it's Japanese, so he can't read kanji but can write hiragana or katakana (we're guessing)).
* Luffy from ''NonePiece'' is unable to read the disclaimer in episode 3, PlayedForLaughs.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* In a Season 1 episode, Krusty the Clown on ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' is cleared of a robbery in part because of his revealed illiteracy. In light of later information about him, it's kind of a FridgeLogic moment - Krusty is supposed to be the son of a Rabbi who was being molded for that career, so it's hard to believe he would be illiterate. In fairness, he did have a minimal reading level (and he is a drug addict), which makes this somewhat more realistic. In one of the DVD episode commentaries, the makers mention that they decided to leave out this character trait after a while, seeing as how it really did not make sense that Krusty could not read and yet do the things he does.
** In one episode, Homer befriends [[SpecialGuest Alec Baldwin and Kim Basinger]]. They ask him not to tell anyone that they're in town, and he agrees as long as they keep his secret: he can't read. It's never mentioned again, and Baldwin lampshades it by pointing out that Homer just read the card on a gift basket (Homer says he recognized the logo), so this was probably a one-off joke (or an oblique reference to a scene from the movie ''Wayne's World'' in which Wayne tells a girl that he can't read so he can gain her sympathies).
*** In one book on the series, one writer mentions how, during the story conference, they threw around moments throughout the series in which Homer was shown reading, and ultimately decided to go with RuleOfFunny.
** Parodied in the ChristmasEpisode featuring Funzo. Springfield Elementary was closed due to lack of funds. The kids put on a play for Mr. Burns showing that without the school, the kids would not be able to read and showed various disasters that could befall him if he didn't give the money. He refused to give them the money and Kid First Industries stepped in.
** In his [[AdamWesting bizarre self-presentation]], Neil Gaiman is the ButtMonkey of a team of book authors/con artists, but ultimately reveals himself to be a DiabolicalMastermind and puts his name on the book they publish. He then reveals that he's never learned to read (to imply that all of his previous novels were the result of a similar con).
* Parodied in an early ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' where Officer Barbrady is unable to solve the mystery of the chicken-molesting menace because he can't read the clues. Barbrady eventually does learn to read, and discovers that the criminal is...a bookmobile driver, who has been committing these crimes as a ZanyScheme to get Barbrady to lean how to read. The next book he gives Barbrady is ''Literature/AtlasShrugged'', which causes Barbrady to [[TakeThat swear off reading forever]].
* It's fairly understandable that Broadway and Hudson in ''WesternAnimation/{{Gargoyles}}'' never learned to read, as they aren't human and come from a society where reading wasn't important. Hudson feels shame for it, but Broadway, in true "ignorance is bliss" style, ''brags'' that he has no need for literacy. Not only was their VerySpecialEpisode done better than usual, but it actually ''does'' affect later episodes, when the two are seen practicing reading, seeking help from others, or struggling to read. In the last canon episode, Broadway's reading has improved enough that he's seen reading Shakespearean poetry to impress his girlfriend, Angela.
** There's also Hakon, again pretty understandable since he's from the early 11th century, too. On the other hand, he's ''glad'' of it, rather than neutral—it means the Magus's spellbook has no effect when he looks upon its pages!
* Mr. Kokoshka in ''WesternAnimation/HeyArnold'', he doesn't seem to mind, until he does and asks Arnold for help.
* Parodied in ''WesternAnimation/HarveyBirdmanAttorneyAtLaw''. Harvey, a lawyer and able to read, goes to prison. Later he's shown learning to read a children's book and having a GoldenMoment when he succeeds. Six months later we see him having the exact same moment, though this time reading ''Penthouse'' forum.
** "Death by Chocolate" has YogiBear reveal that he and Boo-Boo are illiterate during his testimony.
* ''DrawnTogether'' has Foxxy Love taking and failing her Reading 101 test.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Jem}}'' featured an episode where it was revealed Roxy was illiterate. She ends up beginning to learn to read at the end.
* An episode of ''TinyToonAdventures'' called "Why Dizzy Can't Read" revealed that Dizzy Devil was illiterate. Babs makes a reference to a certain episode of ''Facts of Life''.
* There was an episode of ''CaptainPlanet'' where a villain tries to trick an illiterate worker into spraying poison instead of fertilizer by switching his bags, since he wouldn't be able to tell them apart. The worker was TooDumbToLive, though. Earlier, he tries to drink a whole bottle of medicine. When his friend hurriedly warns him that's dangerous, he protests that he couldn't read the instructions, so how was he supposed to know he shouldn't have done that.
* A variation is seen in ''{{Metalocalypse}}'', where it is revealed that neither Toki nor Skwisgaar can read ''music'', which you'd think is a big deal when you play in the most popular band in the history of the world.
** Actually such a thing is [[JustifiedTrope quite possible]]. Most rock and other popular music performers don't use or need sheet music. They write music by jamming and learn by ear. It's not common as it used to be though. Many of the great {{Blues}} musicians of the '20s and '30s couldn't read ''at all'', let alone read sheet music.
* Mr. Smarty Smarts from ''{{Spliced}}'' is illiterate, despite being an evil genius. He is later shown struggling to read a children's book. As with all things on Spliced, it's PlayedForLaughs.
