[[quoteright:350:[[http://manvsart.com/ http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/limited_animation_8352.png]]]]
%% New image selected per Image Pickin' thread: http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/posts.php?discussion=1299251357091340700
%% Please do not change or remove without starting a new thread.

->''"As a cartoon blues man might say, if it wasn't for limited animation, we wouldn't have no animation at all."''
-->-- '''[[Creator/FrederatorStudios Fred Seibert]]''', [[http://fredseibert.com/tagged/HB%20essay in defense of]] Creator/HannaBarbera.

The practice of using mix-and-match parts in animation, rather than drawing every single new cel. This trope also covers using deliberately abstract character designs and backgrounds that will not obviously clash with the low production values.

This technique was popular in the early days of animation. It is seen in Emile Cohl's first animations and early comedy shorts like the ''Colonel Heeza Liar'' series.

Traditional cel animation took over and dominated the field for years, until Creator/ChuckJones's ''WesternAnimation/TheDoverBoys'' short reminded people that extreme stylization was okay. Studios like [[Creator/ColumbiaCartoons United Productions of America]] [[note]] "UPA" for short, producers of ''WesternAnimation/MrMagoo'' and ''WesternAnimation/GeraldMcBoingBoing''[[/note]], MGM Animation and, of course, Creator/HannaBarbera revived the technique. Initially it was a way to stand out from Creator/{{Disney}}, but in very short order it was recognised as a way to save [[ExploitedTrope time and money]], too.

A strength of limited animation is that it emphasises the writing and voice acting by making the visuals rather minimal. When the creators wrote well, it led to some of the most beloved cartoons ever.

John Hubley from UPA was a well-known advocate of limited animation as art. He encouraged animators to experiment with primitivism and [[GermanExpressionism expressionism]] in the 1950s and 1960s, leading to the development of some pretty trippy stylized backdrops and character models that became a major influence on European avant-garde, modern ThickLineAnimation, and [[UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash Flash Animation]].[[note]]Which is to say, [[GenrePopularizer most current]] traditional WesternAnimation. Interestingly, [[Creator/StudioGhibli Miyazaki]], {{anime}}'s biggest traditionalist, [[UsefulNotes/TheGoldenAgeOfAnimation harks back more to the naturalism]] of classic Disney studio films such as ''Disney/{{Bambi}}'', which was itself storyboarded by a Japanese artist.[[/note]]

Unfortunately, not all the cartoons had good writing. Some were written very much from the ViewersAreMorons mentality. The SaturdayMorningCartoon was conceived as a way to focus advertising onto young kids, so this resulted in a flood of slapped-together cartoons, most of which are not held in high regard, due to bland and unimaginative writing. There were, and still are, exceptions, but they tend to be ScrewedByTheNetwork for attracting [[PeripheryDemographic the wrong audience]] and failing at their job.

But by itself, limited animation can be a powerful tool. Take some of the cartoons by Creator/ChuckJones in the 1950s, or John Hubley's work in the same period. Limited animation actually facilitated the artistic look of those short films more than the traditional kind.[[note]]Jones, who believed that the best animation can be watched without a soundtrack, was extremely critical of Creator/HannaBarbera's cut-rate animation style and appropriately dubbed it "illustration radio."[[/note]]

In a certain sense, almost ''all'' animation is limited in one particular way: The use of cels over static backgrounds. In very early animation (e.g., "WesternAnimation/GertieTheDinosaur"), the background was redrawn for each frame. In very short order it became clear that drawing your characters on cellophane, and laying that over a background image (that might not change for minutes at a time), was the right way to do things, and today this is so universal it scarcely bears mentioning. (CG animation operates under different rules, but the creators will still tend to focus their time and processing power on the foreground characters rather than the background.) Scenes where the background is ''not'' static are rare, often look a bit odd, are very expensive, and can be considered ''un''limited animation in several cases.

{{Anime}} also uses limited animation. The only difference is that anime does not use layers of cels to do this, but rather it is the use and reuse of cels that sets it apart from western limited animation. This effect is noticeable in talking scenes where the characters speak. VideoGames also use it by necessity. See also UsefulNotes/TheDarkAgeOfAnimation.

Common Sub-Tropes:
* ByTheLightsOfTheirEyes
* RingAroundTheCollar
* StockFootage
* UnmovingPlaid
* WheelOFeet
* WraparoundBackground

Compare LazyArtist (which is sometimes associated with this trope), StylisticSuck (when this trope is invoked as an intentional ShoutOut to low-budget cartoons). Contrast {{Disneyesque}}.

