[[quoteright:350:[[Franchise/StarWars http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/star_wars_species_5.png]]]]
[[caption-width-right:350: [- [[http://kirellbenzi.com/blog/exploring-the-star-wars-expanded-universe/ Image]] courtesy of [[http://kirellbenzi.com/ Kirell Benzi]] -] ]]

->''"That cloud of stars is our galaxy, the Milky Way. Our solar system is on the edge of it. We hurl through an incomprehensible darkness. In cosmic terms, we are subatomic particles in a grain of sand on an infinite beach.\\
... \\
I wonder what's on TV now."''
-->-- '''Calvin''', ''ComicStrip/CalvinAndHobbes''

[[PlausibleDeniability ...at least that we can prove.]] There are no known non-human writers, outside of [[ArtificialIntelligence AI]] and a few non-human primates (authoring ''very'' simple works and probably dictating).

Let's not forget that Most Readers are Human as well, and people prefer characters they can relate to. This is why most fictional characters are ''H. sapiens'' instead of, say, ''[[TyrannosaurusRex T. rex]]'' or ''[[Manga/{{Moyashimon}} A. oryzae]]''. The inherent human quality of [[RuleOfEmpathy relating to those like us and whom we can understand]] is also why ''all'' characters we connect and sympathize with, [[SlidingScaleOfAnthropomorphism human or not]], have at least some human qualities and [[BizarreAlienPsychology psychological characteristics]], or are at least [[CompanionCube perceived by us to have them]] [[note]]In fact human attributes in literature extends far beyond how stories characterize characters. How we describe everything in our world, and by extension fictional worlds, is pervaded by human-relatable concepts and allusions. Literature would read like a bizarre or cold technical paper without this human touch[[/note]].

Besides the large number of stories concerning humans on Earth, this manifests in five major ways:
* For one species on one planet, humanity sure gets around in the fictional multi-[[TheVerse verse]]. Countless SpeculativeFiction settings without Earth include humans, usually [[LikeRealityUnlessNoted just like the ones we're used to]].
* Non-human characters, particularly in a story without humans, tend to act just like humans; while [[SlidingScaleOfAnthropomorphism degrees of anthropomorphism vary]], human-like intelligence, behavior, and psychological quirks and a fully developed verbal language are almost guaranteed.
* When [[HumansAreAverage compared to non-human characters]], humans are almost always the JackOfAllStats (unless [[AuthorTract someone]] is [[HumansAreBastards trying]] to [[HumansAreDiplomats make]] a [[HumansAreWarriors point]]). The FiveRaces or sapient aliens, taken as a whole, will be different from humans in ways that balance each other out. This is odd, since it would be more likely that humans deviate from the average in some way or another.
* When animals, monsters, aliens, or any other form of nonhumans creates a society, they will be [[FantasyCounterpartCulture exactly the same as a human society]]; more specifically, they will be [[LawOfConservationOfNormality the same as wherever the author comes from]]. Exceptions ''might'' be made for cases where such a thing is blatantly impossible, for instance, an underwater society not having controlled fire even if it is otherwise 20th-century advancement.
* Where the story falls along the SlidingScaleOfIdealismVersusCynicism depends on how good, valuable, or justified the human condition is evaluated to be. In idealistic stories, a {{Transhuman}}, {{Cyborg}}, DeityOfHumanOrigin, GodInHumanForm, {{Human Alien|s}} or {{Ridiculously Human Robot|s}} will invariably PickYourHumanHalf, while ScaryDogmaticAliens and [[EldritchAbomination Eldritch Abominations]] who aren't beaten back or destroyed entirely will find ''something'' admirable or lovable about the old [[CallAHumanAMeatbag organ-sacks]]. They will find that having human emotions is good and human systems of morality work equally well or better than their own. Some of them may even [[HumanityIsInfectious yield to basic human drives/instincts]], such as [[BoldlyComing sexual]] [[RoboSexual relations]] [[DivineDate with]] [[DidYouJustRomanceCthulhu humans]].

The inevitability of this varies by [[{{Media}} medium]]; after all, most actors are human, too. There are, however, more non-human actors than non-human writers, at least [[EarthIsTheCenterOfTheUniverse by common knowledge]]. For much more on the subject, see [[http://limyaael.livejournal.com/tag/rants%20on%20nonhumans this series]] of ''Blog/LimyaaelsFantasyRants''.

Compare AnthropomorphicShift, where an entirely non-human cast ''gradually'' slips into this trap. As such, this is one of the major sources of FurryConfusion. Sometimes characters are clearly not human but use phrases like "[[FurryDenial I'm only human]]" anyway. It can be a direct cause of a HumanFocusedAdaptation.

Contrast {{Xenofiction}}, an attempt to avert this by taking the viewpoint of distinctly non-human characters, despite coming from human authors ([[{{Masquerade}} as far as we know]]). No known ArtificialIntelligence writing program is self-aware enough to write its own Xenofiction.

See also AliensSpeakingEnglish, BishonenLine, CreatorProvincialism, EarthIsTheCenterOfTheUniverse, HumanAliens, HumanoidAbomination, HumanoidAnimals, MonstrousHumanoid, and WhatMeasureIsANonHuman. See also HumansAreWhite, when the majority of important human characters in the setting appear to be Caucasian.



