[[quoteright:300:[[ComicBook/{{Daredevil}} http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/kingpin_cut2.png]]]]

->''"I gotta work out so I can kill the world!"''
-->-- '''Harry Russo''', ''Schizophreniac: The Whore Mangler''

Some [[BigBad Almighty Overlords]] like to do more than [[OrcusOnHisThrone lounge around on]] [[CoolChair nice chairs]] in their [[EvilTowerOfOminousness fortresses]]. They'll go for a bit of [[TimeToUnlockMoreTruePotential self-improvement]] instead. Some may get a TrainingMontage or two, while others may pursue a DangerousForbiddenTechnique or ForgottenSuperweapon in parallel with TheHero. Regardless of how they choose to better themselves, showing a villain building his prowess can be a menacing taste of what's to come when the heroes finally reaches his doorstep. Like [[OrcusOnHisThrone our good old friend]], however, they don't pose any direct physical threat to the good guys at the moment.

One of the ways to show that a villain's AuthorityEqualsAsskicking. However, if the training sessions are shown to be [[CurbStompBattle a walk in the park]], [[FridgeLogic one wonders how they will make the villain any stronger]]. [[VillainsOutShopping Shopping]] is another popular hobby of villains.

Compare MobBossSuitFitting. Contrast with SlouchOfVillainy. In a way, the inverse of VillainForgotToLevelGrind.


[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* ''Manga/RurouniKenshin'': The BigBad Makoto Shishio has a scene where he is practicing his swordsmanship during the Kyoto Arc.
* ''Manga/DeathNote'': Teru Mikami, Light's [[TheDragon right-hand man]], visits the gym religiously. Given that his method of killing just involves writing down names, this is purely for his own benefit, and has nothing to do with fighting. Then again, considering how ''animated'' he is about writing down names, he possibly does it to avoid pulling something.
* General Silver from ''Manga/DragonBall'' is shown working out at least once in order to beat Goku. It doesn't work.
* Geese Howard hadn't been the BigBad since the first ''VideoGame/FatalFury'' OVA, but in the third, Billy Kane finds him training in the woods. After receiving the report on the heroes' activities, Geese busts out a Raging Storm that obliterates some of the surrounding vegetation.
* ''Manga/HayateCrossBlade'' also shows [[ArchEnemy Ensuu]] doing crunches hanging off the top half of a bunk bed and jogging in the school gym on two separate occasions before facing off with the protagonists' team.
* While not exactly a villain, the Raikage in ''Manga/{{Naruto}}'' is introduced lifting huge dumbbells in his gym. Oddly enough, he's the only leader of any group that's been seen training at all so far, despite the setting being a WorldOfBadass supernatural ninjas.
* Tao Ren is shown pumping iron in the lead-up to his first official tournament fight with Yoh, who doesn't exactly share his obsessive work ethic. Since Ren is a ball of issues and ''Manga/ShamanKing'' the rare shonen series where UnstoppableRage ''does not help'', Yoh's mellower approach works in his favour.
* One ''Anime/TransformersCybertron'' episode combines this with DangerRoomColdOpen by opening with [[TheStarscream Starscream]] kicking ass on a bunch of Autobots... which dissipate into holograms.
* Hanayama in Baki the Grappler is essentially this. He is the head of the most powerful yakuza gang, yet he doesn't believe in using weapons, and relies more on his brute strength and martial arts training to eliminate any threat that stands in his way