!!Since this is such a widespread trope, examples should be particularly notable, or play with this.


* This was also put forward as one of the driving reasons behind early HumongousMecha genre and spaceship shows such as ''Anime/MobileSuitGundam'' and ''Anime/SpaceBattleshipYamato''. Big robots and spaceships are a lot easier to animate with minimal motion and fewer keyframes than organics, because if they look jerky and awkward, well, they're mechanical, so it does not look out of place.
* Parodied in ''Manga/CromartieHighSchool'', where [[NoFourthWall even the characters sometimes complain]] about the obvious lack of animation.
* Lampshaded in the ''LightNovel/HaiyoreNyarkoSan'' shorts (''Nyaruani''), where often the title card will say things like "Sorry, there's not much movement in this one". Of course, it's worth noting that ''Nyaruani'' was primarily made with UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash (a program that thrives on this method) as opposed to traditional animation.
* This is practically Creator/StudioTrigger's signature style, most evident in ''WebAnimation/InfernoCop'' and ''Anime/NinjaSlayer'', which are completely and partially animated with still frames, respectively. However, this is a case of TropesAreNotBad as the limited animation is used primarily in the casual or comedic scenes making them even funnier as well as avoiding budgetary issues that were so prevalent in the studio it was descended from, [[Creator/StudioGainax Gainax]].
** ''Anime/KillLaKill'', in addition to indulging with this to save the budget every so often (with episodes 4 and 22 being standout examples), makes it a character trait to Nui Harime, a [[CuteAndPsycho cute, yet psychotic]] fourth-wall-breaker. A part of the off-putting, eerily ''wrong'' air she gives is the fact that she almost never seems to make full movements, but instead tensely jumps around or else floats between places with her ParasolParachute. In battles, she appears to stand completely still aside from her primary hand most of the time, and even when she's jumping around to evade her foes, her character model spins around like a cardboard cut-out, stiff as a board.
*** A lot of Mako's animation seems to have been based on the same rules as Nui's.
** All over the place in ''Anime/SpacePatrolLuluco'', most notably with Over Justice who is an {{Expy}} of WebAnimation/InfernoCop. With the exception of the flames, he only has a single frame of animation, [[spoiler: until he [[LetsGetDangerous gets serious]] and receives a ''massive'' AnimationBump.]]
* The notoriously bad ''Anime/ChargemanKen'', where the number of frames of animation in any given scene is usually in the single digits.
* The animated version of ''Manga/TonariNoKashiwagiSan'' is a motion comic, so it's not much more than a colorised manga with audio and MouthFlaps.
* Gainax took this to its [[UpToEleven logical extreme]] with ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion''. Because they used up most their budget for the show midway through, they had to use limited animation for non-fight scenes and outright ditched the planned ending (which later saw a feature-film adaptation) because it would've been too expensive. Nevertheless, Episode 26 resorted to using still drawings most of the time and little-to-no backgrounds. To quote RebelTaxi, Gainax "blew their budget on ''Evangelion'' so hard, they had to finish the final episode using '''goddamn Crayola markers'''."
* {{Invoked|Trope}} with ''Teekyuu'', where all characters have [[MotorMouth rapid-fire speech]] featuring only two mouth flaps per character.
* {{Parodied|Trope}} in ''Manga/HaventYouHeardImSakamoto'', with Sakamoto climbing a staircase multiple steps at a time to appear to simply glide up it. A bystander comments that it was a brilliant pantomime.
* Used to [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y27JVb0q4EE impressive effect]] in this ''Franchise/LoveLive'' FanVid.
* Played with in ''Anime/CarnivalPhantasm''. Taiga's animation is ''really'' detailed in the first Taiga dojo segment, with a number of SuperDeformed antics. Then in the next episode, it's revealed just how much that animation cost (325,000 yen - about $7000 - for 40 seconds of animation), and to get back on budget, she's been reduced to line art, and her companion Ilya has no intermediate frames.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* The entire "motion comic" genre is built on this, taking stills from comic art and composing them together, often with text bubbles redacted from the scene and voice acting used in its place. Usually this is a montage of stills, but often mixed up with slow pans and zooms, or some slight shifting in positions of objects to give the impression of motion. Several video game franchises have used these as tie-in materials, such as ''Franchise/MetalGear'', ''Franchise/DeadSpace'', and ''Literature/HaloEvolutions'' all having motion comic adaptations or side-stories.

