Joan of Arc was a peasant girl who rose from obscurity to lead the French army to several victories during the Hundred Years War, leading to the coronation of [[{{Gonk}} Charles VII]] as the French king -- [[BadassPacifist she did not personally kill anyone]], but carried a battle standard and led the army, as well as making tactical decisions. She was born about 1412, and starting at age twelve claimed to see visions of and hear the voices of Saints Catherine, Michael, and Margaret (one of the less understood aspects of her life -- either she was lying, or she was mentally ill in some way, or God really was telling her to drive out the English, [[MaybeMagicMaybeMundane the reader can draw their own conclusions]] [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement without stating them here]]), who she said told her to drive out the English and bring Charles VII to Rheims, then under English control, for his coronation.

After gaining the approval of Charles and a theological commission, she arrived at the siege of Orleans in 1429, where at the age of 17 she led the French to victory; contemporaries acknowledged her as the heroine of the engagement after she was wounded in the neck by an arrow but returned to lead the final charge. She led the French to several other victories, including at Reims, and was present at Charles VII's coronation. In October, Joan took Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier and was granted nobility.

However, a risky skirmish on 23 May 1430 led to her capture. Her family were peasants and did not have the money to ransom her, and King Charles VII, despite her winning several battles that strengthened his claim to the crown, refused to intervene. She attempted several escapes, but all failed. The Duke of Burgundy, who actually held much of France under English control, wanted his nephew King Henry VI to be recognized as the legitimate king of France; therefore Joan's victories had put a major crimp in his plans. Formal religion was still very strong during this time, and painting Joan as a heretic helped to cast aspersions on Charles VII's hold on the crown. Perhaps unsurprisingly, she was tried and convicted of heresy by a pro-Burgundy court, and forced to sign a renunciation of heresy she did not understand because she was illiterate. Heresy was a capital crime only for a repeat offense; she promised not to wear male clothing, which was considered heretical, but resumed it either as a defense against rape or, in the testimony of Jean Massieu, because her dress had been stolen and she was left with nothing else to wear. In any case, the church court rejected her supporters' explanations, and she was burned at the stake in 1431. In 1456 her conviction was posthumously reversed, and in 1920 she was declared a Catholic saint.

There are more churches and shrines dedicated to her in [[{{Irony}} England than in France.]] She also is often painted in a BattleBallgown.

Her fame also made writers base characters on her, thus the JeanneDArchetype.

For further information, see the book ''Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint'', by Stephen W. Richey. For a famous fictional portrayal, there is Creator/GeorgeBernardShaw's play ''Joan of Arc'' which fictionalises large amounts of the story and actually seems to make an attempt to redeem her accusers.

!!Tropes relating to Joan of Arc:

* ActionGirl: Downplayed in real life; she was not a warrior, but a standard-bearer. However, this made her no stranger to the battlefield.
* AlternativeCharacterInterpretation: Joan's Voices have been seen as either the result of a [[PalsWithJesus genuine religious experience]], [[MadDreamer schizophrenia]], or [[JunkieProphet drugs]]. More recently, doctors have speculated she might have had Meniere's disease, which causes auditory and sometimes visual phenomena. In any case, UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln's quip about what General UsefulNotes/UlyssesSGrant is drinking is appropriate here.[[note]]"I wish some of you would tell me the brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals."[[/note]]
* {{Archenemy}}: To the Duke of Bedford. She prevented him from conquering the whole country, and after having her put to death, he spent the rest of his life trying to undo the damage she inflicted to England's war effort at Orleans.
* BadassPacifist[=/=]MartialPacifist: In her trial, Joan claimed to never have killed anyone on the battlefield, saying she preferred her banner over her sword. If that doesn't sound like much, know that this was an era where the standard-bearer was always at the front of the army since it was the only way they knew where they were supposed to go or move on a battlefield. The person holding the banner was often a specific target of the enemy because of this.
* BarefootPoverty: Sometimes depicted as such in paintings, even ones taking place during her war career, to reflect her humble upbringing.
* BattleBallgown: Portrayed with this in some illustrations, though there's no proof she wore one.
* BeethovenWasAnAlienSpy: ''TheSecretsOfTheImmortalNicholasFlamel'' reveal that Joan was actually rescued from her burning by Scathach the Shadow and is alive and well in Paris, now over 500 years old. This is a {{Retcon}} from a previous book that implied she did die.
** And some ''ComicBook/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'' comics imply she was the Slayer.
** Also ''Anime/PuellaMagiMadokaMagica'' states that she was one of many Magical Girls, alongside Cleopatra and Anne Frank.
** In the NasuVerse, there are hints that Joan (spelled Jeanne) was being influenced by the Counter Force, and that she made a deal with Alaya to become a Counter Guardian after she died. Even if she didn't, she likely would have ascended to the Throne of Heroes anyway. She becomes one of the 2 protagonists of ''LightNovel/FateApocrypha''.
** Webcomic/AxisPowersHetalia plays her mostly straight when France tells a young woman in the modern day about her, but it's implied that the young woman is actually Joan reincarnated.
* BrainyBrunette: She was known as a brilliant strategist and tactician, and, when not depicted with [[RedHeadedHeroine red]], she's depicted with dark brown hair.
* BoyishShortHair: While many paintings [[LongHairIsFeminine depict her with long flowing hair]], she claimed the voices commanded her to cut her hair as well. It was thus worn in a bob cut, which nowadays is feminine but then was associated with pageboys.
* CelibateHero: Joan [[VirginPower used her virginity as a sign of her purity]], and as such remained chaste all her life. Two tests were performed to confirm her virginity, including one during her trial, thus confirming it. This was, in fact, the true reason for her canonization as a Saint, not because she was a martyr (which she technically was not).
* ChildSoldier: In the broad definition. She was 16-17 when she set out, and 19 when she was executed.
* DeadpanSnarker: If her trial records are anything to go by, Joan was this, even delivering a TakeThat to the heavily-accented judge [[RepetitiveName Seguin Seguin]]:
-->'''Seguin Seguin:''' What language did [the Voices] speak?\\
'''Joan of Arc:''' A better one than yours.
* HistoricalVillainUpgrade: In ''Theatre/HenryVIPart1'', where her voices are made more demonic in nature, her virginity is hinted to be a lie, and even some of the French distrust her. To be expected of a ThemeParkVersion of the English perspective of the Hundred Years' War. Years later, another English dranatist, George Bernard Shaw, wrote ''Saint Joan'' which went a long way to rub away centuries of anti-Joan English propaganda.
* IHaveManyNames: While she's most commonly known as Joan of Arc or Jeanne D'Arc, at her trial Joan said it was the custom of her region for girls to use their mother's surname. Her father was Jacques d'Arc and her mother was Isabelle de Vouthon, also known as Isabelle Romée. So she could have gone by Romée or de Vouthon also... except there's no record of it. Her family was also awarded the name "du Lys" by the king when she was made a noble.
* JeanneDArchetype: TropeMaker, TropeCodifier and TropeNamer.
* JustAKid: This, along with her sex or even her claim to have been called by God, was why people didn't think she could do what she said she would do.
* KangarooCourt: Joan's trial was headed by [[CorruptChurch Bishop]] [[HangingJudge Pierre Cauchon]], who was in the payroll of both the English [[AristocratsAreEvil Earl of Warwick]] and the [[SmugSnake Duke of Burgundy]], and handpicked the judges himself from members of the [[WickedCultured University of Paris]] who also hated Joan's guts. She never really stood a chance.
* KnightInShiningArmor: Joan is sort of a female example. She is usually portrayed in full plate armor when not in a BattleBallgown. She also had a chain mail overshirt, a long tabard and (rarely depicted) a big hat.
* LadyOfWar: One of the common depictions of her, though there's no proof of it.
* LeeroyJenkins: To an extent. Her battle tactics focused quite a bit on aggression and full-frontal assaults.
* MadeOfIron: She took an arrow to the neck during the Siege of Orleans and still led the final charge.
* TheMagnificent: No records survive where Joan uses the name "D'Arc", and all her signatures are just simply "Jehanne". But she was known as ''la Pucelle'', "The Maiden".
* MissionFromGod: What she and the Christians believe she was following.
* MyGodWhatHaveIDone: Her executioner, Geoffrey Therage, believed that he had damned himself irredeemably by burning her.
** A possible example may be Cardinal Henry Beaufort, the overseer of the trial, who left the execution in tears.
** Several of her judges, like John de Stogumber and Nicolas Loiseleur, seemed to feel some remorse after her execution.
* NotSoDifferent: With her companion Gilles de Rais, if Jean Benedetti's writings are anything to go by:
--->"They had much in common: both were reckless in battle; they both preferred a simple response to any situation; they both had a sense of occasion, of the theatrical; [[ArsonMurderAndJaywalking and they both shared a fondness for fine clothes]]."
** Quite ironic when you consider [[SerialKiller how Gilles de Rais turned out]] after the war.
* OddFriendship: With La Hire; she was a celibate, intensely religious teenage peasant girl and he was a brash, hard swearing, professional old war horse and near bandit whose normal prayer was "Fair Sir God, I pray You this day, do for me what I would do for You, if I were God and You, La Hire." They got on very well.
* RapeAsDrama: Some scholars say she was raped, possibly gang-raped, after her abjuration. According to her contemporary Martin Ladvenu, an english Lord tried to rape her in jail, but failed.
* RedHeadedHero: Even though no portrait of her made while she was alive exists, she is frequently portrayed in the media with red hair.
** Similarly, a sort of HistoricalBeautyUpdate seems to apply, probably inspired by BeautyEqualsGoodness. As above, there are no known portraits of her but that doesn't stop her from being a memetic beauty. She was consistently described as short and sturdy, with dark hair. One of her contemporaries said she had lovely breasts.
* SavvyGuyEnergeticGirl: [[PrinceCharmless Charles VII]] and Joan of Arc.
* SpellMyNameWithAnS: Joan? Jehanne? Jeanne? [[WordOfGod She used Jehanne.]]
** Joan didn't come from a place called Arc; her hometown was called Domrémy. "Of Arc" is English for "d'Arc", the accepted surname of Joan's father Jacques. But French naming conventions of the time didn't use apostrophes, so it might really be "Darc" (and even this was spelled variously at the time - "Darx", "Tarc"...).
* SweetPollyOliver: She didn't really disguise herself as a man, but she did wear male clothing for practical reasons.
* TakeAThirdOption: During her trial, Joan was asked if she believed she was in God's grace. This question was a trap - Church doctrine held that no-one could be sure of being in God's grace, so if she answered "yes," she would have proven herself a heretic, but if she had answered "no," [[MortonsFork she would also have confirmed her guilt]]. However, she answered:
--->"If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me."
* TokenEvilTeammate: Gilles de Rais was this, as he was a SerialKiller. Though Joan of Arc most likely did not know about this.
* ThouShallNotKill: According to herself during her trial, she followed this.
* WarriorMonk: Joan herself, though she's obviously more of a warrior nun.

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