[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* Even though ''Anime/SpaceDandy'' takes place in a universe where countless aliens live with other aliens, somehow a large chunk of the shows prominent characters end up being humans, or look just like humans anyway.
* The characters in ''Manga/WolfsRain'' are wolves who [[OurWerewolvesAreDifferent can make themselves look human]]. They appear human when around humans but otherwise look like wolves... In theory at least. There are a lot of scenes where there are ''no humans'' in sight, except for their ArtificialHuman friend, but they still appear as humans. Part of this can be fanservice, or [[FurriesAreEasierToDraw that humans are easier for the artists to draw]], but a large part probably comes from humans being more able to relate to humans than animals.
* In one of the first few episodes of the ''Anime/{{Pokemon}} Sun and Moon anime,'' Meowth has a near-death experience in which he is lured by three Pokemon he immediately becomes infatuated with. Instead of using cat Pokemon you would reasonably expect a fellow cat Pokemon to be attracted to, the writers clearly chose the Pokemon based on whether the human fandom finds them attractive. This is odd, as when Meowth is required to show interest in another Pokemon, they usually do choose another feline Pokemon.
** Except for Glaceon, Which is a bit like a cat.
** Also there's a high tendency for Ash's more powerful Pokemon to be bipedal and thus more human like. While he does have other monsters who have decent levels of competency, none have ever been his regional ace. Just compare Torterra and Infernape's battling records.

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* There is an entire sub-culture of this trope in ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic''. It's called [=HiE=], or "Human in Equestria". Even though ''FIM'' takes place in a vehemently human-less setting ([[RetCon not counting]] the traditionally human characters of [[Franchise/MyLittlePony past]] or [[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyEquestriaGirls later]] generations), it usually features humans as protagonists, or at least as deuteragonists, as they get confronted with the MLP-verse. Interestingly, this plot structure is much more commonly used than the other way around, proving that this trope is in full effect, with authors bringing their own experiences in direct comparison with the show's continuity.
* {{Deconstructed}} in ''Fanfic/TheWarOfTheMasters''. The overabundance of humans from Earth in canon Starfleet is attributed to a ''cultural'' dominance of Earthlings in the Federation writ large. This leads to resentment towards Earthlings by many groups in the Federation that rears its head during the Federation-Klingon War in the 2400s. It also leads to such things as Sandra Pickens, a colonial-born Starfleet captain with a ''very'' thick ([[UsefulNotes/AmericanAccents Appalachian-based]]) accent, being repeatedly [[PassedOverPromotion passed over for promotion]] when her very real skills as a starship commander would normally warrant it.
* Rather pointedly {{averted}} in ''Fanfic/BaitAndSwitchSTO'', whose author has argued on the ''VideoGame/StarTrekOnline'' forums that even though out-of-universe ''Franchise/StarTrek'' often allegorizes aspects of human culture and history, InUniverse the Federation is supposed to be more than just humans and therefore major nonhuman characters should be more common. The primary viewpoint character of TheVerse, Kanril Eleya, is a Bajoran who only has one human on her CommandRoster (the chief medical officer, who rarely has a speaking role due to being down in sickbay most of the time).

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* In all the preview ads for ''WesternAnimation/MonstersVsAliens'', the focus was on the monstrous-type monsters. Then the movie itself came out... and our viewpoint character is a normal human woman who was turned [[AttackOfThe50FootWhatever 49-feet 11-inches tall]] by a meteorite. Apparently they didn't think we could focus on a really ''monstrous'' monster, so they gave us a dressed-up human.
* Creator/{{Pixar}} is praised for humanizing things that are not human. So far, they have only had a few movies where humans were the main characters (''WesternAnimation/TheIncredibles'', ''WesternAnimation/{{Up}}'', and ''WesternAnimation/{{Brave}}''). In the commentary for ''WesternAnimation/ToyStory3'', the directors noted that they deliberately averted this trope, stating that they wanted the toys to deal with "toy problems, not people problems".
* This trope was most likely the reason why Ralph from ''Disney/WreckItRalph'' was made a human for his final design. Before this, he went through dozens of designs, from anthropomorphic animals, monstrous beast-men to even a steamroller. The artists then chose the one animal that's the most sympathetic for his situation (going through a mid-life crisis): A Human.
* Probably the strangest example: Why are there [[MisplacedWildlife lemurs]] in Disney's ''Disney/{{Dinosaur}}''? Seems the writers thought us selfish primates wouldn't like the movie unless there was something cute and furry to relate to. Actually, there were lemur-like creatures living during the time of the dinosaurs, however they would have looked more like shrews or rats than what we would recognize as lemurs and evolutionary-wise more closely related to modern marsupials and monotremes.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* This trope was actually a fairly major factor in the writing of ''Film/{{Transformers}}'', with the human characters taking a somewhat larger role than is traditional for the franchise. (This was also for [[PragmaticAdaptation pragmatic]] reasons; ''every single frame'' of one Transformer or more that appears on screen took ''twenty-four hours'' to render.) According to the PowersThatBe, the main reason was [[CoconutSuperpowers the expense of the detailed robots]]. In [[Film/TransformersRevengeOfTheFallen the second film]], however, there are many more non-humanoid Transformers, of all shapes and sizes, from insects to tiny spheres that roll through small spaces and assemble into one robot when it's gotten where it's going. One character is even [[spoiler:a trio of motorcycles, whose robot forms are all oddly-shaped beings who have one wheel instead of legs. These three bikes together make the new Arcee. They can combine into one in the comics, but they don't in the movie proper]]. There's also more robot screentime than in the previous film. The entire Franchise/{{Transformers}} franchise is prone to this trope. For a race of inorganic mechanical lifeforms with lifespans hundreds if not thousands of years old, more often than not they'll behave no differently than humans do.
* ''Film/TheDarkCrystal'' is set on an alien world with several different sentient species. Some are humanoid, if [[HumanoidAnimals odd-looking]] (they're like elves or dwarves and some have wings), others are much less so. Guess which ones are the heroes?
* In ''Film/{{Labyrinth}}'', the two central roles of Sarah and Jareth are occupied by humans, while muppets are relegated to supporting roles. This was done deliberately to make the roles more relatable, due to the poor commercial reception of ''The Dark Crystal''.
* Lampshaded in ''Martian Child'', which is about a sci-fi writer who becomes an adoptive father. When talking about a book of his he talks about how humans are always present in a sci-fi story so that they serve as a stand-in for the reader and allow the reader to identify with the major characters. He goes on to note that he doesn't actually identify most with the human characters himself, but rather with an alien.
* ''Film/{{Tron}}'', where ''computer programs'' are shown looking like humans. Their appearances are even modeled after their programmers. This is true to the point that everyone thinks Flynn (the human transported into the computer) is a program whose ''User'' is Flynn.
* All the major protagonists in ''Franchise/StarWars'' are human. The only alien who plays a major role is Yoda, and he is treated just like a very short, elderly human. R2-D2 is less humanlike, but he's more of a functional TeamPet than a character. Chewbacca is a main character, but had essentially zero personal effect on the plot.
* Creator/JamesCameron invoked this trope in his WordOfGod interview to explain why the Na'vi of ''Film/{{Avatar}}'' look so human, published in the [[http://discovermagazine.com/2010/dec/29-hot-science-geek-look-back-at-2010 December 2010]] issue of ''Discover'' magazine. Word-for-word, he says "...science fiction is not made for a galactic audience. Its made by human beings for human beings." Which, [[HumansAreBastards considering who the bad guys]] are in the film, raises a few interesting points.
* In ''Film/BillAndTedsBogusJourney'', Death rolls his eyes when Bill & Ted assume that the greatest scientist in the universe must be human. However it wasn't such a bad assumption when it turns out that Station is the only (two) non human in Heaven!