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* The later ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' theatrical cartoons.
* Creator/{{Disney}}:
** One of the earliest uses of limited animation was the "Baby Weems" segment of the 1941 Disney film ''Film/TheReluctantDragon''. It tells the story of a baby genius in storyboard sketches with occasional bits of movement, to show how story artists plan a cartoon.
** Experiments with it in such shorts as ''[[WesternAnimation/AdventuresInMusicDuology Toot, Whistle, Plunk and Boom]]'' and ''The Saga of Windwagon Smith''.
** Implementing it on a feature film: ''Disney/RobinHood'' uses anime-style limited animation, reusing bits of animation not only from within the movie but from previous movies as well.
** ''Disney/{{Fantasia}}'' has one of the most ambitious uses of this ever devised -- the five-minute long "Ave Maria" sequence, comprised of holy people traveling across the landscape, has barely any animation at all. Almost all of the "movement" is done by the camera, including a [[TheOner 160 second]] ending shot pulling into a [[VisualEffectsOfAwesome gorgeous sunrise.]]
** In ''Disney/WreckItRalph'', the Nicelanders are animated less smoothly than the other characters, to mimic the limited animation of 8-bit video games.
* ''WesternAnimation/YellowSubmarine'', DependingOnTheArtist (a who's who of British animators worked on the film). Ironically, Music/TheBeatles saw it as a [[AnimationAgeGhetto throwaway project]] and assumed that it'd be animated in the style of their [[WesternAnimation/TheBeatles 1965 cartoon]], which was done Creator/HannaBarbera–style by the same people. They changed their minds after seeing the [[WhatDoYouMeanItWasntMadeOnDrugs finished film]].
* The opening sequence of ''WesternAnimation/WatershipDown'', storyboarded by John Hubley, who died before its release. The hallucination sequences are drawn on the [[http://chud.com/articles/content_images/NICK/DVD/WATERSHIP/PDVD_003.JPG same model]], notable for its ArtShift to detailed [[GhibliHills naturalistic]] animation and [[SanitySlippage back again]].
* Subverted by ''WesternAnimation/TheThiefAndTheCobbler'' parts of which ''look'' like LimitedAnimation but was in fact painstakingly crafted cel-by-cel by its [[Creator/RichardWilliams lead animator]] over a [[DoingItForTheArt 30-year period]], only to be farmed out to [[OffModel other studios]] for completion.
* Ironically, Williams's first film, ''WesternAnimation/TheLittleIsland'', actually did use Limited Animation. This is partially justified in that ''The Little Island'' was his first animated film and because of the incredibly deep philosophical background of the film.
* Done for deliberate stylistic effect (and to avoid essentially hand-drawing each frame on the desktop, thus enforcing the trope all over again) on a lot of modern ThickLineAnimation and [[UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash Flash Animation]].
* ''WesternAnimation/TheIncredibles'' contains an in-universe example. One of the DVD bonus features is an episode of a fake Mr. Incredible TV show full of limited animation and other forms of StylisticSuck. It even includes an in-character commentary by Mr. Incredible and Frozone.
* The first ''ComicBook/{{Asterix}}'' movie, ''Asterix the Gaul''.
* The animated SpaghettiWestern ''WesternAnimation/WestAndSoda'' has limited, television quality animation and a UPA-ish art style.