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''ComicBook/SpiderMan''
** While his flunkies were making life a nightmare for Spider-Man, ComicBook/TheKingpin was shown performing some outrageous physical feats like bending steel bars and breaking large objects in preparation for his personal disassembling of Spidey. He is therefore the {{Trope Namer|s}}. A running joke with Kingpin is that he'll pay goons (more often than not, having martial arts training) to attack him for practice. If they lose badly to Kingpin, he'll fire them -- but if they put up an actual fight, then Kingpin murders them for making him look bad. He also tends to kill one of his practice partners in every match, so that the survivors will fight harder next time.
*** However, Fisk has learned the hard way that no matter how much he works out or how much he hones his fighting skills, the only reason he's ever held his own against Spider-Man is because Spidey restrains himself so much. Get Spider-Man seriously pissed off, as he once foolishly did, and the curb-stomp beating that Spider-Man inflicted on him was epic to behold. The fight ended with Fisk practically crippled and fully aware that Spider-Man could kill him any time he wanted. It'll be a cold day in Hell before Fisk ever does anything that stupid again.
** Eddie Brock's first appearance established him as a gym bunny, who channeled his rage against Spider-Man (prior to actually becoming ComicBook/{{Venom}}) via working out.
* Fellow Creator/MarvelComics villain [[ComicBook/IronMan The Mandarin]] beat six top martial artists during a training exercise.
* Subverted by ComicBook/LexLuthor. Shortly after coming back as his own [[CloningGambit Evil Clone]] (don't ask), he is shown training in martial arts in his gym. After his trainer hands him his ass in front of witnesses, he later tracks her down and murders her in cold blood. Inverted in his last days as President, when he is using Venom (a kind of super-steroid most notoriously utilized by Bane) to muscle up.
* Issue 350 of ''Comicbook/CaptainAmerica'' showed the recently-resurrected ComicBook/RedSkull practicing his hand-to-hand skills by slaughtering several of the ComicBook/{{Taskmaster}}'s trained cronies... all of whom were dressed as Captain America. Later stories expanded upon this: Red Skull never tells his would-be appointments that he is going to fight them to the death, just for the added lulz of watching them panic when they realize that Skull was going to kill them.
* In the ''ComicBook/XWingSeries'' comics, [[ManipulativeBastard Ysanne Isard]] is once shown [[http://img21.imageshack.us/img21/4769/blz03q.jpg training against]] [[http://img21.imageshack.us/img21/9642/blz04e.jpg Mrlssti laser phantoms]] while she works on her plots to control the Empire. In one novel she talks to an EnemyMine while using a weight machine with no sign of strain. Notably, Isard never actually fights people herself, preferring schemes and {{Manchurian Agent}}s. Apparently she believes the old adage about healthy body, healthy mind.