* Parodied to hell and back in a scene in ''Literature/MostlyHarmless'' where Arthur is looking for a planet of humanoids and must seek advice from a '''very''' [[StarfishAliens alien Alien]]. And then further, when the planet it recommends has a population that might [[HumanAliens look human]], but are psychologically less human than any alien he's met thus far. The book's title itself derives from an earlier joke where Ford Prefect named himself after [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Prefect the car]] under the mistaken assumption that cars and not humans were the dominant life-form on Earth (subsequently describing Earth in the Guide as "mostly harmless" after nearly being run over while trying to introduce himself).
* Creator/PiersAnthony:
** His ''Literature/{{Cluster}}'' series is a complete aversion. Anthony takes great delight in describing some StarfishAliens, including a species that rolls around on giant ball-bearings (which also play a part in their reproductive cycle), one that rides on magnetic force lines and communicates using biologically-generated laser beams, and one that eats gasses and gets around by jet propulsion.
** His ''Virtual Mode'' series introduced a creature from a reality based on the Burgess Shale.
* David Brin's ''Literature/{{Uplift}}'' series delights in mixing the viewpoint characters between humans, Uplifted Earth animals, and aliens ranging from humanoid-but-doesn't-think-like-humans to StarfishAliens.
* The often-reprinted short story "The Dance of the Changer and the Three" by author Terry Carr (''not'' Terri Garr) both applies and subverts this trope. It is narrated by a human but concerns a race of pure-energy beings whose very motives are unclear even to the narrator as well as the reader.
* Weirdly applied in ''Literature/{{Dinotopia}}''. We're assured that only about ten percent of the population is human; everyone else is an IntellectualAnimal. Funny, the illustrations suggest otherwise...
* ''Literature/{{Bolo}}'' novels are often done from the point of view of the large sentient battle fortresses. The biggest trouble is making it relate to an AI that is usually identified as 'smarter' than human. So many plot devices to either limit their out of combat AI or to have them damaged is the norm, with full Battle Reflex Mode having them figure out how to kill the enemy in .02 seconds and spend the rest of time in Battle Reflex Mode analyzing Music while carrying out the plans. It's also presented that it's a good thing that they are hard wired to be Knights in Shining Armour, because humans are often the villains of the piece as well as the Bolo-aligned protagonists.
* The {{Xenofiction}} novel ''Literature/RaptorRed'' has a weird variant on this; most of the story is about a female Utahraptor's adventures, but for two chapters in the middle of the novel the story swerves into a random subplot about an insectivorous little mammal, mainly because he's one of humanity's ancestors. It isn't a ''bad'' subplot, just out of left field.
* Literally averted (sort of) in a segment of ''Literature/GodelEscherBachAnEternalGoldenBraid''; a student of the author once designed a computer program to produce artificial Zen koans, and one early result is part of the book. Amusing, as a programming error caused the computer to print out a bit of code instead of an English word in one place.
* Also literally averted by ''Literature/AtlantaNights'', where chapter 34 was produced by the [[http://www.critters.org/bonsai/ Bonsai Story Generator]]. It fits as well in the story as any other 2 chapters not named 4 and 17 (which are exactly the same).
* In ''Literature/WarriorCats'' the cat have such human-like qualities and intelligence that they can do dexterous actions like splinting a broken leg. The cats also live in Clans (unlike real cats) and the bad guys are racist. The author even says she doesn't think about cats when coming up with ideas, giving them more humanity-based themes.
** Poppy seeds are used in the series as a sedative/painkiller. While poppy is sometimes used in painkillers for humans, it's actually poisonous to cats.
** A more obvious example: Firestar's most distinguishing feature is his red pelt and an entire prophecy revolves around it. In RealLife, cats can't see red.
* Nearly every novel in the ''Literature/StarWarsExpandedUniverse'' puts humans - and humans from the movies, at that - in all of the important positions. The same two human women (Leia Organa Solo and Mon Mothma) switch back and forth as President of the New Republic. Humans are the important Jedi, the major heroes, the minor characters, and quite often the major villains. Nonhumans are relatively rarely in prominent positive roles; they're typically the minor villains, the {{Non Human Sidekick}}s, in supporting roles at best, though sometimes they do manage to be ScaryDogmaticAliens. Some books try to justify this by saying that when the New Republic was the Rebel Alliance it was humans who founded it and those who survived stayed in power, and that humans are probably the most populous species out there.
** The major exception is Creator/TimothyZahn's books. Nonhumans are in a great many of the human roles, and it's not really remarked on. In the ''Literature/HandOfThrawn'' duology, the President of the New Republic is a male Calibop, for example. Minor villains tend to be humans and aliens both. Aliens in prominent roles often do explicitly think differently than humans do, and design different settings. When any specific group is homogeneous or nearly so, Zahn gives a ''reason''. Imperial doctrine favors humans. Chiss are isolationist. So on.
** Exceptions like Admiral Ackbar and Borsk Fey'lya tend to be either from the movies or made by Zahn. Zahn actually gave a sort of vague nod to this trope by making an Imperial human head out away from Imperial Center, and think in disgust about how other humans are so few outside of, well, human-controlled territory.
** Also lampshaded in the Coruscant Nights series, where a particular alien characters spends a while musing over how humans are so ridiculously common in the galaxy, and how because of this, everything is built or designed to their standards. That series had a few more alien leads then usual, but the humans were still much more common.
* Not to mention the underrated ''Literature/AlienChronicles'' series, written by Deborah Chester and commissioned by [[Creator/GeorgeLucas LucasFilm]], which thoroughly subvert this trope by taking place in a universe populated exclusively by various [[CatGirl alien]] [[WolfMan species]] (left over from the ''Franchise/StarWars'' character design bins, as a matter of fact).
* Creator/JRRTolkien invoked this in one of his letters regarding Middle-Earth. The gist was that such fantastic stories should be centred on humans, since when you get down to it, a ''human'' writer won't be able to portray an elf as anything but a man in a funny suit. And yet, ''Literature/TheHobbit'' has no human main characters (unless you count the hobbit himself[[note]]Hobbits are really only a midget sub-species of humans that evolved a culture of their own -- from the Elves' point of view, they're no different from the other Mortals[[/note]] -- Gandalf isn't a human at all), instead featuring dwarves; and ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings'' only has two major human characters out of nine, one of which dies (again, unless you count hobbits). Though Aragorn plays some important roles early on, and Boromir has the memorable death scene in book two, the first large-scale plot involving regular humans is Rohan. In Book Three.\\\
The hobbits definitely count. They're basically small humans, psychologically as well as biologically. Elves, dwarves, ents, orcs, and so on are almost never focus characters in either ''Literature/TheHobbit'' or ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings''. The elves do get quite a run in ''Literature/TheSilmarillion'', which is much more mythic and less familiar and homey; their relatability is probably highest when they're dealing with adversity ([[WriteWhatYouKnow war]], [[YouCantGoHomeAgain exile]], [[RememberTheAlamo futile attempts at revenge]], and so on)...
* Subverted and played straight in the Creator/VernorVinge novel, ''Literature/AFireUponTheDeep.'' Humans are only one of a vast multitude of advanced aliens in the galaxy, and the main cast of characters includes aliens that are essentially mini- {{Hive Mind}}s ''or sentient plants.'' Several times we see messages sent by aliens that are so inhuman that even the Super Advanced Translation Technology this universe contains can't keep up. However, the book ''is'' still mostly about humans; humans play the deciding role in whether or not the galaxy will get eaten by the Blight; and most of what we see of the interstellar internet is a posting group called "Homo Sapiens Interest Group." Which contains all humans as well as a number of alien races that just think humans are cool. Lampshaded in prequel, ''Literature/ADeepnessInTheSky''.
* Averted in ''Literature/BlackBeauty'', which is written from the first horse -- not first person -- perspective.
* Purposely invoked in the Creator/IsaacAsimov short story (and later novel) "Nightfall"; the aliens are made as human as possible so that their plight resonates with the reader.
** Asimov purposefully avoided aliens in most of his books, precisely because he was frustrated with this trope. "Aliens" created by other authors never felt realistically alien to him, and his own efforts impressed him no better. As a result, most of his aliens are unabashedly humans-from-other-planets, caused by the plot requiring a species from another planet to work ("Nightfall" can't take place on Earth, or really involve someone with knowledge of the larger universe, for example). His most notable effort at creating truly alien aliens would be for ''Literature/TheGodsThemselves'', but while they are quite alien biologically, they still sound a lot like humans in character.
** Asimov himself was very aware he wasn't particularly good at writing aliens "thinking ''as well as'' a man, but not ''like'' a man", and as a result his ''magnum opus'' ... the ''Literature/{{Foundation}}'' series ... features a humans-only galactic empire mainly so he didn't have to have any aliens.
* Averted by Peter Watts in his uber-hard novel ''Literature/{{Blindsight}}'' where the alien is truly alien and even the human characters are alien.
* Creator/ArthurCClarke nicely averts this trope in his [[Literature/RendezvousWithRama Rama]] series. The few times any aliens interact with humans, great lengths must be gone to for an exchange of ideas to even become possible.
* ''Literature/{{Embassytown}}'' somewhat averts this trope, as well as justifying it: the Hosts are very much not human, but become more human in their thinking (although still remaining StarfishAliens) by the end of the book because of the actions of their human neighbors--and even then they are markedly different from the human characters. Humans make up the entirety of the main cast however, and it takes a long time for important Host characters to show up, of which there really are only three in the whole book.
* From the title of ''Literature/TheHorseAndHisBoy,'' you might expect that Bree, the TalkingAnimal, was the protagonist. Nope--it's the boy, Shasta, and arguably the deuteragonist is Aravis, a human girl. Arguably, all the ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'' are examples of this trope, as Narnia can only have a human as a King, and the humans always show up to save the day.
* Somewhat averted in ''Literature/TheIronTeeth'' web serial as the protagonist is a goblin, who doesn't act and think quite human. Most characters are human though.
* {{Lampshade|Hanging}}d in the ''Literature/StarTrekTitan'' novels, in which a nonhumanoid crew member takes bets on whether the ship's motto will be a human proverb despite the extreme diversity of the ship's crew, and loses when the Vulcan saying "Infinite diversity in infinite combinations" is chosen. He asks whether Vulcans count as human, as they're far more humanlike than a cybernetically-enhanced featherless ostrich with a prehensile tail..

