->''"Some of you may know me from my films like [[Film/MadeasFamilyReunion Madea's Family Reunion]] and Why Did I Get Married?, or you may know my sitcoms, like Meet the Browns and House of Payne. Or you may be white."''
-->--'''Kenan Thompson''' as '''Creator/TylerPerry''', ''Series/SaturdayNightLive''

Similar to the {{girl show ghetto}} but with racial minorities instead of females. This is the idea that fiction centered on a racial minority cannot entertain or otherwise appeal to people outside of that race. Marketers might fear that a work starring a racial minority will be focused on issues of race and culture, driving away audiences who are not interested in such movies. They might also fear that white audiences won't be able to relate to a minority in the lead, or worse, find the movies preachy and/or guilt-inducing simply because of who is in them.

The result of this belief is that works starring people of a racial minority in the work's place of origin are rare compared to works starring a member of a racial majority. If a Western work of fiction wishes to have a diverse cast or deal with issues of race, it will likely star a white person with minorities as supporting actors. See MightyWhitey, WhiteMansBurden, WhiteMaleLead, TokenWhite, and PopCultureIsolation. Adaptions and anything {{based on a true story}} fearing this might go for a {{race lift}} to get around it, making any minorities in the original work white instead. Alternatively, they might find a white person who had a minor role in the original story and [[AscendedExtra focus on him]].

It is not uncommon for works featuring non-white leads to become popular when advertising hides or downplays the presence of non-white characters. This is especially true in written works, where advertising does not require visual representations of the characters. Sometimes these works see no drop in popularity when the lead is shown to be a person of color, suggesting that readers will enjoy a good story once they get over their initial reluctance from seeing a person of color on the cover.


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[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Examples]]

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Film ]]

* One of the theories as to why ''Disney/ThePrincessAndTheFrog'' wasn't as successful as it was expected would have been because of the protagonist's ethnicity. However, other factors from lack of advertising, to being released at the same time as ''Film/{{Avatar}}'', to [[AnimationAgeGhetto the use of traditional animation]] have also been blamed. Mind you, the movie was still successful as far as animated movies go.
* Danny Glover has tried to raise funds for a film on the Haitian Revolution. However, he keeps getting rejected because the story lacks white heroes. Read about it [[http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5i_e3UYOiNEhW03rcVTpcB2e15IMg here]].
* Creator/TylerPerry's movies are not very popular outside the black community, though there is controversy on whether it's because white people don't want to see movies with all-black casts or because the movies are of poor quality. ''[[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment And that's all that needs to be said about it]]''.
* Creator/SpikeLee gets hit with this, too. His ''Miracle at St. Anna'' didn't get the best reviews (34% at RottenTomatoes) but that alone doesn't explain its incredibly low box office numbers (a little over US$9 million with a budget of US$45 million).
* Creator/HalleBerry has stated that this belief makes it hard for her to find roles.
* ''TheWiz'' was a black-led musical version of ''TheWizardOfOz''. The film version released in 1978 was a box office failure that greatly damaged the perceived financial viability of all-black films.
* ''Film/RedTails'' was in {{development hell}} for over 20 years because the idea of all-black cast wasn't appealing enough for a movie studio to fund it, so producer Creator/GeorgeLucas funded the film entirely out of his own pocket and it finally saw the light of day in 2012. It got a 36% on Rotten Tomatoes and didn't make back its budget at the box office. Like many other examples, it's unclear if this is because of the all-black cast or because there are other valid criticisms of the film.
** However, the film was quite successful for an independently-produced project and Lucas is trying to get a sequel made. As for the reviews, it was doomed simply for having [[DarthWiki/FallenCreator George Lucas]]'s name on it.
* In ''Film/{{Hitch}}'', Will Smith was paired with Latina Eva Mendes to avoid risking audiences dismissing it as a "black film."

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Literature ]]

* It's depressingly common -- especially in the Young Adult category -- for minority lead characters to be obscured or get an outright race lift on book covers, with this sometimes passed around as an excuse for doing so. One of the best-known recent examples is the U.S. cover for Justine Larbalestier's ''Literature/{{Liar}}''. She blogs about the change [[http://justinelarbalestier.com/blog/2009/07/23/aint-that-a-shame/ here]].

