->(''Wrestling/TheShield, who claims to fight injustice, ambushes [[Wrestling/TeamHellNo Kane and Daniel Bryan]] and gives them a NoHoldsBarredBeatdown'')
->'''Josh Mathews:''' "What injustice did [[Wrestling/BryanDanielson Daniel Bryan]] do here tonight, John?"
->'''[[Wrestling/JohnBradshawLayfield JBL]]:''' "He's associated with Wrestling/{{Kane}}, that's enough."
--> -- ''Friday Night Smackdown''

Some retaliation [[DisproportionateRetribution exceeds what's being retaliated to in its severity]]. But some retaliation isn't even along the same line; it's directed at those who can't reasonably be blamed for what you're retaliating for, [[FromACertainPointOfView except according to exceedingly shaky justifications]], or even [[IrrationalHatred no real justification at all]]. Whether it is worse than what is retaliated to or milder, the point remains that it is still indefensibly directed at the wrong targets.

Closely related to MisBlamed, and a SisterTrope to RevengeByProxy. It's one of the many ways in which a CycleOfRevenge can get ugly. AvengingTheVillain is also related, since TheHero (or whoever killed the villain) is usually either [[SelfDisposingVillain blameless or justified]]. Yet another related trope is BewilderingPunishment, which is what this trope probably feels like from the victim's POV. TheChainOfHarm can result if the victim goes on to inflict this on somebody else.

TruthInTelevision, of course. From a psychoanalytic point of view, this is called displacement, and occurs when someone who feels under attack emotionally retaliates against someone who is a better victim than the aggressor - for some reason, it is more viable to emotionally attack this new target than the aggressor.


[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* This is played with in ''Webcomic/AxisPowersHetalia''. Canada is frequently the target of this because he looks almost identical to his brother America, though the countries that are pissed at America wouldn't harm Canada if they knew the difference. That he's very soft spoken means he rarely is able to stop the abuse or convince the other countries (rightfully angry at America) from beating up on him.
* A particularly bad example in the case of the anime-exclusive villain Valgaav from ''{{Slayers}}''; he was subservient to Gaav, one of the world's five Dark Lords, and he goes on an all-out vendetta against Lina and her comrades for killing him. Problem? Another Dark Lord, Phibrizo, killed Gaav, whereas it took a massive effort for Lina and co. to stand against him. Of course, Lina and co. were used by Phibrizo to lure Gaav from hiding, and Phibrizo is already dead by the time of TRY. It just shows how obsessed Valgaav was with revenge, on top of his other vendettas.
** Zuuma from Revolution and Evolution-R is even worse. [[spoiler:A group bandits abducted him and his wife at the order of one of his father's enemies. His wife was injured, and ended up dying in captivity before the ransom was paid. But before he could get his revenge and learn who hired them, they all got wiped out during an incident in Sairaag. Since Lina and co were involved in said incidents, he goes after her for keeping him from avenging his wife.]]
* Sasuke Uchiha of ''Manga/{{Naruto}}'' finds out [[spoiler:his brother was ordered to kill his entire family]] to save his village from civil war and prevent a world war that would've killed thousands of innocents all over the continent. Only the three village elders even knew about that, but Sasuke decides every man, woman, and child in the village, including dozens of people who used to be his friends[=/=]family substitutes[=/=]mentors, have to die because they owe their lives to what was done to him.
* In MaiHime, Nao, who has [[FaceHeelTurn turned fully antagonistic]] after [[spoiler:losing one of her eyes]] in a fight with Natsuki (which, unbeknownst to either, was the result of manipulation by [[spoiler:Nao's alleged victim Yukariko]]), decides to seek revenge on everyone whom she blames for this. This, unfortunately, includes Mai, who tried to stop the fight between Nao and Natsuki, and Natsuki decides to take revenge on Mai by [[spoiler:[[RevengeByProxy targeting Takumi]] instead]]. To a degree, this can also apply to Shiho's grudge against Mai (for which she [[spoiler:kills Takumi by destroying Akira's Child]]), since it was Yuuichi's declaration of love for Mai that showed her that he was attracted to her, rather than anything Mai did, although it also falls under MurderTheHypotenuse in that Shiho wants Mai out of the way as long as she is a potential rival.
* In ''Manga/OnePiece'', Duval targets Sanji, who has never met him before, because the poorly drawn composite illustration of him happens to look like him, resulting in Duval being attacked by Marines and bounty hunters who are looking for Sanji (interestingly enough, not over the crimes ''Duval actually committed'').
* In ''Manga/MurasakiiroNoQualia'', [[spoiler:Hatou toward Alice in consequence of [[KillTheCutie Yukari's death]]. Alice never meant for it to happen. Quite the opposite, she truly believed JAUNT would be able to protect Yukari.]]
* In a ''Anime/DragonBallZ'' movie, Broly wanted to ''murder'' Goten and Trunks for looking like Goku, the person Broly was originally looking for.
* In ''Anime/JuuniSenshiBakuretsuEtoRanger'', it turns out that [[spoiler:the main villain Nyanma's motivation is a case of this. She mistakenly thought that, during her past as Chocolat, Princess Aura had deliberately tricked her into getting herself disqualified from a race by appearing in a vision to her and asking her to start the race too soon. This lead to Nyanma seeking power from the evil cat spirit Bagi, and led to Nyanma trying to sink the entire country of Mugen in revenge. But Nyanma's retribution is misplaced; it was ''Bagi herself'' who sent that vision to Chocolat to trick Chocolat into getting herself disqualified, so Chocolat would have a reason to do Bagi's dirty work in attacking Mugen.]]