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* Terry Gilliam's famous animations on ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus'' consisted entirely of this. Though he used it to cope with tight deadlines, he adds that it also helped with comedic timing when characters weren't drawn making flowing, graceful movements, and instead jerked quickly from point A to point B.
* ''Series/MrShow'' (which is influenced by ''Monty Python'') had a few particular sketches with this, most notably the animals in the Biosphere sketch as well as the "who you meet in Heaven". The birds in the Intervention link are (slightly) better about this. Overlapping with RogerRabbitEffect.
* Poked fun at repeatedly in this sketch entitled [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5SD2UU_XYU "Cheapo Cartoon Man"]] from ''London Weekend Television''.
* Reconstructions of ''Series/DoctorWho'' {{Missing Episode}}s do this a lot, as any motion usually has to be extracted from still images or painted on top of them. Characters talking will be an edited slideshow, Daleks will move around like paper cutouts (with their head bulbs flashing as they speak correctly), occasionally there will be an animated sandstorm or a CGI flame, but everything else is usually just production slides. Even the cartoon reconstructions suffer from this due to the very low budgets, although how much depends on what studio is making them. Some will take the easy route and use UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash, but others such as Planet 55 Studios will take [[AnimationBump painstaking lengths]] to create breathtaking visuals.
* ''Series/TheLateShowWithStephenColbert'' uses this for their recurring "Cartoon Trump (Hillary, Putin, etc.)" characters, who have only three or maybe four moves that they repeat unless an extra is added as TheReveal for a punch line. These are animated in time for a same-day broadcast.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* Creator/{{Nintendo}}'s early VideoGame/GameAndWatch systems used LCD screens, so limited animation was a technical constraint. Carried over into Mr. Game & Watch in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBros'', who moves in herky-jerky single frames.
** Wario also does this in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBrosBrawl'', presumably as a reference to his lack of animation in the first ''VideoGame/WarioLand'' game, or more likely the also-limited animation of the cutscenes in the ''VideoGame/WarioWare'' series.
** A third example would be Pit, who only appeared in an NES and Game Boy game before that. Despite this, his animation looks fine, but when he picks up the Hammer, he inexplicably uses the jerky two-frame mallet animation from his own series as a reference. This also applies to Dark Pit in the fourth installment.
** Mega Man also has this in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBros4'' to emulate his 8-bit incarnation.
* Some of the animation bits in ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyVI'' can be downright funny because of the video game's limits. For example, it looks like Locke is throwing Terra around in one scene.
* The ''Franchise/MetalGear'' series of video games mixes in-game cutscenes with CODEC conversations - whenever the protagonist talks over the radio, small pictures representing the characters are shown, with only the [[MouthFlaps lips moving]]. ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid2'' upped it slightly by including full animations of the characters, which led to a HongKongDub effect - lips were wildly out of sync with what the characters were saying. The third one was even more limited - whoever Snake was talking to was represented by a still picture, and Snake himself was in the shadows. The fourth one avoided this entirely by showing a full video of whoever Snake was talking to.
** The PSP games used limited, motion comic-style animation in the cutscenes as a stylistic choice. [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhKP7FfCstE It's actually still quite impressive.]]
* Cutscenes in ''VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoChinatownWars'' are represented by very limited animation - unless the characters move their heads, even their lips don't move.
* Most of the beginning cutscene in ''VideoGame/UltimaVI'' looks like a bunch of paper dolls - the figures are moving, but not animated. This was fairly common in late 80s-early 90s games.
* ''VideoGame/PokemonBlackAndWhite'' do this with their animated battle sprites.
* ''VideoGame/DragonQuestIX'' renders some characters with polygons, but not all of them. The inkeepers at Stornway become 3D only when you talk to them behind the bar.
* Used to excellent effect in ''VideoGame/TwistedMetal II''.
* In ''[[VideoGame/MarvelVsCapcom3 Ultimate Marvel Vs. Capcom 3]]'', Phoenix Wright's mouth isn't in sync with his words, and in his [[LimitBreak Level 3 Hyper]] animation, it just looks like his mouth alternates between a smug smile and hanging open. This was to emulate the text based nature of [[Franchise/AceAttorney his games]] that only had a couple of voice clips each, as in those games someone's mouth would just flap open as the text entered the screen. Also, in said Hyper Combo, the affected opponent would stay in one static pose devoid of animation even as they gave anguished screams as a reference to his games' limited frames of animation.