* ''Fanfic/SOE2LoneHeirOfKrypton'': A heroic version. Knowing that becoming stronger (even if she's holding back ''a lot'') and [[AmazonianBeauty the muscles she's developing]] because of ''[[Comicbook/{{Supergirl}} her powers]]'' triggering will look suspicious otherwise, Asuka starts to spend a lot of time on NERV's gym, doing weights. Shinji starts to exercise alongside her for the company, and the results [[DistractedByTheSexy draw]] [[EatingTheEyeCandy Asuka's eye]] during some downtime.
* A variation in ''Fanfic/TheKeysStandAlone: The Soft World''. Andro takes Paul and John to his private gym, where he urges them to use the equipment. Paul refuses because [[DoesNotKnowHisOwnStrength he's afraid of breaking the stuff]], which is when he finds out that Andro is also [[SuperStrength super-strong]]. Agreeing to a strength test, Paul finds himself helplessly flattened out under a weight he can't budge, which Andro casually lifts off him—one-handed, which sends Paul into paroxysms of jealousy. Among other things, he realizes that Andro put him in this position to show him just how much stronger than Paul he is.
** Ironically, Paul can [[DeadlyUpgrade make himself far stronger]], but he doesn't dare because of PowerIncontinence, which just adds to his jealousy.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* ''Film/DodgeballATrueUnderdogStory'' occasionally cuts to scenes of the villain of the piece practicing advanced martial arts, using electrodes on his nipples to stave off temptation, and otherwise forcing himself to remain fit. At the end of the film, [[spoiler: when he loses his gym and his fancy exercise tools with it, he becomes morbidly obese in depression]].
* [[Franchise/{{Rocky}} Rocky Balboa]]'s major opponents got their own {{Training Montage}}s, which often told viewers something about their character: [[Film/RockyIII Clubber Lang]]'s dungeon-like basement emphasized his monstrosity while [[Film/RockyIV Ivan Drago]]'s almost clinical routines (and his steroid use) showed his lack of "heart". Rocky's most famous [[TheRival Rival]] Apollo subverted it; his "Training" for his [[Film/{{Rocky}} first fight]] with Rocky was spent arranging promotional materials for the fight, showing how he didn't take the upcoming match seriously and wrote it off as a given that he'd win.
* ''Film/JamesBond'': A few villains are fond of this:
** Largo practices his aim with clay shooting in between stages of [=SPECTRE's=] plan to detonate stolen nuclear weapons in ''Film/{{Thunderball}}''.
** Scaramanga, ''Film/TheManWithTheGoldenGun'', has a warped relationship with his diminutive manservant Nick-Nack; in the event of his death, Nick-Nack inherits everything... in return for Nick-Nack actually ''trying'' to kill him by hiring the best assassins in the world for Scaramanga to pit his skills against.
** Max Zorin spars with his [[TheDragon Dragon]] May Day in ''Film/AViewToAKill''.
** Colonel Moon in ''Film/DieAnotherDay'', whom we meet taking his Tae Kwon Do frustrations out on a punching bag containing his anger therapist -- that'll teach him to lecture Moon. BigBad Gustav Graves also has some fun at a fencing club. [[spoiler:We later find that they're the same person]].
* In the Creator/JetLi film ''Film/FistOfLegend'', the BigBad General Fujita gets a scene showing him training by hammering nails into boards with his bare palms, smashing slabs of rock, and letting a team of students break thick wooden rods over his body, to establish his overwhelming power and [[MadeOfIron resilience]] in combat.
* A similar montage appears in Creator/BruceLee's ''Film/FistOfFury'', the film that ''Fist of Legend'' is based on, showing the Russian Petrov bending metal bars and hammering nails into a board with his bare hands.
* In ''Film/{{Gladiator}}'', Commodus practices his swordsmanship against multiple opponents, showing that wealth and power have ''not'' made him soft.
* In ''Film/DragonTigerGate'' the Big Bad is introduced and almost exclusively shown in his personal training area... including the climactic battle.
* The 2011 film adaption of ''Film/{{The Three Musketeers|2011}}'' shows [[BigBad Richlieu]] sparring in his off-hours. With three opponents, no less.
* The main villain in ''Film/{{Transporter 2}}'' practices Kendo against multiple opponents in his introductory scene.
* ''Film/RobinAndMarian'' establishes the Sheriff as a credible threat by having him practice swordsmanship against three men at once. When he and Robin do fight... well, they're Robert Shaw and Creator/SeanConnery.
* Memnon in ''Film/TheScorpionKing''. Mathayus sees him ordering an underling to fire an arrow at his chest, while Memnon is getting ready to block it with his sword, a skill he's known for. At the end, [[spoiler:he utterly fails to block Mathayus's arrow]].
* In ''Film/SnakesOnAPlane'', crime boss Eddie Kim is shown practicing karate while ordering the title plan. Could have been a ChekhovsGun for an eventual Kung Fu faceoff with Creator/SamuelLJackson, but [[TheyWastedAPerfectlyGoodPlot nope.]]
* In ''Film/KickAss'', Frank D'Amico is shown training in the gym to show he's a step above his mooks, later on even using his skills against a hapless superhero cosplayer. His son is shown [[WhatTheFuAreYouDoing clumsily messing around with some weapons]].
* From ''Film/{{Avatar}}'' we have [[ColonelBadass Col. Quaritch]] lifting weights, who comments on the fact he needs to keep his muscles in top condition in Pandora's low gravity.
* When the time travelers are first brought before Lord Oliver de Vannes in ''Film/{{Timeline}}'', he is practicing his swordsmanship skills with a {{Mook|s}} using wooden swords. He then has the Mook [[spoiler:take out a real sword during a thrust and kill one of the time travelers, simply because he's French]].
* In ''Film/OnceUponATimeInChina2'', when Wong Fei-Hung meets General Nar-Lan Yuen-Shu (Creator/DonnieYen) for the first time, he's busy working out his martial arts form before surprising Wong with a sparring match, establishing that he's Wong's equal, and not schlubby ArmchairMilitary cum bureaucrat like the rest.
* The Cynthia Rothrock movie ''Honor and Glory'' shows the villain putting himself through an intense workout scene, allowing the audience to see that he won't be a pushover during the final fight.