* One of GreenLantern's SilverAge antagonists was the Aerialist, who was under the delusion that someone at Ferris Aircraft had murdered his beloved (her death was in fact a freak accident) and therefore sought revenge against the company. Notable for being one of the few times Hal Jordan thought the InsanityDefense would actually work, even citing the M'Naughten guideline.
* In ''The Trial Of Superman'' storyline, {{Superman}} is sentenced to death by an alien tribunal... because ''one of his ancestors'' had perfected a device that made it so that most of the Kryptonians couldn't leave their planet without dying, which meant they couldn't leave when the planet blew up. The fact that Superman was only a baby when this happened was ignored by the judges: all that mattered to them was that Superman was related to a killer, therefore ''he'' would have to pay for the crime.
* There is the origin of DoctorDoom. When they were in university, Reed Richards spied Doom's notes for his grand experiment and tried to warn him that some of his calculations were off, which threatened disaster. Doom refused to listen, and when the experiment blew up in his face, as Reed warned, Doom could not accept that he made a mistake and irrationally accused Reed of sabotage, starting their lifelong enmity.
* In ''ComicBook/SonicTheHedgehog'', Thrash the Devil, like the other dwindling Mobian-type Tasmanian Devils, had been told that the echidnas were evil due to the fact that, centuries ago, a group of scientists modified them, turning them into Devil Dogs slowly over the years. Thrash ended up getting his revenge, leading to the last leader of the Devils realizing that what she had told the other Devils had GoneHorriblyWrong: [[spoiler:Thrash had sent every last echidna outside of Knuckles himself into another dimension out of spite.]]
* In ''{{Nightwing}}'', it is revealed that, once a generation, the [[AncientConspiracy Court of Owls]] takes a single child from Haley's Circus to become one of their Talons every time the circus visits Gotham City. This child would then be [[BeingTorturedMakesYouEvil tortured]], [[TrainingFromHell trained]], and experimented on. Dick Grayson himself was supposed to become a Talon, but of course, his parents are killed and he is adopted by Bruce Wayne. So instead, his friend Raymond is taken, but washes out and has his eyes pecked out. Years later, Raymond returns as Saiko and claims that Dick Grayson is the worst killer [[strike:evargh]] ever and tries to kill him, along with everyone else in the circus at the time. Except: 1. Dick couldn't have possibly known about this (Batman himself didn't know about the mere ''existence'' of the Court of Owls, let alone their methods) 2. Dick was in mourning and had found a kindred spirit who could help him achieve his goals (good old vigilante justice) 3. ''Dick didn't kill him'' 4. The audience ''has nothing to do with this''.
* In ''ComicBook/IncredibleHulk'', most of the Gamma Squad hunted the Hulk because they wrongly believed he was responsible for their personal tragedies. To their credit, they stop hunting the Hulk once they realize this.
** Mess' child was killed during a battle between the Hulk and the Abomination and she was led to believe that the Hulk threw the bus that killed him. It was actually the Abomination who did it, which was even more galling to Mess because she let the government alter the left half of her body to be Abomination-like.
** Gideon blamed the Hulk for his son Jim Wilson's death just because Jim was a friend of the Hulk's when he died. Jim actually died of AIDS (which, to be clear, he did not contract from the Hulk). The Hulk pointed this out to Gideon. The Hulk then mentioned that Jim never told him his father was still alive, and he [[ArmorPiercingQuestion asked Gideon]] [[AbusiveParents why Jim was a runaway pretending to be an orphan in the first place.]]
** Prodigy's parents claimed that he suffered birth defects because of the Hulk. Prodigy became a Leader-like Gamma mutate and joined the Gamma Squad for payback. He later discovered that his parents blamed the Hulk to hide their heroin addiction, the real reason for his birth defects.
** The only members who don't fit this are Grey and Griffin. Grey actually hated his brother Glenn Talbot and just wants to prove himself more capable than his brother by beating the Hulk. Griffin just wants someone to hate.