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Live-Action TV ]]

* ''Series/MyBrotherAndMe'', a Creator/{{Nickelodeon}} sitcom with a mostly black cast, [[ShortRunners only lasted 13 episodes]], though strangely, re-runs would be kept in rotation for a good decade.
* Nickelodeon's live-action roster has become steadily whiter over the years. Shows like ''Series/CousinSkeeter'' and ''Series/KenanAndKel'' seem to be a thing of the past. It has gotten to the point that they will only allow ''one'' show with a black lead, and when there's a new show of that type announced, they will cancel the incumbent show.
* ''The Real [=McCoy=]'', an all-black comedy sketch show on TheBBC, bombed.
* The TV series ''Series/KungFu'' was originally meant to star Creator/BruceLee. However, executives feared that a show starring an Asian man would be rejected by viewers and cast the white David Carradine as the [[FakeMixedRace half-Chinese]] Caine.
* The 2003 ReBoot of ''Series/TheTwilightZone'' suffered from this. It aired on Creator/{{UPN}}, a station known for its minority shows, and it ended up being [[RaceLift forced to reflect that]] (plots such as a racist white man waking up black, Creator/ForestWhitaker as the host, etc). It only lasted one season, presumably because the changes scared away some white viewers but weren't enough to attract UPN's usual demographic.
* UPN in general faced this problem for its entire existence. While its black-led sitcoms were always popular with black audiences, none of them ever managed to break out of the ghetto and gain a substantial white fanbase. When UPN was merged with Creator/TheWB in 2006 to form Creator/TheCW, most of UPN's black-led shows wound up getting left behind, and the new network aimed for the WB's white middle-class audience. Ironically the WB itself started off similary to UPN and had the same problem with its black sitcoms. Likewise Fox in the early '90s.
* ''All American Girl'', starring Creator/MargaretCho, only lasted one season. The show initially centered on [[TheDanza Margaret Kim]] and her family. During its run, the [[ExecutiveMeddling producers]] shifted focus away from Margaret's family, which resulted in most of the Asian actors being fired.
* ''Literature/AWizardOfEarthsea'' had explicitly non-white main characters, though taking place in a fantasy world, so the book itself is actually a pretty good example of an aversion (fantasy being a very white-dominated genre). But, the [[{{Series/Earthsea}} TV miniseries adaptation]] gave everyone a Caucasian race lift save for the main character's best friend who remained black, and the anime ''Anime/TalesFromEarthsea'', [[{{Mukokuseki}} due to the way Japanese animation portrays ethnicity in general]], made everyone look Caucasian.
* ''{{Series/Outsourced}}'' (the TV adaptation) had a majority cast of Americans/Canadians/British of subcontinental descent. Thisócombined with the subject matter of outsourcing stuck a nerve with Americans and its multicultural humor that Americans who'd never lived outside their country would not understandóled to the show's cancellation.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Other ]]