* Played with in ''VideoGame/GuiltyGear Xrd'': the game is fully rendered in cel-shaded 3D, but the animation was made intentionally choppy to emulate the aesthetic of classic 2D fighting games.
** Played straight in all of the other games in the series and pretty much every ArcSystemsWorks fighting game in general: large and gorgeously drawn 2D sprites but the tradeoff is VideoGame/StreetFighterII-era animation.
* The ''VideoGame/PaperMario'' series began using mix-and-match parts to build its characters after the first game, which combines with the already-present ThickLineAnimation to create a visual effect very similar to an UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash cartoon.
* ''VideoGame/SwampSim'' simply had Shrek as a T-posed model that slid across the ground when appearing and chasing you. A later update eventually gave him an actual running animation.
* ''VideoGame/HotelMario'' [[MemeticMutation spawned many memes]], particularly a WebAnimation/YouTubePoop intro which goes, "Where there's smoke, they pinch back." This comes from a combination of two of the game's infamous lines: "Be careful, when you pinch Wendy's pennies, they pinch back," and, "Remember, where there's smoke..." which clearly shared cels for Mario, to the point that you could paste the "smoke" bit before the "pennies" bit and only the background would change. Mario would not move one iota.
* A typical facet of the VisualNovel genre when speaking to another character, although it might be subverted depending on the game. Despite making the leap to full 3D character models and scenes, ''VisualNovel/ZeroTimeDilemma'' still shows its characters snapping from one pose to the next off-camera with few instances of movement animation.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* ''Machinima/RedVsBlue'' averts this. They use existing models from the ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'' series, so you would think they could just be slapped together, but the episodes require a lot of painstaking work. Later seasons avert it entirely with some scenes utilizing motion capture.
** Played straight in seasons with Creator/MontyOum's character animation. Oum had stated that he kept a pose library full of already keyframed animations and used Poser because the animations could be easily reused among different rigs. This also makes it a case of 3D limited animation. In addition, the show hides some unpolished animation in creative ways, like angling the camera and adding [[FalseCameraEffects artificial]] JitterCam to [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dT4QUBDmtQ#t=1m55s hide an arm glitching out from mocap data mishaps]], along with having clipping and duplicated model extras justified by the original format.
* ''WebAnimation/{{RWBY}}'', another Monty Oum project, uses limited animation much more conspicuously. Monty reused animations from previous projects with the show's characters and modified MMD character models, and the first season consisted entirely of playblasts with no lighting aside from the prebaked lighting in the environments. The seasons afterwards also had a limited number of background extras that would be reused over and over, sometimes leading to instances where one could spot "twins" in crowds.
* ''WebAnimation/ElementalGoddess'' zigzags with this trope. The first episode and second episodes are limited, but soon got an AnimationBump with TheMentor's OriginStory. Soon after the mentor's first fight, the animation changed to just being still shots with voices added to them. WordOfGod states that the latter will be the norm from now on.
* WebAnimation/YoutubePoop is fond of LimitedAnimation due to how easy it is to edit clips of video that don't change much. As a result, the most common sources for Youtube Poop typically have this as a defining trait (Mama Luigi, Zelda [[UsefulNotes/PhilipsCDi CD-i]], etc).
* ''WebAnimation/InfernoCop'' consists of cut out models moving across photo backgrounds with voices dubbed in. Also, things explode in live-action.
* ''WebAnimation/NeuroticallyYours'' started off with limited animation in its early years. Characters doing actions, such as typing, would only have a few frames of exaggerated animation and would loop endlessly as long as the action was being done. When the characters weren't doing anything, they would be incredibly stiff and just blink most of the time. The series has improved movement animation a lot since then, though movement of arms are covered by a quick motion blur and the characters are still not animated for walking.
* Most of the animation in ''WebVideo/TheCartoonMan'' movies is quite limited.
* The extent of the Ducktales characters' animation in ''WebAnimation/{{Ducktalez}}'' is just the addition of angry eyebrows.
* ''WebAnimation/GirlChanInParadise'' parodies this to no end (when it's not delving into DerangedAnimation instead.) Main character Kenstar is almost always seen with the same vaguely determined expression on his face (which in some cases is even just sloppily copy-pasted on,) and Kotomaru is almost always in the same "arms-crossed, eyes closed and looking kind of irritated" pose. Other scenes are blatantly recycled (including Yusuke falling down an identical flight of stairs from earlier in the episode...[[RuleOfFunny in the middle of the desert.]]) Also done semi-in-universe as well after Green Guy's HeroicSacrifice; his voice actor is angry that his role ended so early and convinces the localization team to add him back in "as cheaply as possible," leading to a poor quality cut-out of Green Guy copy-pasted into random scenes (including ''on-top of'' Yusuke in one shot.)