* The Vocaloid fanfic ''Fanfic/FromConcertToChaos'' has the main antagonists, [[EvilCounterpart Miku Zatsune and Rin Arakawa]], inflict this onto Miku and Rin by beating the living daylights out of them ''during a concert'', because Zatsune and Arakawa were absolutely convinced that their former boyfriends, Mikuo and Len, broke up with them because of the girls' interfering, [[NeverMyFault even though it was THEIR OWN DAMN FAULT]] and Miku and Rin were completely innocent. Even more to the point, they trapped the audience in a wall of fire to prevent them from escaping, [[ForTheEvulz simply to show the world how evil they were]].
* In ''Fanfic/TheLionKingAdventures'', Mtumwa tries to kill Simba (and Nala by extension) for [[spoiler:Scar's death]], even though that was actually [[BadGuysDoTheDirtyWork Hago's doing]]. This is actually justified, however, as Mtumwa wasn't present when it happened, and only heard about it after it was distorted by word of mouth retellings.
* In the ''FanFic/PonyPOVSeries'' [[BadFuture Dark World]], [[PsychopathicManchild Fluttercruel]]'s reaction to [[spoiler:Discord being mortally wounded]] is to go OneWingedAngel and try to kill the Elements of Harmony in retaliation. This despite the fact that not only was this actually [[SixthRangerTraitor Rancor]]'s doing, but Cruelty ''was there and saw it happen''. Though in this case, it's justified by the fact that her grief and rage has [[VillainousBreakdown driven her insane]].
* In ''Fanfic/FrozenHearts'', when two of Prince Harald's men mistreat [[Disney/{{Frozen}} Prince Hans]] while bringing him back from Arendelle, their father, King George, has them dismissed. Harald responds by beating up Hans.
* In ''FanFic/FirstTrySeries'', an Iwa genin tries to avenge her father, who was killed in the Third Shinobi War, by setting fatal traps to kill Konoha genin in the Kiri Chunin Exams. [[LaserGuidedKarma It gets her twin brother and their teammate slaughtered by a Kyuubi-powered, enraged Naruto, leaving her to flee for her life.]]
* In ''FanFic/MegaManDefenderOfTheHumanRace'', Dr. Wily got his start in villainy (at least in part) when he made a mistake that caused Proto Man a great deal of pain shortly after Proto Man first activated, but Dr. Wily irrationally accused Dr. Light of sabotaging Proto Man's blueprints, in a manner similar to the DoctorDoom example under the Comics folder of this page.