* In an episode of ''TheRaccoons'' Bert befriends a hermit who was about to be thrown out of his swamp home. He reveals to Bert that he cannot read, which is how he didn't know that [[spoiler:the papers left by his father were property deeds, which make him the legal owner of the swamp.]]
* In one episode of ''WesternAnimation/ConanTheAdventurer'', Conan admits that he never learned how to read.
* Played for Laughs in ''SymBionicTitan'' which features a character on a ShowWithinAShow making out with a girl, pausing to tearfully confess that he cannot read, then continue to make out. It implied to be part of a VerySpecialEpisode In-Universe.
* From the ''WesternAnimation/BatmanBeyond'' episode "Joyride":
-->'''Coe''': It ''is'' a U.F.O., isn't it?\\
'''Scab''': Wake up, Coe! All the writing's in ''English''.\\
'''Coe''': You can read?!
* In ''AvatarTheLastAirbender'', Toph, being blind in a world without anything like Braille, cannot read or write. As such, [[DidntThinkThisThrough Sokka's plan to forge a letter from Toph to help her reconcile with Katara falls flat]].
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Real Life]]
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WorldMapLiteracy2011.png This map]] from TheOtherWiki's article on literacy shows the percentages of countries' populations that are functionally literate. Fortunately, the description mentions that some of the countries in the red have improved a bit since the map was made.
* The Mongols and Vikings are well-known for this, largely due to the fact that historians know very little about their ''true'' cultures and values because of their inability to record their own histories. The vast majority of information we have about them was written by Christians and Muslims, both of whom were terrified and disgusted by these barbarian invaders, which makes the actual beliefs and practices of the Mongols and pagan Vikings difficult to understand or even extrapolate on.
* While the trope itself has becoming somewhat cliched, there are obviously people in real life for which this is true. Also worth considering are cases where someone is dyslexic, and thus has a situation where although they are attending school and being taught literacy, it eludes them until the condition is identified.
** That said, a shockingly high percent of people in the US are functionally illiterate. That is, they can read just barely enough to get by but anything more is beyond them.
** Creator/LanceHenriksen is one particularly famous example - he dropped out of school before sixth grade and was illiterate until the age of 30, when he started acting and taught himself to read his scripts.
* UnfortunateImplications aside, there was a widely successful Junior-Major league hockey coach in Quebec who revealed he was illiterate when he retired.
* ''Series/AmericanIdol'' Season 3 winner FantasiaBarrino was functionally illiterate for years into her performing career; she would perform songs from memory and would make excuses such as being [[DeepSouth "Southern"]] when faced with dense materials like contracts.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Goretti Maria Teresa "Mariettina" Goretti]] was said to be illiterate, which wasn't very uncommon in the times and place she lived (rural Italy in the very early nineteenth century). She allegedly still gained the knowledge she needed to get the Holy Communion purely by hearing and memorising what the local Passionist priests taught her.
** It's actually a kind-of common backstory among Christian saints, specially those who come from low-class backgrounds. Again, understandable due to the lack of advance in proper education until few time ago.
* Brazilian eco-martyr Chico Mendes was illiterate until the age of 18, having been deliberately kept so by the owner of the plantation he worked on, in an attempt to prevent him from learning what exploitation meant.
* This trope was the norm for most of the world until the Industrial Revolution. Most people worked in jobs in which literacy wasn't necessary, which took up so much time that they didn't have the leisure time needed to pick up an unnecessary skill. Up until the invention of the printing press, this was compounded by the fact that there simply wasn't much reading material available. The single largest group of people with the time and inclination to learn to read in Medieval and Renaissance times was the clergy. This is why bookkeepers are sometimes known as clerks (A word derived from cleric).
* Adam Carolla was functionally illiterate most of his life. When he started working at KROQ radio when he first got his break into showbiz, he forced himself to learn to read because he couldn't read copy off the cuff and got tired of having to memorize everything for hours ahead of time.
* In AntebellumAmerica, plantation owners generally tried to keep their black slaves illiterate, lest they get their hands on abolitionist publications. Some states even passed laws against teaching slaves to read.
* Illiteracy was widespread in TsaristRussia, as you'd expect of a backwards, feudal society where most people were peasants. At the time of the communist revolution in 1917, only twenty-four percent of Russians could read. In response, the Bolsheviks began the Likbez campaign in 1919. By the 1950s, illiteracy had effectively been eradicated from the Soviet Union.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Stand-Up Comedy]]
* In one of his stand-ups, Creator/ChrisRock talked about how American slaves weren't allowed to learn how to read, which must have lead to some rather awkward scenarios:
-->'''Slave stearing a carriage''': Oh Lord there's a stop sign up ahead, what is I gon' do?! If I don't stop I'll crash, but if I stop they'll know I can read and they'll kill me! What is I gon' do...
--> (keeps going and causes a crash)
-->'''Cop''': Nigga what's wrong with you! Couldn't you see that stop sign?!
-->'''Slave''': Uh...you mean dat octagon thing?
-->(beat)
--> '''Cop''': Who taught you '''OCTAGON''' nigga?!
[[/folder]]
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