* There have also been studies that heavily suggest that this belief is true. They presented people with identical movie synopses, but with either a white cast or a black cast. And people picked their own race/ethnicity as the one they'd most want to see.
* Discussed by ''{{Website/Cracked}}'' in [[http://www.cracked.com/article_19549_5-old-timey-prejudices-that-still-show-up-in-every-movie.html "5 Old-Timey Prejudices That Still Show Up in Every Movie."]] Three of them, including the top two, address elements of this trope. #2 says that movies always star a white person (or Creator/WillSmith) and #1 discusses how white audiences don't care about history not involving white people.
* This has been increasingly common in ComicBooks. With the exception of ''{{ComicBook/Spawn}}'', it has been hard for minority leads to maintain sales of their comics for long periods, especially if they're brand new characters. This phenomenon led to the creation of the AffirmativeActionLegacy.
* [[http://www.clutchmagonline.com/2011/12/celebrating-the-black-beauty-on-white-women/ This]] article, while mainly about beauty standards among women, notes that this trope (or the inverse) may be why {{Music/Adele}} and Music/BrunoMars were put in the "pop" category at the Grammys despite the fact that their music is usually described as R&B/soul/pop. The author also notes the Music/CeeLoGreen is not counted as pop, despite being just as successful in the mainstream as Adele and Bruno Mars.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockism Rockism]] refers to the belief by critics that rock music is more "authentic" than other genres. Among other things, it is criticized for being the reason why critics often dismiss genres such as disco, R&B and HipHop, genres that are mostly dominated by African-Americans, ignoring the fact that rock was ''invented'' by African-Americans.
** {{Jazz}} suffered this too at the hands of music critics when it first arose, and mostly due to racism. However, over the decades it's broken out of the ghetto, and is even taught in schools alongside classical.
* This is the reason why many Hollywood filmmakers in general choose to cast mostly white actors when remaking foreign films. However, many people have criticized this, calling the practice "racebending" and pushing for a more diverse cast.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwayne_McDuffie Dwayne McDuffie]], a late great pioneer in the comic book industry, had suffered through this his whole life when being a writer for a comic book series. He called it the [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u16sKK-1oLQ rule of three]]: Where if three or more black characters are in a comic book series, it's considered a "black product" and thus many white readers, whom are the overwhelming majority of comic book buyers, ignore it.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Web Original ]]

* Issa Rae, the creator of ''WebVideo/MisadventuresOfAwkwardBlackGirl'' discusses this in this [[http://www.vulture.com/2011/12/issa-rae-on-the-mis-adventures-of-awkward-black-girl-and-creating-the-black-liz-lemon.html interview]]. She says that the show couldn't exist without the Internet because TV has a very strict notion of how a black character should act, which is why ''ABG'' won't become a network TV show anytime soon.
-->"In one meeting, during the first ten seconds, this guy said, "The show is pretty funny. This is about a typical black woman with her black women problems." And then said big names were necessary to make it to television."
[[/folder]]


[[folder:Breaking Out of the Ghetto]]

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Comic Books ]]

* Al Simmons was black, but ''Spawn'' was still the most popular comic book series of the 1990s. Note, however, that due to his full-body costume (not to mention being disfigured), Spawn's ethnicity wasn't immediately evident.
* Somewhat subverted with DCComics ''ComicBook/{{Steel}}'', who was the most popular of the replacement Superman characters during TheDeathOfSuperman storyline. His own series didn't last long, but that may have been more due to UsefulNotes/TheGreatComicsCrashOf1996 than anything.
* ''{{ComicBook/Chew}}'' has been a very strong seller for ImageComics and a bit of a mainstream comic hit, with an Asian American protagonist.
* ''ComicBook/{{Static}}'' from the Milestone comic line. He was easily the company's most successful character before being integrated into DC. Though he is largely unused by DCComics, he still has a large fan following due to his humor, charisma, and relatability.
* The 2014 ''[[{{Comicbook/MsMarvel2014}} Ms. Marvel]]'' stars Kamala Khan, a Muslim, Pakistani-American female and has been highly successful, thus breaking out of this and the GirlShowGhetto.

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Film ]]