* This is Two-Face's deal in ''Film/TheDarkKnight''. Rather than TheJoker who actually orchestrated his tragedy, he goes after everyone who was involved in the events, no matter how weakly or by how many degrees of separation, even to the point of threatening Gordon's son (so Gordon will understand what it's like to lose the person he loves most). He reasons that the Joker was "a mad dog" and he's going after the ones who let him off the leash and the people who failed in their job to stop him before the tragedy.
* In ''Film/StarTrekNemesis'', Shinzon directs his hatred of the Romulans towards Earth for reasons which only make sense to the screenwriter. It's never even explained what bizarre line of reasoning led to him wanting to destroy Earth and not, you know, Romulus. It's implied to be motivated by a particularly mean spirited variation of CloningBlues but it still doesn't make much sense.
* In ''Film/HellraiserHellworld'', The Host reveals that he's torturing the protagonists because he blames them for his "beloved" son's suicide. Chelsea points out that this makes ''absolutely no sense'' because they were his best friends who loved him dearly and did everything they could to help him. Plus, The Host is a hypocrite because he [[DisappearedDad walked out on his family over 16 years ago]] and didn't even attend his son's funeral, so he has no right to claim he cares about his son. The Host ignores this and continues the torment.
* ''Film/NineDead'': [[spoiler:The Kidnapper wants revenge against his nine captives for the role they played in the death of his son. These include the man who raped him thus giving him AIDS and the lawyer who framed him for a liquor store robbery. Also includes the guy who was owed money by the REAL robber, and a priest who heard the Confession of the robber.]]
* ''Film/LawAbidingCitizen'' has Clyde Shelton retaliate against anyone even remotely related to a deal the prosecutor made with his family's killers (the accomplice got the needle, while the actual killer was released)... except the prosecutor himself. Basically, his rage is against the US legal system, so anyone is fair game.
* ''Film/StarTrek'' has Nero, who might be the craziest example on this page. When Spock fails to save his homeworld Romulus (including Nero's family) from a horrible natural disaster, Nero goes completely nuts and goes back in time to ''wipe out the entire Federation''. He goes for Vulcan first since it's Spock's "fault" that Romulus is gone. Spock really tried his best to save Romulus, which in itself is amazing given the Romulans' less than pleasant history with the Federation (especially the Vulcans). Nero wants to wipe out the past, present, and future of Spock and everyone Spock loves anyway.
* The ''[[{{Film/Scream1996}} Scream]]'' series is both built on this and DisproportionateRetribution.
** The original ''Scream'''s primary killer is [[spoiler: Billy Loomis]], who initiates a murder spree in his town and [[spoiler: attempts to finish it by murdering his girlfriend, because his girlfriend's mother had an affair with his father, hence causing Billy's mother to leave him. The fact that his girlfriend Sidney had nothing to do with this, and especially the fact that Billy ALREADY MURDERED SIDNEY'S MOTHER ''AND SUCCESSFULLY FRAMED ANOTHER MAN FOR IT'' is utterly lost on Billy. The following murders and Sidney's were completely unnecessary save for the fact that whatever darkness was in Billy said they were needed. Then again, maybe it was InTheBlood, considering...]]
** ''Scream 2'''s primary killer is [[spoiler: Mrs. Loomis, Billy's mother.]] While [[spoiler: she]] has a SOMEWHAT more understandable motive of [[spoiler: wanting to avenge her son's death, it is equally lost on her that he committed his murder spree because SHE left HIM over something her HUSBAND did, and that her son died because Sidney was acting in self-defense, and for some reason another murder spree is needed in this vengeance where only 1/2 of the victims are tangibly related to the revenge by virtue of being tied to Sidney in some way (this this excessive body count might have something to do with his co-killer, Mickey, who is a genuine serial killer she managed to find and recruit for aid). Once again, Sidney is targeted for death for something out of her control. It's also worth noting that Hank Loomis, the other hand in this affair, is barely mentioned and never once targeted for his part in it in any of the films.]]
** ''Scream 3'''s killer, [[spoiler: Roman Bridger]] is retconned to be the ultimate start of the Ghostface mass killings, as [[spoiler: he was the one who told Billy about the affair and hence set him off onto the path that his death further set his mother onto. HIS motive for putting on the Ghostface mask and setting off a third spate of mass killings? That Sidney is now famous for surviving the first two massacres he caused to happen, fame he believes he himself should have. He desires revenge for crimes he caused to be committed against her that she had the gall to survive, something Sidney thankfully calls him on, hard.]]
** ''Scream 4'''s primary killer, [[spoiler: Jill, is driven more by envy and IJustWantToBeSpecial than retribution, but once again it's someone basically seeking 'revenge' against Sidney because she somehow managed to survive being targeted by three separate serial killers and became famous for it. When you're being targeted for murder primary because you're a survivor, you know it's misplaced.]]