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* The various ''Franchise/StarTrek'' series:
** For all the non-human races around, the captain of each ship is always human and the crew is always ''primarily'' human. Getting more multicultural, but almost all ''human'' cultures. There have been a good number of on-screen portrayals of Vulcan Starfleet captains, but Vulcans are so ''hugely'' humanoid that may or may not count. Economical effects are a fairly recent thing, so you will only see very alien non-humanoid races in the films, comic books, and more recent series. (Which sets up one heck of a ContinuitySnarl in ''Series/StarTrekEnterprise''.) Indeed, even the aliens use the word "humanoid".
** Unintentional lampshading in the {{Pilot}} of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'', when Deanna explains "I'm only [[HalfHumanHybrid half-Betazoid]], my father was a Starfleet officer." Yep, "Starfleet officer" = "human" according to ''a half-Betazoid Starfleet officer''.
** ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' came closest to averting this. Less than half of the main characters are human, and the supporting/recurring cast is overwhelmingly alien. It's implied that, despite the Federation being one body, Federation ships tend to be made up of primarily one race. There are a couple instances where we meet all-Vulcan Federation ships, or of new crew members coming aboard who are only used to dealing with their own race. Creator/RonMoore, who contributed heavily to ''[=DS9=]'', [[WordOfGod remarked that]] the overabundance of humans [[RealLifeWritesThePlot was primarily budget-related]], though this doesn't explain how the series managed to put {{Rubber Forehead|Alien}}s on easily half the civilian extras in any given episode but only rarely on extras in Starfleet uniform.
* Despite the fact that the show stars a {{Human Alien|s}} called the Doctor, ''Series/DoctorWho'' usually tends to take place on Earth or on Earth colonies or generally to involve humans in some way. The Doctor has almost always had human companions.
* Creator/RussellTDavies is a well-known practitioner of this trope in his ''Series/DoctorWho'' work. He has opined more than once that people don't want to see "Zog Monsters" on the "planet Zog" and only gradually introduced alien planets into the series. In the first three whole seasons of his ''Doctor Who'', more than half of the episodes happened on Earth. The others visited human-made satellites, other human-settled worlds, and even human colonies in deep space... but only one locations visited in those 41 episodes was not dominated by humans (and even then, the most important guest star was, wait for it, a human - although barely recognizable as such)
** The ''entire'' first season never left Earth (or a satellite around it) until early in season two, Rose said "you promised me a planet, remember?" So we go to... "New New York" on New Earth, and from then on, Earth colonies on non-Earth planets were fair game. ''Utopia,'' part one of the three-part season three finale, was the first time they went to another planet that wasn't an Earth colony. The new series has generally focused on time travel over space travel in general, even in non-Davies stories -- and even after Davies left.
** The bit people tend to overlook is that the ''old'' show took the same attitude -- for most of its run, 90% or more of its stories feature Earth, Earth colonies, Earth astronauts in space, et cetera et cetera. The only exception? The late seventies and early eighties -- right after this little thing called "Star Wars" happens...
*** It was more justified due to the smaller budget. In a case of RealLifeWritesThePlot for most of the Third Doctor's era he was trapped on Earth.
** One ''Doctor Who'' story that averts this is Season 2's "The Web Planet," where every character, aside from the regulars, is either an alien insect, or the evil force (the Animus) that controls some of them.
*** Quite a few of the oldest stories have no humans save the main cast, the second story "The Daleks", "The Space Museum", "The Dominators"... Though the characters still mostly look human.
* The speculative documentary series ''Series/LifeAfterPeople'' suffers a mild version of this in that, despite the title, more emphasis is given to the nonliving artifacts of human civilization than what happens to actual living animals. However, the show still covers possible evolutionary paths for the animals that we've domesticated or kept in zoos.
* Despite {{Muppet}}s being the stars of the show, ''Series/SesameStreet'' commonly leaves it up to the humans to give advice and guidance to Big Bird or Elmo. Probably justified, as a child audience is more likely to recognize that adult humans are ''adults'', and therefore authority figures, than puppets.
** It isn't helped that the main Muppet cast, including Big Bird, Elmo, Grover, Prairie Dawn, Abby, and Cookie Monster are explicitly children. To compare, the adult Muppets: Oscar, Bert, Ernie, and the host of minor Muppets over the years, tend to be the ones giving advice instead of taking it.
*** Ernie and Bert are clearly intended to be preteen boys. They're frequently shown playing with child-appropriate toys. One episode even focuses on Bert's attempt to learn to ride his bike without training wheels. The fact that they don't live with adults doesn't disprove this position. Neither does Big Bird, who is perpetually six years old.
** Subverted on ''Series/TheMuppetShow'', in which the only humans are guest stars who take their cues from Kermit and the gang.
*** Less subverted in that some of the muppets are clearly ''supposed'' to be human. Examples are Statler, Waldorf, and the Swedish Chef. There are also some who are less obviously human in appearance (having unusual coloration, for instance) but aren't recognizably anything else either and are ''probably'' supposed to be human, like most of the Electric Mayhem: Dr. Teeth, Floyd, Janice and Zoot.
* ''Series/{{Farscape}}'' somewhat averts this and somewhat doesn't--technically there is only one human character in the entire show (if you exclude Jack, who is usually either a memory of John's or an insectoid {{Starfish Alien|s}} in AFormYouAreComfortableWith), many of the aliens who are encountered are HumanAliens (especially Sebaceans, who basically ARE humans), and most other aliens are HumanoidAliens who behave like humans for instance Delvians(despite being PlantAliens), and Luxans. There are a few aliens who either look (Hynerians, Pilots, Scarrans) and/or behave (Leviathans, Ancients, Drak) quite different from humans, however.
** Nebari are an interesting example: they're HumanoidAliens but their mindset is markedly different from humanity's. Of course, Chiana, the Nebari we see the most of, is a nonconformist rebel who actively rejects her species' values.
* ''Franchise/PowerRangers'' has this problem often. Despite the general premise of a group of humans saving Earth from alien invaders, they're always very humanoid alien invaders. There's also a recurring problem of the dialogue of the MonsterOfTheWeek. Most often, the aliens invaders spend little to no time on Earth, and the monsters are often created during the episode. Despite being only minutes or hours old, they still have enough of a grasp of Earth culture to snark to the Rangers (such as one monster calling the morphed rangers "The Jellybean Patrol.")