* Prince Humperdinck in ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'', with his Zoo of Death. In fact, we first see him wrestling an ape.
* ''Literature/{{Dune}}'': Feyd-Rautha Harkonnen participates in gladiatorial matches, trading traditional means of rigging the fights with his own, to make it look like he's in danger and earn prestige. [[spoiler:This almost backfires when the slave in question nearly kills him. Feyd, impressed with and knowing how to play to the crowd, doesn't do the traditional mutilation of the body, instead allowing him to be buried intact, as a sign of respect.]]
* Benito Ramirez of the ''Literature/StephaniePlum'' books actually does train in a gym, being a boxer. He uses it to great effect to terrorize women.
* Prince Xizor inverts this in ''Literature/ShadowsOfTheEmpire'': He has an "[[CoolChair exercise chair]]" which stimulates his muscles while he [[SlouchOfVillainy lounges around]] in his fortress, giving him exercise without him having to lift a finger. He has constant problems with the chair's voice-chip pronouncing his name, though. Darth Vader is also seen training against lightsaber-wielding battle-droids, which helps to characterize his frustration with his inability to fight an opponent with the power of the Force.
* One ''Literature/{{Redwall}}'' villainess is a decent swordsbeast, as we see her TrainingMontage consisting of slaves throwing vegetables at her to be sliced midair. Unfortunately, like most Redwall villains she turns out to be hopelessly inept when her opponent is armed and angry.
* In ''Discworld/TheFifthElephant'', the AxCrazy werewolf Wolfgang is introduced doing one-handed push-ups, followed by one-handed ''handstands''. Oh, and he does this stark naked. While both his parents are in the room. Well, they're already naked around each other in wolf shape...
* In the ''Literature/InheritanceCycle'', Galbatorix qualifies. For one, [[RoyalsWhoActuallyDoSomething he actually rules the Empire he's in charge of.]] He also [[spoiler:breaks into the minds of the Eldunari he has under his power to make him even more powerful.]] Third, he searches for [[spoiler:the true name of the Ancient Language of magic, which would give him power over all spellcasters and over magic itself.]] He succeeds on all three accounts.
* In ''Literature/TheGrimnoirChronicles'', Madi has one scene where he spars against his rank and file subordinates - starting with five-on-one odds and working his way up from there. He honestly congratulates the one man who actually manages to hit him.

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* Played for laughs in ''Series/DoctorWho'' when the Delgado Master, locked up in a sea fortress, exercises on a rowing machine. It doesn't seem to be working, though--the Doctor remarks that the Master has put on weight!
* ''Series/GameOfThrones'': The Mountain makes his Season 4 debut sparring against practically unarmed convicts with his massive broadsword.
* ''Series/StargateAtlantis'': When we are first introduced to him, Commander Kolya of the Genii is having a sparring session with some of his military subordinates.
* In Season One of ''Series/TheWire'', [[BigBadDuumvirate Avon Barksdale and Russell "Stringer" Bell]] were shown working in the gym and on the basketball court while planning gangland operations.
* ''Series/TheWildWildWest'' recurring villain Dr. Loveless is sparring with his minions when West first meets him. As a dwarf he's not a physical match, but he seems to specialize in a martial art involving his walking stick and makes short work of them.
* In ''Series/SpartacusBloodAndSand'': Crassus has a scene in which he spars against a retired gladiator, his fighting coach. This scene establishes him as a threat to the swordsmanship of Spartacus and reveals his FinishingMove: a BareHandedBladeBlock.
* In ''Series/{{Arrow}}'', we see Ra's Al Ghul sword-sparring with a group of League members; like the Trope Namer was wont to do, he kills the last man standing after knocking out the others.
* Done with the TropeNamer himself in ''Series/{{Daredevil|2015}}'': when Frank Castle is first brought before Wilson Fisk in the prison, Fisk is bench-pressing weights.
* ''Series/IronFist2017'': Harold Meachum is frequently shown going to town on his punching bag or sparring with a physical trainer, to help establish that he's [[GeniusBruiser a physical threat in addition to a white collar criminal.]]
* In ''Series/LegendsOfTomorrow'', near the end of season 1, when we see Cassandra Savage for the second time, she's sparring with a group of soldiers and easily bests them before berating them for their sloppy performance, pointing out that [[ComicBook/VandalSavage her father]] won't tolerate this from his finest.
* The young MorallyBankruptBanker George Warleggan in ''Series/{{Poldark}}'' is a NouveauRiche who has molded himself into the epitome of cultured gentility. Although George has a bit of a SlobsVersusSnobs dynamic with his ArchEnemy, Ross Poldark, who comes from the gentry but is a man of the people, the expectation of George being a SissyVillain is subverted, as George regularly trains with a professional boxer, often while plotting against Ross. It's implied that George does this so he can win against Ross in physical combat in the same way he aims to win against him through economic chicanery. Indeed, in one episode where the two drop social pretenses and get into a bare-knuckle fight, George is evenly matched with the brawny Ross thanks to a combination of all of his training and simply from [[TheCombatPragmatist fighting really, really dirty]].