* Creator/WillSmith, DenzelWashington, MartinLawrence, and EddieMurphy tend to avoid this ghetto.
* Creator/SamuelLJackson is notably a modern pop cultural icon, although this may have less to do with race and more to do with sheer muthafuckin' charisma and the massive amount of films he's in.
* Stepin Fetchit got his start in the black vaudeville circuit as a character actor. However, his slow-witted [[UncleTomfoolery tomming]] in the 1929 version of ''Showboat'' endeared him with white audiences, and led to mainstream success.
* Martial arts films starring Creator/BruceLee, Creator/JackieChan, and Creator/JetLi have gained mainstream popularity in the United States.
* ''Film/HaroldAndKumarGoToWhiteCastle'' and [[{{Film/HaroldAndKumarEscapeFromGuantanamoBay}} its]] [[{{Film/AVeryHaroldAndKumar3DChristmas}} sequels]] have a Korean and an Indian as the lead characters. They are also popular, hilarious, profitable, and well-reviewed. Notably, the studio, apparently believing in this trope, [[ExecutiveMeddling attempted]] to [[RaceLift change the main characters' ethnicities]] to [[YouHaveToHaveJews Jewish]] in order to make them more "acceptable" to white viewers. The writers (who are Jewish) responded by including two Jewish buddies... as side characters.
* 2012 movie ''Think Like a Man'', which had an almost all-black cast and was BasedOnAnAdviceBook by black comedian Steve Harvey, topped the box office when released in theaters, actually pushing ''Film/TheHungerGames'' to No. 4.
* ''Film/SlumdogMillionaire'' is a decidedly Indian story, yet it earned both critical and commercial acclaim in the west as well as that year's best picture Oscar.
* ''Disney/LiloAndStitch'' (and ''WesternAnimation/LiloAndStitchTheSeries'') stars a pair of native Hawaiian sisters and their various alien TrueCompanions; even most of the secondary human cast (Cobra Bubbles, Mrs. Hasigawa) are non-white. Nevertheless the movie was quite successful. Not as successful as most Disney originals, but that may have been from competing with ''Film/ScoobyDoo''.
* The bulk of the main cast of the ''Film/SpyKids'' series is Hispanic, with the movies revolving around the exploits of the Mexican-American Cortez family (fitting, since the series was created by the Mexican-American Creator/RobertRodriguez). It was also one of the most popular children's movie franchises of the 2000s, spawning three sequels and grossing over $500 million.
* The Disney features ''Disney/{{Aladdin}}'' and ''Disney/{{Mulan}}'' were both wildly successful, while having casts consisting entirely of Arabic and Chinese or Manchu characters. ''{{Disney/Pocahontas}}'' which also features Native American protagonists, has also been VindicatedByHistory and has more fans these days.[[note]]Most of the cast of ''Aladdin'' was white but ''Mulan'' and ''Pocahontas'' featured predominantly Asian and Native American voice actors respectively where they were required.[[/note]]
* ''Film/DjangoUnchained'' stars Jamie Foxx as a black ex-slave and was both a critical and commercial success.
* In 2013, ''The Best Man Holiday'', the sequel to a cult classic film, ''Film/TheBestMan'' that came out in 1999 about the relationships between African-American couples, was a surprising success at the box office and was even more profitable percentage wise compared to ''ThorTheDarkWorld'', the biggest release at the time. The film had a small budget of 17 million, but made over 71 million dollars in profit. Pretty impressive, since romantic films starring African-Americans usually don't do well at the box office.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Literature ]]