[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* ''Series/ColdCase'': A young boy is horribly abused in a group home. So when he grows up, does he track down those who abused him and/or those who let it happen? No. Instead, he selects completely innocent boys who bear only the vaguest resemblance to his former tormentors and kills ''them'', putting them through the same abuse he suffered.
* ''Series/GrangeHill'': In a mid 90's episode, a guy and a girl try to escape from a fire by climbing out of a window. She slips, falls to her death, her boyfriend blames the guy who was with her and spends the rest of the season stalking and harassing him. He eventually stops and apologizes (possibly since everyone was against his vendetta).
* ''Series/LawAndOrderUK'': [[spoiler:Matt Devlin]] is killed in a drive-by shooting by a young man looking for revenge on the police for their poor handling of the investigation of his brother's murder, a screw-up he believed was racially-motivated. Problem is, not only was [[spoiler:Matt]] not a bigot, he had nothing to do with the case (and probably would've been steaming mad about it). What's worse, the killer had an idea of who his brother's murderer was (a local drug dealer who may have been lying to gain street cred)--why not go after him or one of the cops who DID botch the case?
* ''Series/LawAndOrder'':
** Jack [=McCoy=]'s zealous prosecution of a drunk driver who killed three people. Reprehensible, certainly, and fully deserving of a harsh prison term. But it soon becomes obvious that his actions are motivated by the fact that the drunk driver who killed his lover Clare received a light sentence.
** In "Suicide Box", the episode that the abovementioned Series/LawAndOrderUK episode was based on. However, the perp was much younger (14) and the victim survived with only an injured arm.
* ''Series/{{Merlin}}'': King Odin tries to kill Arthur (twice!) because Arthur bested his son in a DuelToTheDeath. As Arthur tells it, the young, inexperienced prince challenged Arthur and Arthur could not refuse due to the knights' code. Arthur even (unsuccessfully, obviously) tried to convince the boy to withdraw his challenge.
* ''Series/{{Revolution}}'':
** "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E3NoQuarter No Quarter]]" has Private Richards beat up Danny Matheson over the death of his best friend Templeton back in "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E1Pilot Pilot]]". It's true that Danny pulled a crossbow on Templeton, but Templeton shot first. It's true that Danny shot Templeton with his crossbow, but one of the villagers named Caleb shot and killed Templeton. Clearly, Richards is after people who are indirectly responsible for the death.
** "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E17TheLongestDay The Longest Day]]" has Rachel Matheson reveal that she only wants to turn the power back on so the other factions will kill Sebastian Monroe, and she'll get her revenge for her son's death back in "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E11TheStand The Stand]]". Earlier, Rachel tries to kill Major Tom Neville over her son's death, and had to be talked out of it by Charlie Matheson in "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E13TheSongRemainsTheSame The Song Remains the Same]]". Rachel tries to go into Monroe's tent and blow them up with a live grenade in "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E18Clue Clue]]". "[[Recap/RevolutionS1E19ChildrenOfMen Children of Men]]" had Monroe himself say that he wasn't even there when she reveals why she's out to kill him. The thing is he's right, because one of Monroe's helicopters was firing wildly and [[spoiler: Danny]] got caught in the crossfire. It wasn't like Monroe killed [[spoiler:Danny]] personally.
* ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'': The episode "The Survivors", where members of an alien race kill a powerful being's wife. In retaliation, he kills the entire race, all '''fifty billion''' of them. He acted in a moment of rage and was horrified by what he'd done.
* ''{{Buffyverse}}'':
** In ''Buffy'' season 6. After skinning Warren alive out of revenge for his AccidentalMurder of Tara, Willow proceeds to target his accomplices Jonathan and Andrew, who were both in jail at the time and had nothing to do with it. Though the Scoobies (sans Buffy) all rallied behind Willow en masse when she targeted Warren, they all agreed that Jonathan and Andrew don't deserve to die at all and work together to protect them.
** The gypsies didn't really think Angel's curse through. ''Angel'' has to spend all of eternity suffering for the crimes of ''Angelus''? Liam was a womanising jerk at worst, but Darla murdered him and a demon spent two centuries murdering and marauding with his face. Especially bad since the CurseEscapeClause they included eventually led to Angelus murdering the last descendant of the gypsy clan.
* ''Series/OnceUponATime'': Regina's antagonism towards Snow White is very much this - the young Princess Snow, who had just lost her own mother, was manipulated by Regina's abusive mother Cora into revealing Regina's secret romance with her family's stable boy, Daniel. Cora soon murdered Daniel in front of Regina, leading to Regina devoting her life to gaining vengeance against Snow for this betrayal, even the extent of occasionally allying with Cora to do so.
** Even ''if'' one concedes that Snow White bears some responsibility for her mistake (making Regina's actions toward her DisproportionateRetribution), everyone else that Regina curses had nothing to do with it.
* In ''Series/TwentyFour'' Day 8, this is why Jack murders Dana Walsh, as she was involved with the rogue members of the Russian government who eventually murdered his friend Renee Walker, even though by that point Dana had long since been imprisoned and had nothing to do with Renee's death.