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* Being a big muscle fighting thing with lots of time in between match ups, this is pretty common in pro wrestling. Though some cases have to be disqualified on a [[{{face}} technicalit]][[AccidentalPun y]].
* Any [[{{heel}} rudos]] who participate in Wrestling/{{CMLL}}'s body building contests can be counted. Rush was ''supposed'' to be a tecnico but became infamous enough for his participation in them to become a rudo in all but name.
* Parodied in the case of the Wrestling/TheMidnightExpress, whom Wrestling/JimCornette would try to put together fearsome training packages for that often inspired the [[{{bathos}} opposite reaction.]]
* After the Wrestling/UltimateWarrior won the WWF title at Wrestling/WrestleMania 6, Wrestling/BobbyHeenan hosted segments showing one of his wrestlers, Wrestling/RickRude, in training. Rude had defeated Warrior a year earlier for the WWF Intercontinental title and had plans on defeating him again.
* In a less conventional example, Wrestling/MarkHenry could often be seen not in gyms, but out and about performing random acts of strength, which sometimes fall into "If it's easy, is it really helping him" category...sometimes, [[CharlesAtlasSuperPower dude did lift a hummer]].
** Long before Mark Henry, former Olympic weightlifter and wrestler Ken Patera would often do random acts of strength, including driving nails with his bare hands.
* Around his eleventh world title reign or so, Wrestling/{{WWE}} held a sweepstakes with the winner earning a chance to workout with the evil Wrestling/TripleH. Be with Kingpin in his gym!
* Wrestling/BobbyLashley takes this a bit more literally than some examples, as there is a good chance he really does own the gyms he works out in his promotional videos. {{Subverted| trope}} sometimes though, as one of his gyms is haunted by Wrestling/{{Boogeyman}}.
* The Spot trainer Wrestling/BlackRose showed off some her regimen when announcing her return to Puerto Rico for the World Wrestling League's ''Insurrection'' show, following a run through U Know Pro in Florida. Downplaed as despite being presented as heel the fans at the Puerto Rican show [[AHeroToHisHometown cheered her almost as much as her opponent]], Wrestling/IvelisseVelez.
* One WWF television segment followed the immortal wrestling announcer "Mean Gene" Okerlund going to a gym to interview "Rowdy" Wrestling/RoddyPiper and "Mr. Wonderful" Paul Orndorff to get their thought on their upcoming tag team main event match against WWF Champion Hulk Hogan and Mr. T at the inaugural Wrestlemania pay per view. Orndorff was in the midst of curling impressive amounts of weight, and Piper, who was merely observing at the time (along with bodyguard "Cowboy" Bob Orton) saw fit to insult and berate Okerlund for disturbing their preparation. At the end of it, the heels advance menacingly towards Gene and ultimately throw him out of the gym and into the streets. A passerby comes to Gene's aid only to be viciously beaten by Piper's cohorts.