* ''WesternAnimation/TheHappyCricket'''s [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wipq9SOErlA Solar Eclipse]] spin-off short
* The work of Irish animator [[https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-rSVF7vetL0mVpE5FEboUg/videos George White]] is almost a shrine to this. Lips barely move. It is more motion comic strip than animation.
* Website/GoAnimate, due to the technical limitations of it comes off as it.
* ''WebAnimation/GreenyPhatom'' is barely it, with each scene being one frame of MS Paint drawings edited together in Windows Movie Maker.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/MrMagoo'', possibly the TropeCodifier, and...
* ''WesternAnimation/GeraldMcBoingBoing'', both directed by Hubley in the 1950s.
* ''WesternAnimation/ColonelBleep'' is ''barely'' animation, most scenes utilizing two frames at the most.
* Just about everything made by Creator/HannaBarbera, which for better or worse [[FollowTheLeader put its stamp]] on the trope as associated more with production values and Hanna-Barbera's own distinctive [[AnimationAgeGhetto children's animation]] style more than anything else. Most famously, of course, ''WesternAnimation/TheJetsons'', ''WesternAnimation/TheFlintstones'' and ''WesternAnimation/YogiBear''. Also, ''WesternAnimation/ScoobyDoo''. Most obviously, they used the same walk and run cycles over and over again on different {{Wraparound Background}}s. The original series got even more use out of the gang's run cycle by putting it on the standard EpisodeTitleCard.
* An episode of ''WesternAnimation/{{Animaniacs}}'' poked fun at this. Otherwise averted though, as the show tends to have very fluid animation for a TV cartoon.
* ''WesternAnimation/ClutchCargo'', taken to the point of it not being animation so much as still photography of cut-outs with [[SynchroVox superimposed live-action lips]].
* In the same vein of ''Clutch Cargo'', the other Cambria Studios animations (''Captain Fathom'' and ''Space Angel'') were done using the same technique.
* "Mr. Incredible and Friends", from ''WesternAnimation/TheIncredibles'' DVD, copies the ''Clutch Cargo'' style. Mr. Incredible and Frozone's commentary track [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] this, among the cartoon's [[StylisticSuck many other shortcomings]].
* ''WesternAnimation/TheBeatles'', mentioned above, is an odd example, since they were producing essentially {{music video}}s of Beatles tracks [[TheSixties up through]] ''Revolver'' for a Saturday morning [[WhatDoYouMeanItsForKids children's TV show]].
* ''WesternAnimation/RockyAndBullwinkle''
** Heck, just about ''anything'' that the Mexico-based Gamma Productions animated on would have really limited animation, and not just Jay Ward's work (the aforementioned ''Rocky and Bullwinkle''), but Creator/TotalTelevision used them as well (most notably on ''WesternAnimation/{{Underdog}}'').
* ''WesternAnimation/DrKatzProfessionalTherapist''
* ''WesternAnimation/SpaceGhostCoastToCoast''. Space Ghost only has a limited number of poses. If there's ever a time in which Space Ghost needs to walk, it will just be a stock pose of him bobbing up and down. Zorak has even fewer poses, some of which were recycled from the '60s ''WesternAnimation/SpaceGhost'' cartoon. All of Moltar's poses were recycled from the '60s cartoon. Very little is actually animated on the show. Naturally, this was [[LampshadeHanging lampshaded]] in many episodes. It should be noted that almost all of Zorak's poses were colored differently (he would be a different shade of green, and he'd alternate between a blue and red vest). Some of them had a completely different animation style.
* This extended to WesternAnimation/CartoonPlanet, too, which recycled all of Space Ghost's, Zorak's, and Brak's poses from ''Coast to Coast''. [[NoFourthWall Brak would always comment on his lack of animation.]] This also extended to ''WesternAnimation/TheBrakShow'', though Brak had much more animation than he did on earlier shows.
%%* Pretty much all of the original animated series on Creator/AdultSwim, with the exception of a few.
* The early episodes of ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'', although the pilot was the only one to use actual cardboard animation[[note]]They were forced to recreate it using computer animation in order to [[AnimationLeadTime make episodes fast enough for seasonal restrictions]][[/note]]. In the later episodes the characters have a wider range of movement: for example, instead of shuffling when they walk, their legs are actually seen moving. Lampshaded in TheMovie.
* ''WesternAnimation/RogerRamjet''
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Hopla}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/BeavisAndButtHead'' in their earlier episodes. Notably, the episode "Burger World" had a two-frame animation of Mr. Anderson repeatedly honking the horn of his car -- an animation so simplistic, [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quLvKzZFv0c it can easily be made into an]] OverlyLongGag.