[[folder:Mythology & Religion]]
* Zigzagged by many religions which claim certain holy books are dictated by [[OurGodsAreDifferent deities]], spirits, etc., but attribute human traits like jealousy and wrath to these spirits and portray them in anthropomorphic forms. Averted in pantheism and the Hindu elephant god Ganesha.
* [[OurGeniesAreDifferent Djinn]] authors may be an aversion, as the ''Literature/TheQuran'' says they have free will like humans. However what books, if any, are written by them is not common knowledge.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* ''TabletopGame/Warhammer40000'' has this happening a lot. Humans are the main focus in most of the stories. In fact there has only been one series focusing on the Eldar and two books and a video game (''Literature/{{Shadowsun}}'' and the FPS ''VideoGame/FireWarrior'' and its {{novelization}}) for the Tau. Even the novel ''Fire Caste'' isn't actually about the Tau Fire Caste, but rather more Imperial Guard characters (although this turns out to be a plot point).
** Somewhat justified though, as an Ork book would probably at best be a comedy with a simple plot, a Necron story would probably be mostly about sleeping (unless it is set during the creation of the Necrons, which would be interesting), and a Tyranid book would be all about how hungry the hive mind is, though it could be used in an interesting {{Xenofiction}} way.
** Although sometimes, this is averted. The alien Tau get quite a bit of representation in stories, mostly because they're the most human-like of all of them. There's also, as mentioned previously, a book series dedicated to the Craftworld Eldar. Perhaps most interestingly, though, is another book series currently which focuses on the Dark Eldar as {{Villain Protagonist}}s. One book also took the standpoint from an Ork Warboss and an Eldar Harlequin. Also, the alien races are [[EnsembleDarkhorse generally viewed as more interesting]] by the game's large and very vocal fandom.
* Averted in the Lorwyn/Shadowmoor setting in ''TabletopGame/MagicTheGathering''. You've got elves, halflings, merfolk, giants, trolls, duergars, hags, and angry donkey-men (noggles), but no humans. The development team deliberately went out of their way to create a setting where none of the characters or races could be played by a human in makeup or a suit. But seen in a rather straightforward fashion before, when there were no new merfolk for years apparently simply because 'they wouldn't be any good fighting on dry land'. (It could also be argued that the trope does shine through in the Lorwyn/Shadowmoor blocks by virtue of ''omission'' -- after all, why should a setting without humans be any more 'special' than one without dwarves or rat-people otherwise?) Comments from the Magic Creative team have suggested that the presence of humans is more {{enforced|Trope}} than anything else.
-->'''Doug Beyer:''' ...our surveys show that [[CaptainObvious we have a lot of human beings among our consumers]]...
* In the great majority of fantasy settings (and science fiction too, for that matter), humans are ''always'' the dominant and major race.
* TabletopGame/{{GURPS}} invokes this trope and all but refers to it by name. All customization is done by adding or subtracting features from a human template. The GURPS-based ''TabletopGame/DiscworldRoleplayingGame'' briefly invokes HumansAreSpecial to explain why humanity dominates the Disc instead of trolls, dwarfs or banshees, before acknowledging the ''real'' reason...
-->''At this point, it's traditional to explain at length how, despite the fact that humans are smaller, squidgier, less magical, or poorer at mining than other races, we have some kind of crucial edge perhaps a willingness to kill, or willpower, or the ability to cooperate, or the favour of the gods, or just the capacity to out-breed everyone else. But the important point is that these stories and games are created by and for human beings.''
* The rulebook of ''TabletopGame/{{Nobilis}}'' specifies that Nobles (usually) start off as humans, in order to ground its rather strange and abstract concept into something approaching the human experience. Therefore [[PlayerCharacter players]] generally portray ''former'' humans (versus former something elses).
* Averted and played straight in ''TabletopGame/{{Rifts}}''. While the vast majority of D-Bees in the game are humanoid, there are quite a few playable races that qualify as StarfishAliens. Also, though a large percentage of the settings in the game are ruled by/predominantly human (it is [[CrapsackWorld Earth]], after all), there are several locations where humans coexist with aliens, are enslaved/dominated by aliens, or humans aren't found in large (or any) numbers.
* In ''TabletopGame/{{Shadowrun}}'', the metafiction and novels are overwhelmingly human-focused. It is stated multiple times in setting census data that humans are the most common race, despite Orks both maturing early and [[MassiveNumberedSiblings tending to have many children for cultural reasons]]. Taken to extremes with sourcebook art, where humans are nearly always featured, elves are a close second, trolls are very rarely seen, and orks even less so. Dwarves get it particularly bad, with almost no dwarf art existing ''anywhere'' outside of rulebooks with sections pertaining to dwarves. Mildly subverted during the 2nd edition run where the overarching plot had an incredible case of OurElvesAreBetter and nearly always pertained in some regard to immortal elves.
* Most game systems will reflexively assume that the default player character is human (or at best very nearly so) and allow this assumption to creep into their rules, setting, and suggested campaign styles. For example, nearly any combat system that goes into significant detail will be primarily written for roughly human-''sized'' combatants with two arms, two legs, and one head on top of the body. Descriptions will almost unfailingly assume human-level perceptions with any "super-senses" that player characters might technically also have usually being given short shrift. And so on. At the extreme end, players may only ever be ''allowed'' to play humans and very-near-humans even in a setting where dozens or hundreds of other reasonably intelligent species also exist (such as many D&D campaigns).
* Later editions of the ''TabletopGame/{{Talislanta}}'' game have LoadsAndLoadsOfRaces, but none that are explicitly called "human". The closest approximation to "human" is the designation of several humanoid types as "men", but even the races of "men" include people with weirdly-shaped facial features or skin colors unknown in RealLife.