* In ''Literature/HarryPotter'', Severus Snape's hatred for James Potter, his childhood bully, quickly transferred itself onto his son Harry once he started Hogwarts, causing him to be stricter towards him then any other student. [[spoiler: The last book however reveals that the ''real'' reason has more to do with Snape being [[UnluckyChildhoodFriend hopelessly in love]] with Harry's mother, Lily Evans, making Harry a constant reminder that the love of his life had ultimately married the man he loathed most of all]].
* In Creator/DianeDuane's novel Literature/SpocksWorld, the BigBad's motive is revenge on Spock for a death in the family...except that an outsider would probably say it's not his fault at all.
* In ''Literature/GalaxyOfFear'', the wraiths of Kiva spent their undeath cursing [[spoiler:Mammon Hoole]] for their fate and clung to existence solely for the chance to make him pay. When they see evidence proving that [[spoiler:Gog, Hoole's partner in the experiment]] was truly responsible, it takes a few seconds for the wraiths to accept that the man they hated all this time was innocent. Fortunately for them [[spoiler:and unfortunately for Gog]], their true murderer is in the same room with them, meaning they can still have their revenge.

* In ''Manhwa/TheBreaker'', a great deal of characters are after Han Chun Wo, also known as Goomoonryong, because he killed their master or performed some other dishonorable thing upon their martial arts school. He is a complete and utter {{Badass}} upon which they have no hope of carrying out their revenge. Therefore, they prefer to target his student, Yi Shioon, which becomes particularly unfair and messed up in ''The Breaker: New Waves'' when Shioon [[spoiler: looses his ability to use ki and becomes completely helpless, is renounced by his Master as a student and is no longer a Murim (part of the martial arts world) and should be off limits]].
** Backfires pretty horribly on them since [[spoiler:his Master actually started a process that would make Yi Shioon ''even stronger'' in Shioon's body (his ki center being broken was a necessary first step). After the first hundred chapters or so, they are seeing Shioon as a threat in his own right.]]

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* Infamously, Wrestling/{{Konnan}} bashing Wrestling/{{Carl|itoColon}}y's father and sister over the head with a guitar because Carly lost them the {{tag team}} championships they held in WWC.
* In a case of "not being available", BJ Whitmer assaulted [[Wrestling/DaffneyUnger Lucy]] because her [[Wrestling/CMPunk boyfriend]], who had knock him unconscious and joked about it, happened to be in Japan at the time.[[/folder]]

[[folder:Religion, folklore and mythology]]
* This was endemic among the Greek gods. "Zeus seduces (or flat out rapes) a mortal woman, then his wife afflicts that woman and/or her son with a curse as punishment" is a fairly typical plot outline, and the other gods weren't much better.
** A well known version of the Medusa myth shares a similar theme. Medusa was a beautiful woman that was raped in Athena's temple by the god Poseidon. Athena was so enraged by her temple being violated that she of course curses Medusa, apparently for not being able to fend off a god, turning her into a gorgon. Some versions even have Athena take it one step further and cursing her sisters too.
** Aphrodite has a bad habit of doing this whenever there's someone who made a BlasphemousBoast that a certain woman is more beautiful than her. Just ask Psyche and Myrrha about this.
* With OmniscientMoralityLicense, God in the bible has a few instances like when King David had an affair with Bathsheba then [[UriahGambit put the latter's husband out in front]], God kills their first child.

* ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar'': In real life, after the murder of Julius Caesar, the poet Helvius Cinna was killed by a vengeful mob because he was mistaken for Cornelius Cinna, one of Caesar's killers. In Creator/WilliamShakespeare's dramatization of the event, Helvius is killed ''because'' his name is Cinna, despite his protests that he had nothing to do with the assassination.
-->'''Cinna''': Truly, my name is Cinna.
-->'''1st Citizen''': Tear him to pieces, he's a conspirator.
-->'''Cinna''': I am Cinna the poet, I am Cinna the poet.
-->'''4th Citizen''': Tear him for his bad verses, tear him for his bad verses.
-->'''Cinna''': I am not Cinna the conspirator.
-->'''4th Citizen''': It is no matter, his name's Cinna. Pluck but his name out of his heart, and turn him going.

[[folder:Video games]]
* In ArTonelico2, Luca for the longest time holds Lady Cloche responsible for the death of her younger sister. Cloche could not realistically have been responsible for that, considering she was only six or seven years old at the time and even though she's the head of state now, she has always been a puppet ruler who never made any real decisions. [[spoiler: And even more so because Lady Cloche IS Luca's sister.]]
* ''VisualNovel/AceAttorney'':
** Any time Franziska gets offended by someone she cannot whip, she immediately whips someone nearby, often Phoenix, Edgeworth or Gumshoe.
** In a more serious sense, this is [[spoiler:Godot's]] entire motivation; [[spoiler:He gets poisoned by Dahlia Hawthorne, and when he wakes up, Mia Fey, the woman he loved, is dead and Dahlia is on death row. Feeling as though he failed to protect her, and unable to take action against Dahlia, he becomes Phoenix's rival as a prosecutor, and to thwart a plot on Maya's life, sets in motion a plan that leads to Case 3-5 and causes Misty Fey's death rather than go to Phoenix for help]].
** This is also [[spoiler:Marlon Rimes]]'s motivation for framing the orca for murder in the DLC case of Dual Destinies, "Turnabout Reclaimed". [[spoiler:Marlon]] thought that [[spoiler:the orca had killed his girlfriend]], when in reality [[spoiler:she died of a heart condition, and both the orca and the orca's predecessor were innocent]]. In fact, [[spoiler:his]] original plan was to kill the orca, but then the victim of the murder interfered.
* In ''VideoGame/{{MOTHER 3}}'', [[spoiler:Fassad, in his "new" form]] attacks Lucas and his friends when they try to pull one of the seven needles, saying that [[spoiler:they pushed him off Thunder Tower, even though his fall was actually caused by his own bad habit of leaving banana peels everywhere. The music that plays during the battled is even ''called'' Misplaced Retribution/Unfounded Retribution]]
* In ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphonia'', [[spoiler:the motivation of the BigBad, Mithos Yggdrasil, turns out to be this trope. He was discriminated against as a half-elf. But instead of seeking retribution only on the humans who actually discriminated against him, he set a plan in motion that would make the entire human ''race'' suffer for a ''thousand years.'' This included treating humans as cattle, implementing a "Chosen" system that resulted in misery for those chosen, causing two worlds to have to share mana so one is always suffering, making people suffer to power up Exspheres, etc. As Lloyd puts it, Mithos took his own pain and forced it on everybody else.]]

* In ''[[WebVideo/DeathNoteTheAbridgedSeriesKpts4tv Death Note: The Abridged Series (Kpts4tv)]]'' Rem blames Light for Misa's stupidity and demands that he save her "or I'll rip your face off."
* During the LetsPlay/{{Yogscast}} miniseries ''[[Machinima/YogscastMinecraftSeries Cornerstone]]'', Smiffy of LetsPlay/HatFilms steals LetsPlay/{{Sjin}}'s jetpack, causing Sjin to murder Ross, who wasn't even there. To make matters worse, Smiffy had actually put in another jetpack for charging, then returned the one he stole.