* ''WesternAnimation/StarTrekTheAnimatedSeries''. Just about anything else from {{Creator/Filmation}}, actually. Which is expected, since they produced their shows on a shoestring budget.
* The ''ComicStrip/KrazyKat'' shorts from the 1910s. Yes, this is OlderThanTelevision. [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ESzUkmCiIA Behold]].
* The 1967 ''[[WesternAnimation/SpiderMan1967 Spider-Man]]'' cartoon, as well as ''WesternAnimation/RocketRobinHood'', very seldom had unique animations/cells on different backgrounds. The few times they did ended up getting reused in later episodes, most extremely using the cells from an episode of the latter in the former, just replacing Robin and John with Spider-Man and changing a few lines of dialogue.
* The 1990s ''[[WesternAnimation/SpiderManTheAnimatedSeries Spider-Man]]'' was guilty of this as well, sometimes using scenes from earlier episodes with different dialog.
* ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'':
** In its early run, it had some animations that made the characters seem off and other animations that were clearly recycled for when characters repeated a physical action several times. For the former, the animations were limited on the mouth when characters talked but it greatly improved as the series went on. For the latter, an example of this can be seen in the episode "I am Peter, Hear Me Roar" where in one scene, a group of elderly people are watching soft core porn and one of the men punches his crotch several times to "wake up" his penis so it can get erect. One of the ladies next to him glances to the man when he hits his crotch, but her eyes dart back to the TV screen when the man pulls his fist back, and then they fall back to the man when he punches his crotch again. You can see the lady's eyes twitching back and forth between the man and the TV as the punching animation plays over and over. Cases like these faded as the series went on. But as a compromise, everyone became stiffer, stuck in 3/4 view, and their movements looked like they were trapped in an eternal fast-forward.
** This in itself was lampshaded in the conclusion of one episode when Peter starts insulting Fox repeatedly, causing Lois to warn him against offending the network. Peter's response was to remark that all they could do is cut the show's budget. [[SugarWiki/FunnyMoments The final scene is a static cel with a static Peter basically zig-zagging his way to the kitchen]].
** One scene from "And I'm Joyce Kinney" had Peter mentioning that half the background characters don't move at all and just stand there blinking a few times.
*** ''Family Guy'' has developed a bad habit of doing this lately, with many episodes including at least one scene where the only motion by the one visible character is them blinking once in a while to remind you they're not a taxidermy or your TV's not broken, while off-screen characters spend minutes talking without getting any response from the visible character.
** A really glaring example comes from the notorious RatingsStunt episode "Life of Brian". Brian is hit by a car, and the camera focuses on him lying in a mangled heap in the middle of the road. The show cuts away and cuts back. The camera is now at a different angle, but Brian is lying in exactly the same pose.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheMarvelSuperHeroes'' shorts took limited animation about as far as it could go, at times doing nothing but panning the camera across still images. Fortunately, they used original Marvel art, like the greats Creator/JackKirby and Creator/SteveDitko, along with generally the original stories to make it look like the precursor to the motion comic.
* Before the switch to [[UsefulNotes/AdobeFlash Flash Animation]], ''WesternAnimation/ThePowerpuffGirls'' used limited animation to great stylistic effect.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' has always relied on limited animation, [[ArtEvolution although the animation has become fuller over the years]]. In typical fashion, they have lampshaded it on more than one occasion:
** When Bart and Lisa are given a tour of the ''Itchy and Scratchy'' studio, the hallway is a Wraparound Background, with what is clearly the same couple of doors passing over and over again, complete with the same janitor working inside one room.
** Bart once ordered an original Itchy and Scratchy cel over the mail. It turned out to be a mostly empty cel with a tiny little arm painted on it.
** In "Itchy, Scratchy and Poochie", after Poochie's first appearance doesn't go over very well, Homer records a passionate speech for his second cartoon, apologizing to the fans and asking for a second chance. The studio clearly don't go for it, as the scene freezes just before the speech and a different voice over says, "I have to go now. My planet needs me," followed by the cel of Poochie clearly being dragged away.
** In one scene, Homer criticizes the quality of South Korean animation, and for the next few seconds his mouth is detached from his face and floating in front of him.
** [[http://morpheus306.deviantart.com/journal/Simpsons-now-in-HD-update-233741679 Fox execs had the animators redo the HD opening because it was animated too well.]]
** Played Straight with the early shorts on ''Series/TheTraceyUllmanShow'' from 1987-1989. I mean it was the very end of UsefulNotes/TheDarkAgeOfAnimation after all. Seriously, go back and look at how many times they reuse a model of one of the characters from an earlier short! It often looks jarring when contrasted with the constant Main/ArtEvolution of the anthology.
* Spoofed in the late ''WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes'' short "Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers", where aliens are replacing all of WesternAnimation/BugsBunny's adversaries with "pale stereotypes" filled with dull, non-confrontational personalities. The copies embody every conceivable bad TV animation cliché out there, from being drawn OffModel in [[ThickLineAnimation thick lines]] to fake WesternAnimation/DaffyDuck even having WesternAnimation/ClutchCargo–style [[UncannyValley superimposed human lips in one scene]].