* Parodied in the 20th First Annual Theatre/IgNobelPrizeCeremony, with a speech by Creator/NeilGaiman which "proved" that virtually all books are written by ''bacteria''. But most of them are still about humans, for some reason.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''Franchise/MassEffect'':
** Many fans of ''VideoGame/MassEffect1'' believe this is the reason why Shepard could engage in a sexual relationship with Liara (an asari, the most human-like alien in the game's universe), but not with Tali, Garrus, or Wrex, all of which are very inhuman physically (especially Wrex!). This is totally averted in ''VideoGame/MassEffect2''. Not only does the game allow you to have sex with the quarian, turian, drell or asari members of your crew, but the ship physician will send you notes on the relevant precautions. For example, he prescribes antibiotics to the quarian (to lessen- not eliminate- the aftereffects that out-of-suit exposure will have on her) and warns against "consuming turian tissue" (as it may cause an allergic reaction).
** Also fits in the game's usage of humans as the JackOfAllStats, to an extent. Of the council races, salarians are known for being extremely intelligent, asari are known for their diplomatic talents, and turians are known for their military. The game lampshades this to an extent, by pointing out the talent diversity of humans. In the second game, Mordin even mentions that they have more genetic diversity than any other species, which is presumed to be the reason the collectors chose to target them over other species for [[spoiler: the construction of a reaper]] (though no explanation is given for why humans might have more genetic variance, particularly given that we have an abnormal ''lack'' of variance by Earth standards).
* In ''Franchise/DragonAge'', this is the reason that humans are the dominant culture in Thedas (or at least in the regions the games let you explore), and why the glimpses into the elf, dwarven, and Qunari cultures are less prevalent. For instance, it's worth noting that [[VideoGame/DragonAgeOrigins the Blight]] is really only an immediate problem for the people living on the surface, but the dwarves get roped into helping to deal with it, anyway.
* ''VideoGame/WorldOfWarcraft'' has been heading in this direction since Cataclysm. The major players of the Alliance are nearly all human in those two expansions, with the exception of a few Night Elves and Dwarves. In Mists, Varian is declared High King of the Alliance (a military rank), despite the Alliance containing individuals with much more experience such as Muradin and Tyrande (in fact, the scenario 'A Little Patience' was written to [[CreatorBacklash discredit the idea of Tyrande leading the Alliance's armies]] and [[CharacterShilling promote Varian]]. ) while the non-human faction leaders are kept in the background. Warlords of Draenor also seems to be a return to Warcraft 2's of humans vs orcs, though the Draenei have a major role and most of the non-human Alliance characters are Night Elves.
* While the main characters of ''Franchise/SuperMarioBros'' are human (or [[AmbiguouslyHuman at least very human-like]]), they're often greatly outnumbered by the number of non-human characters, such as Bowser, Yoshi, Donkey Kong, various {{Mooks}}, and other characters both friendly and non-friendly, animal-like to having human-level intelligence. In spin-off titles, especially in the sports titles, greater emphasis is placed on the 7 most human-like characters (Mario, Luigi, Peach, Daisy, Wario, Waluigi and Rosalina).