* This happened as early as the 1850s with the English translation and publication of ''[[Literature/ArabianNights A Thousand and One Nights]]''. Those stories have been wildly popular with Europeans and Americans ever since, despite featuring Arabs and Persians as their main characters.
* ''Literature/TheKaneChronicles'' by Creator/RickRiordan, who wrote the popular Literature/PercyJacksonAndTheOlympians series, has two biracial lead characters. However, note that the leads' race is not immediately obvious on the [[http://www.rickriordan.com/my-books/kane-chronicles/books/red-pyramid.aspx cover art]], unlike the [[http://www.rickriordan.com/my-books/percy-jackson/percy-jackson-olympians/lightning-thief.aspx cover art]] for ''The Lightning Thief''. Might be Percy doesn't immediately look white, so most readers are probably going to assume that he is, but he could as well be Asian.
* The title character of the popular ''Literature/AlexCross'' series by JamesPatterson is black. This is another example of a book where the POC lead character's race is kept ambiguous until after you've started reading.
* English author Zadie Smith avoided the ghetto with her first novel, ''White Teeth'', which featured LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters representing many different races and religions. But she remarked in an interview that it bothered her when fans of the book came up to her and said: "My favorite character in ''White Teeth'' was [character who was of that person's race or religion]. I could really identify with him/her." Smith said that people need to be exposed to the experiences - whether real or fictional - of people who are ''not'' like them. Even though her mother was a black Jamaican, Smith listed a number of white males as her favorite authors.
* ''TheJoyLuckClub'' is perhaps the most famous example of Asian American literature in existence. It was made into a critically acclaimed film.
* Katniss from ''Literature/TheHungerGames'' is probably biracial, according to WordOfGod. However, it's not brought up at all in the series, and considering from the racism surrounding the casting of a black actor as Rue, most people probably didn't know about it.
** However, in the [[Film/TheHungerGames live-action film]] series, she is played by JenniferLawrence who is white.
* The ''Literature/{{Animorphs}}'' series stared a black character (Cassie) and a hispanic character (Marco), in an era where it was extremely rare for minorities to star in kids' books. Their races were even made obvious by the cover art, and it was mentioned every once in a while in the text. And as a bonus, the cover model for Cassie wasn't even [[ButNotTooBlack unrealistically light-skinned]].
** It's also played with a bit, with cousins Jake and Rachel. Jake is an aspiring basketball player, Rachel is a drop-dead gorgeous blonde gymnast who gets straight A's and spends most of her time at the mall. They're both described as tall, they're, respectively, the team leader and the team heavy. But look at their names: Jacob and Rachel. Jake's brother is named Tom (Thomas) and Rachel's parents are Naomi and Dan (Daniel). One of her sisters is named Sarah. Way past the halfway mark of the series, there's a time-travel book that involves a what-if-the-Nazis-won timeline where Jake mentions that while some Jews are liberal, ''his father'' certainly isn't, and, when they go back to Nazi Germany, Rachel also states that her dad is Jewish. Judaism is considered to be passed through the mother, and it's worth noting that it's not their mothers they mention, but it does mean that Cassie is the only one of the human Animorphs not to be mixed-race, since Marco's father is white and Tobias' father is an alien.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Live Action TV ]]

* ''Series/TheWire''. Almost all the cast is black. It's largely about the problems of low-income communities and housing projects almost exclusively inhabited by black people. It is also regarded as one of the best TV series ever made. It is especially popular among academics, so much so that [[http://www.nypost.com/p/entertainment/tv/item_TxvbS2nzKJOzClVuOxRDmI Harvard]], [[http://www5.uwm.edu/news/2012/04/26/uwm%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%98the-wire%E2%80%99-course-started-academic-trend/#.UUgFQXE-v8Y UWM]], [[http://www.dukechronicle.com/articles/2010/03/04/professor-turns-hbos-wire-class Durham]], and [[http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2010/03/this_will_be_on_the_midterm_you_feel_me.html other colleges]] are offering courses on the series.
* ''Series/TheCosbyShow'' is probably one of the biggest aversions of this in TV history. Though, of course, Cosby had to work like heck to convince network execs that a show about a professional-class African American family was something that people would watch.
* Its sister series, ''Series/ADifferentWorld'' was also largely successful.
* ''Series/LittleMosqueOnThePrairie'', a Canadian sitcom about Muslims, ran a respectable six seasons and was a big hit for the Creator/{{CBC}}, even attracting media attention [[{{Eagleland}} south of the border]].
* ''{{Series/Desmonds}}'', a ChannelFour comedy in Britain, became almost as famous as ''The Cosby Show''. The star of ''Desmond's'' was invited to do a walk-on part on ''The Cosby Show'' as a relative of the Huxtables.
* ''Series/GoodnessGraciousMe'', a British comedy sketch show with an Indian cast, was highly successful.
* ''Kenan & Kel'', a Nickelodeon sitcom with two black leads, ran for 62 episodes and is beloved by children of '90s.
** Ditto for ''Series/SisterSister'' which featured five black protagonists, and the leads were girls to boot. It ran for six seasons and was quite popular on Nickelodeon.
* ''Series/TheFreshPrinceOfBelAir'' was a black-led sitcom, and is a classic that launched Will Smith's career.
* ''Series/FamilyMatters'', particularly after the introduction of [[BlackAndNerdy Steve Urkel]].
* Many shows on UPN, such as ''Series/{{Moesha}}'', ''Series/TheParkers'', ''OneOnOne'', ''Girlfriends'', etc... at least by the standards of UPN.
* ''Series/TheJeffersons'', the longest running black sitcom in history. It was rated in the top 30 for most of its run. Granted there were white actors in the cast but the leads and the majority of the cast were black.
* ''{{Series/Seinfeld}}'' was originally viewed this way by at least one studio executive, who thought that most Americans would find it "too Jewish."
* ''Series/TheBrothersGarcia'', a successful sitcom about a Hispanic family, featured an all-Hispanic cast as well as guest stars of many ethnicities. It was one of Nickelodeon's more popular shows and ran for four seasons.
* ''{{Series/Scandal}}'' has a black female in the lead, meaning it could avert both the minority show ghetto ''and'' the girl show ghetto. As of October 2012, it has been renewed for a second season. It also has decent ratings and good reviews.
* ''{{Series/Nikita}}'' has an Asian female in the lead and, as of January 2013, has three seasons. Like ''Scandal'', it breaks out of both the minority show ghetto and the girl show ghetto.
* ''Series/ThatsSoRaven'' is recognized as one of the Disney Channels iconic shows, essentially acting as the codifier for shows that weren't influenced by ''Series/LizzieMcGuire''. It was so popular, it ran past the typical Disney Channel 65-episode limit[[note]]Disney Channel tends to cancel shows once they've hit 65 episodes[[/note]] and gained a spin-off ''Series/CoryInTheHouse''.
* ''InLivingColor'' was pretty much the African-American version of ''SaturdayNightLive'' and became a huge success for the Fox network, and was at one time competing neck-and-neck with SNL for ratings. The show ran for many seasons until it was finally cancel, but not due to ExecutiveMeddling, but because the majority of the show's main cast all became big stars in their own right and went on to make successful films and television shows for themselves. And some of the people behind the scenes went on to create ''MadTv'' which was also successful, though it was no longer a predominately African-American show anymore.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Tabletop Games ]]