* ''WesternAnimation/TheFairlyOddParents'' is an example of LimitedAnimation. In addition, it actually lampshaded the trope in one of the specials, specifically the WrapAroundBackGround.
* The ''ComicStrip/{{Peanuts}}'' films and specials rely on this as a visual style. This was originally caused by the Christmas special's rushed production (the production team was given six months to complete the special, and didn't start animating it until the third) and the fact that [[UsefulNotes/TheDarkAgeOfAnimation animation at the time wasn't exactly impressive.]] Nevertheless, the stiff, corner-cutting animation of the ''Peanuts'' cartoons have more or less stuck with the franchise, and the cartoons have kept this type of animation as an art style, mainly due to how much it's stuck with the series. Even the [[WesternAnimation/ThePeanutsMovie 2015 film]] keeps the stiff, jerky animation style of the older specials to retain the classic ''Peanuts'' feel.
* Parodied in an episode of ''WesternAnimation/RawToonage'' with ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4BOBkbjfvM Badly Animated Man]]''. Who is [[LogicBomb actually]] a rather [[StylisticSuck meticulously animated]] example.
* Both ''WesternAnimation/AvengersAssemble'' and ''WesternAnimation/HulkAndTheAgentsOfSMASH'' fall victim to this, which is odd since despite being a massively divisive in terms of writing, ''WesternAnimation/UltimateSpiderMan'' usually has very fluid animation.
* An interesting case occurs in the TV special "The Great Bear Scare" while the characters' eyes and mouths are fully animated the rest of their bodies move every couple frames and walk in an animated storybook style; one theory is the studio probably ran out of time and money and quickly edited it together.
* ''WesternAnimation/JohnnyTest'' in later seasons, to the point that the characters [[UncannyValley don't move like actual living beings]].
* When not depicted in live-action, human characters from ''WesternAnimation/TheAmazingWorldOfGumball'' intentionally invoke this by resembling Filmation-era cartoons and having very stiff animation to boot. The show itself lampshaded it on their debut episode, even showing that the background crowd members cannot move their position but are more like cardboard cut-outs. It comes up again during an episode focused on extras when two members of the crowd only move by akwardly shuffling themselves around.
* The Canadian cartoons ''WesternAnimation/KatieAndOrbie'' and ''Pumper Pups'', aimed at preschoolers, are a unique example in that they don't have any ''actual'' animation, rather, the drawings and scenes change like a slideshow, to give them a storybook feeling. The fact the characters in both series never speak (but make sound effects) and instead a narrator tells all the story adds to this.
* WesternAnimation/GoldenBookVideo also produced video adaptations of their famous Golden Books in the same manner as the above ''Katie and Orbie''.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheLionTheWitchAndTheWardrobe1979'' had your usual cheap 70's TV animation.
* The later ''WesternAnimation/WoodyWoodpecker'' shorts of the 1960's and 70's which where directed by Paul J. Smith, not only were the movements more limited but the character designs were also simplified and less detailed.
* The ''WesternAnimation/WanderOverYonder'' episode "The Cartoon" has Lord Hater ordering his minions to make a propaganda cartoon starring him. The result ends up an extended parody of [[StylisticSuck the worst parts of limited animation]], including misplaced cels and clumsily reused animation cycles.
* The animation company ''Creator/RabbitEarsProductions'' was well known for using dissolve animation where the characters from the illustrations would dissolve into the next panel whenever there is movement from the characters. Also, the style of the animation consists mostly of moving the camera across the illustrations to give the story a sense of movement.
* The Spanish animation studio Creator/DoconFilmsProductions is infamous for constantly recycling animation in their cartoons; ''WesternAnimation/TheFruitties'' and ''WesternAnimation/{{Scruff}}'' are perfect examples. One exception is ''WesternAnimation/TheFrogShow'', which D'Ocon Films co-produced with French company Ellipsanime.
* The French cartoon ''WesternAnimation/LesShadoks'', having premiered in 1968, has noticeably limited animation in its first season that was made using a machine prototype, the animographe, and paper offcut. The machine prototype broke down by the time Season 1 finished, but every subsequent season used similar limited animation techniques to keep with the spirit of the show.