[[folder:Visual Novels]]
* ''VisualNovel/HatofulBoyfriend'' takes place in a future where birds have become [[UpliftedAnimal uplifted]] and taken over society, and humanity has declined. In the backstory we see that this decline was catastrophic and this was a hostile takeover, but bird society is almost identical to the human version, down to traffic laws, human-style chairs in classrooms, and Prime Ministers. Five years after the uplift virus started to spread birds ''wrote a declaration of independence'', an act which is clearly based on human culture. Maybe birdkind was helped and taught by a few humans early on.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* In ''Webcomic/{{SERGOM}}'' it is shown that while not one of the cast are human, they all act and go through their lives in a completely human manner. In fact, without the glaring visual representation that the crew aren't human, they can be mostly considered to act like humans.
* The aliens in ''Webcomic/SchlockMercenary'' are pretty varied physiologically (a being with two separate radio-linked bodies, a flightless avian with a prehensile tongue, a round...thing with four limbs evenly distributed on it's body, various genetically engineered terran animals, various [=AIs=] etc.), but most of them act human to a large degree, generally in the [[RuleOfFunny interest of humor]].
* In ''Webcomic/{{Harkovast}}'' there are no humans, but all of the races are very human in their behaviours.
* In [[http://www.drunkduck.com/Dragon_City Dragon City]], the comic is about a race of dragons that live underground unbeknownst to the humans, but due to human culture saturation, the dragons essentially act human.
* The Ambis in ''Webcomic/{{Jix}}'' are an alien race who act like Ancient Romans in that they move from planet to planet conquering them to build up their Empire. The main character, Jix suffers from the human mental ailment of split-personality, though being an intelligent race, it's possible that this might crop up in other intelligent races.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* Wait, shows with ''E. coli'' as the main characters? There's always ''Film/OsmosisJones'', where the cast is made up of red blood cells and fat cells and cold medicine and viruses and.... oh, no, wait, they turned all of the characters into humanoids. Of course, since the show is a FantasticVoyagePlot, most of the characters aren't just human, they're A human. When a dog cell get into Hector's body, it has a canine form and habits. Presumably if Ozzy and Drix had visited the dog's body, it would've been set up like a gargantuan kennel.
* Can result in heaps and heaps of FurryConfusion. Consider the case of the Tibble Twins in ''WesternAnimation/{{Arthur}}''.
* ''[[WesternAnimation/IlEtaitUneFois Once Upon a Time... Life]]'' features humanoid red blood cells as protagonists. They carry oxygen to cells manned by even smaller humanoids, complete with factories, command centers and vehicles. Given that it's a show about human biology designed for young children, the heavy use of metaphors is [[JustifiedTrope justified]].
* Could this be why ''WesternAnimation/SantoBugito'', which dealt with a town populated entirely by insects, has been almost completely forgotten?

