In the past, when a person moved to another country, it was common for that person to change their name to one that country would find "normal". While less common today, this was once very much TruthInTelevision. Still common in fiction that takes place in these time periods.

!!Examples:
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[[folder:Comics]]
* ''ComicBook/{{Watchmen}}'''s Sally Jupiter, from the Polish "Juspeczyk".
* The MartianManhunter adapted the very generic John Jones from the Martian J'onn Jonzz.
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[[folder:Film]]
* Slightly related - In the flashback sequences of ''Film/TheGodfather Part II'', Vito Andolini from the town of Corleone is listed as Vito Corleone due to a mixup at a hectic Ellis Island.
* ''Series/AlienNation''. The Newcomers were given Earth names when they arrived. Some of the names were famous humans (Rudyard Kipling) and some were jokes (Sam Francisco).
* In the third ''Film/BackToTheFuture'' movie, it's revealed that Doc Brown's father had their name naturalized from Von Braun because of the world war.
* In ''Film/DrStrangelove'', the titular character is a German immigrant. When someone mentions that the name "Strangelove" doesn't really sound German, another character reveals that it was originally "Merkwürdigliebe" (literally means "strange love"), but he anglicized it after moving to the US.
* ''Film/TheUntouchables'': George Stone's birth name is Giuseppe Petri, almost a direct translation ("Petri" is close to ''pietre'', Italian for "stones", but Giuseppe's English equivalent is traditionally Joseph, not George).
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[[folder:Literature]]
* In ''Literature/DirkGentlysHolisticDetectiveAgency'' by DouglasAdams, Dirk Gently was actually born "''Svlad Cjelli''".
* Creator/ToniMorrison's ''Song of Solomon'' features the "clerical error" variant in the protagonist's family history. The protagonist's grandfather Jake, who was born into slavery, had to register as an American citizen with the Freedmen's Bureau after the end of the Creator/AmericanCivilWar. Because the Freedmen's Bureau clerk was drunk at the time, he asked Jake his birthplace ("Macon, Virginia") and asked him his parents' current residence ("They're dead"), and accidentally wrote his answers down as his given name and surname -- resulting in him being saddled with the UnfortunateName "Macon Dead" for life.
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[[folder:Video Games]]
* VideoGame/{{Bioshock}}'s Andrew Ryan from the Russian "Andrei Rianofski"
** This is a reference to his RealLife inspiration, Creator/AynRand, who was born Alisa Rosenbaum.
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[[folder:WesternAnimation]]
* In ''WesternAnimation/AnAmericanTail'', Fievel and Tanya are renamed Phillie and Tillie. Neither one takes, however.
* Played for laughs in TheSimpsons episode "Bart-Mangled Banner". After relocating to France, the Simpsons become homesick and travel back to America. When Homer states their family name to an official, the man changes it to "Simps". To really drive the point home, they arrived in New York by boat and were dressed in nineteenth century European clothes while "Coming to America" plays in the background.
** Also parodied in "In the Name of the Grandfather", where Americans who are sick of America go to Ireland's "[=MacEllis=] Island" and have their names changed to stereotypical Irish names.
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[[folder:RealLife]]
* When Arnold Schwarzenegger first started in Hollywood, the producers changed his name to Arnold Strong.
* In WorldWarOne the British Royal Family changed its collective surname from [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Saxe-Coburg_and_Gotha Saxe-Coburg Gotha]] to [[TheHouseOfWindsor Windsor]]. When HGWells complained about Britain's "alien and uninspiring court," George V is said to have replied, "[[ITakeOffenseToThatLastOne I may be uninspiring, but I'll be damned if I'm alien]]!"
* Issur Danielovitch Demsky changed his name to Kirk Douglas.
* Creator/IsaacAsimov was born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov. The name change [[SpellMyNameWithAnS didn't help much]].
** Interestingly, when his books were translated into Russian, his name was transliterated from English instead of using his birth name or translating it into the Russian equivalent.
* [[Creator/SamRaimi Sam Raimi's]] family changed their name from the German "Reingewertz".
* There is a story from Alsace-Lorraine which changed hands between Germany and France several times during the 19th and 20th century. Apparently, whenever the Germans took it, they forced everyone to translate their French names, while the French would simply pronounce the German names in the French way. Which allegedly lead to this: one family originally named Lagarde (watch[man]) became "Wache" when the Germans came; then "Vache" (cow) when the French came back; then "Kuh" and finally "Cul" (ass). And if the Germans had returned once more, they'd have become [[FailOSuckyname "Arsch"]].
* HelenMirren was born Helen Lydia Mironoff. Her grandfather was a Russian diplomat who got stranded in the UK during the Russian Revolution. In the [=50s=], her father changed his name from Vasiliy Mironov to Basil Mirren.
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