[[folder:Western animation]]
* In the ''WesternAnimation/InvaderZim'' episode "Battle of the Planets", Tallest Purple orders someone ThrownOutTheAirlock for not remembering Zim ruining Operation Impending Doom I. His response afterward:
---> "That was the ''wrong guy'' but... that's okay! I think everyone gets the point!"
* Happens all the time on ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy''. When one Ed does something, all of them (or one Ed that had nothing to do with it, usually Edd) get punished.
** In the Halloween special, Ed goes around beating up people and ''EDD AND EDDY'' are beaten up instead and Ed goes unharmed.
** In "All Eds Are Off," Ed contaminates the pool with gravy and ''Eddy'' receives detention for it instead.
** In "Smile For the Ed" Eddy gets a week's detention for impersonating the principal, which Edd actually did (though Edd was trying to help).
** In "A Fistful of Ed" after Eddy keeps insulting, taunting, and pelting Jimmy with endless hot dogs, Jimmy freaking EXPLODES and gives ''Edd'' a NoHoldsBarredBeatdown.
** Sarah, a frequent instigator of this towards the Eds, lampshades and justifies it at least once, admitting Double D likely didn't do anything wrong but [[NoSympathy "give those cute ones an inch and they'll take a mile"]].
* Attempted in one episode of ''WesternAnimation/CourageTheCowardlyDog'' when evil eggplants want to attack Muriel because she eats eggplants. Courage dresses up like an eggplant and tries to convince the eggplants to attack the supermarkets instead, but his plan fails when they find out he isn't an eggplant.
* The Clock King from ''WesternAnimation/BatmanTheAnimatedSeries'' goes after Gotham City mayor Hamilton Hill. Why? Years earlier, The Clock King (then Temple Fugate) was put out of business by a lawsuit brought by Hamilton Hill's law firm. While Hill wasn't specifically the lawyer representing the plaintiff, the Clock King does consider him completely responsible because Hill also suggested Fugate take his coffee break at a different time...which led to [[FromBadToWorse things going worse]].
* ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDad'': After Steve finds his girlfriend slandered and as a result loses her run for election, he gets revenge on the three popular kids who did it (by having buffalo feces dropped on one, injecting another with fat and giving the final one an STD). He finds out his friends did the slander, and the whole school decides to get revenge on all of them, despite Steve protesting that it was their fault after they come clean. While it was his friends spreading the lies, Steve was the one who caused the ''very'' serious attacks on the three, making his friends the ones who had the retribution misplaced upon them.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/ThomasTheTankEngine'' episode "Trust Thomas", James angrily bumps the troublesome trucks because he has to do Percy's work while he's away at the harbor, but after the trucks find out that Thomas agreed to do James' work, even though James was playing sick, they decide to play tricks on Thomas instead since "one engine is as good as the other".
* In one episode of the first season of ''WesternAnimation/TotalDrama'', in order for Harold to get revenge on Duncan for bullying him, he gets ''Courtney'' eliminated instead simply because she associated with him.
** In the same season, when Eva returned to the island, she randomly accused Bridgette of backstabbing her and getting her voted off, despite the fact that her entire team voted her off for being a raging maniac.
* In an early episode of ''TheSimpsons'', Lisa is in such a depressed state that the school takes notice and sends a note home to her parents, and even then out of worry rather than her being in trouble. Homer's so used to Bart being in trouble with school instead that in response he punishes his son anyway by making him vacuum the entire house, despite Bart not doing anything wrong. Bart understandably is less than pleased with this and also makes sure to vacuum up a deck of Homer's playing cards in retaliation.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Bullying and abuse is usually this. Bullies and abusers usually punish people who had little or nothing to do with their insecurities.
* The Nazis did this to anyone at anywhere and anytime whenever a German soldier was killed by partisans. They obviously didn't care though... so long as someone paid the price and the message got through to the perpetrators. They would even go so far as to [[DisproportionateRetribution destroy entire villages]] if they were remotely suspected of harboring partisans and even allied personnel.