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Unless we find existence of aliens or other sentient beings that can write, this trope is practically a truism.
** Though the Wikipedia article on humanity does feel like it was written by aliens at times...
** Averted in favour of RealLifeWritesThePlot until the Stone Age, but played increasingly straight ever since.
* The hypothetical "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troodon#The_.22Dinosauroid.22 Dinosauroid]]," which was a proposed possible evolutionary descendant of the troodon had it not gone extinct. Dale Russell, the guy who thought up the concept, has been criticized by other paleontologists since the 1980s, many of whom point out that Russell's Dinosauroid is overly anthropomorphic. Most paleontologists think that any possible descendant of the troodon would appear more bird-like than human-like. Some of the criticisms went too far the other way -- one of them asserted, for instance, that a sapient evolved from a dromaeosaur would pick things up in its mouth, like a bird. Only... ''[[CaptainObvious birds have wings]]''. Dromaeosaurs have ''hands'', picking things up is sorta what they're for.
* In a case of All Animals Are Humans, consider how many pet food companies boast of how their dog or cat foods contain only "real meat, not animal byproducts". "Animal byproducts" is a less squicky way of saying "ground bone meal, internal organs, and heads". Guess what parts of a kill predators in the wild tend to chow down on first? But no, our pets are just little furry humans, and ''have'' to share our dietary preferences. We certainly wouldn't want to give our dogs something made from bones, now would we? Oh, wait... Also, people in many cultures have no problem eating internal organs and heads (see ForeignQueasine), so it's not just human dietary preferences that our furry friends must share, but the preferences of a particular subset of humans (Western civilisation). Bone meal, on the other hand...