* ''MagicTheGathering's'' "Mirage" block is set in an African-themed setting and most of the human characters on the cards are black. It was also successful enough that many of the concepts introduced in it (the block structure, "enters the battlefield" abilities, sets designed with Limited play in mind, reminder text for keywords) are simply taken for granted in modern Magic. It was also the first set re-released for Magic Online and the character of Teferri came back to be the protagonist in the later "Time Spiral" block.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Video Games ]]

* ''VideoGame/BackyardSports'' become immensely popular with young children even though you could count the (non-ethnic) white males on one hand.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Western Animation ]]

* ''WesternAnimation/FatAlbertAndTheCosbyKids'' was very popular, having run on Creator/{{CBS}} for most of 1970s.
* ''WesternAnimation/DoraTheExplorer'' is universally loved by small children, despite featuring a Latina protagonist whose ethnicity is played up.
* The ''Franchise/AvatarTheLastAirbender'' universe is set in a fantasy world with heavy inspiration from the FarEast. Despite this, it is has become incredibly popular. While the [[Film/TheLastAirbender live action movie]] kept the FarEast cultural inspiration, it mixed up some of the races: the Japanese-like Fire Nation became a mix of Indians, Middle Easterners and Polynesians, while the blue-eyed and tan Water Nation became a mix of white lead actors and Inuit extras.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheBoondocks'' despite being rather controversial, especially in its first season, has actually grown to become one of Adult Swim's most popular productions. Its third season was even regularly beating out both ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' and ''WesternAnimation/RobotChicken'' in the ratings.
* ''WesternAnimation/JackieChanAdventures'' has an entirely Asian main cast, with the recurring characters Captain Black and Viper the only major Caucasian characters on the heroes' side. It was also one of the most successful original Creator/KidsWB shows of the early 2000s, with a devoted fanbase that's still active today. Perhaps this is to be expected, since the cast was headed up by a [[AdamWesting highly fictionalized version of]] Jackie Chan [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin himself]], who also tends to avert this.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Web Original ]]

* Several of {{Website/YouTube}}'s most subscribed channels are run by Asian Americans. This includes {{Nigahiga}}, Creator/WongFuProductions. Creator/FreddieWong, WebVideo/KevJumba, and [=MichellePhan=]. However, [=YouTube=]'s audience is global, and globally Asians aren't exactly the smallest group in the world.
[[/folder]]

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