* In Creator/WilliamShakespeare's ''Theatre/{{Cymbeline}}'' Cloten is proud of his prowess with the sword. What he fails to take into account is, his sparring partners know he is 1) the Prince and 2) borderline AxCrazy and will have them killed if he loses a match. Naturally, once he's up against a real opponent he's quickly killed.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* Though not shown on-panel, dialogue states that ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'''s villain, Xykon, spent the duration of Roy's absence researching new spells and crafting magic items, the EvilSorcerer's equivalent of working out. [[RPGMechanicsVerse The nature of reality there]] renders him incapable of doing this for longer than 8 hours per day, and, as a lich, he doesn't sleep, either. As such, he generally spends the rest of his day messing around in a bid to alleviate his boredom, which is what the reader ''usually'' sees whenever Xykon is present. And by "messing about", we mean "coming up with inventive and horrific ways to kill prisoners, and making book on how long they last in the acid tank with the mutated sharks."
* Anita, either BigBad or [[TheDragon Dragon]] in ''Webcomic/ErrantStory'' (you can argue it either way), is introduced getting a workout to hone her already awesome combat skills.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* Both Prince Zuko and [[TheDragon Princess Azula]] each spend one of their respective first appearances in ''WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender'' practicing their firebending. Zuko demands to learn the advanced techniques even though Iroh insists he hasn't mastered the basics yet. Azula, on the other hand, does the advanced bits flawlessly -- but ''completely'' freaks out (foreshadowing her ultimate VillainousBreakdown) when ''one hair'' falls out of place.
* In one episode of ''WesternAnimation/BatmanTheAnimatedSeries'', mobster [[TheDon Rupert Thorne]] is in his private gym, punching a bag while a henchman - named Dicky - holds it for him and urges him on. Thorne is clearly getting a little tired, but then Dicky says, "Come on, boss! No wonder the Batman is runnin' circles around ya!" Thorne snarls and [[BerserkButton punches Dickie in the face]], knocking him out. Then he grabs a towel from another thug, mentioning before he leaves, "Oh, and when Dicky gets up, tell him he's fired." Moments later Bane arrives, this episode being his first appearance. When Thorne threatens to withhold payment for Bane after a recent job was nearly bungled, Bane responds by punching the bag so hard it flies off its fixtures.
* In ''WesternAnimation/{{Gargoyles}}'', David Xanatos enjoys sparring in a dojo. As always [[MagnificentBastard subverting]] such things, he shows how badass he is by ''losing'' to his BattleButler and then commenting on how surprised he was that Owen has improved.
-->'''Owen:''' Would you prefer I pretend to lose, sir?\\
'''Xanatos:''' I'd fire you if you did.
* Spoofed in ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'', where Mr. Burns makes Smithers work out on his behalf.
* Tombstone does this in ''WesternAnimation/TheSpectacularSpiderMan'' -- fitting, since that adaptation promoted him to the Kingpin's usual role. (They couldn't use the trope namer himself due to rights issues.)
* Count Dooku, a.k.a. Darth Tyranus, was shown sparring with General Grievous in the ''WesternAnimation/StarWarsCloneWars'' animated series. Most other master vs. apprentice fights in the ''Franchise/StarWars'' universe tend to be cases of attempted KlingonPromotion although they ''could'' be considered training for the apprentices. (Grievous is not technically Dooku's apprentice, as he is not a Sith, or even a Force-user for that matter. The fact that he is one of the few beings that is formidable in lightsaber combat without being Force-sensitive is something that makes him truly unique as a villain.) There's also some foreshadowing here, as Dooku is advising Grevious on how to cover for his weaknesses - which include lightsaber combat - by exploiting his cybernetics as an instrument of intimidation and terror, using his elite robot bodyguard force to harass opponents beforehand, and to immediately run from any fight against a Jedi in which he doesn't already have a definite psychological advantage.
* ''WesternAnimation/StarWarsRebels'': In [[Recap/StarWarsRebelsS3E15ThroughImperialEyes "Through Imperial Eyes,"]] when Agent Kallus and Lieutenant Lyste are admitted into Grand Admiral Thrawn's office, they see him sparring with assassin droids in a side room.
* In one episode of ''WesternAnimation/SupermanTheAnimatedSeries'', while it's not really "in a gym", Lex Luthor is seen practicing archery -- for bonus points, he does this while on the phone with Lois Lane and asking her "Do you really think I would jeopardize the safety of this planet just to settle my personal grudge against Superman?". And then hitting a bullseye with a shit-eating smirk.
* Done three times in the second ''WesternAnimation/{{Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles|2003}}'' series. The first occurs with the Shredder, who gets a training scene in the episode "Darkness at the Edge of Town". The second occurs with Karai, whose very first scene is of her training. The third time occurs in a supplementary short of dubious canonity, also featuring Karai, which shows her apparently killing the four turtles... until its revealed that they're actually advanced training robots.