Using a handheld camera with no damping and a lot of movement. Imagine trying to take a clear photo while running up a flight of stairs; you might get the subject in the frame, but it is not going to be perfectly centered or balanced against the rest of the background. It deliberately throws off the expectation of the meticulously directed scene with perfectly proportioned shots.

This technique imparts immediacy to the sequence, because it forces the viewer to pay closer attention to catch on to what is happening. It was originally a documentary technique, eventually becoming more common in TV episodes. Often an integral part, if not a nigh-mandatory side effect, of InUniverseCamera. Often used in conjunction with fast cutting (especially during fight scenes) as a method to convey energy, like saying "Things are so crazy the camera can't keep up!" It is sometimes used in slower, more emotional scenes as well, to heighten the dramatic effect.

Combines frequent use of the WhipPan and the RepeatCut. The antonym of SteadiCam. Sometimes referred to as "Shaky Cam" but that was coined by Creator/SamRaimi in the use of the closely related trope ShakyPOVCam (using a POV shot of something moving, which would generally employ the use of the Jitter Cam).

Its popularity has increased recently, often overlapping with the style of the FauxDocumentary and {{Mockumentary}}. (Pick any recent action film.) It can show up in non-live action works as well, see FalseCameraEffects.

Of course, jitter cam has also managed to gather a large {{Hatedom}} from people who feel that it's overdone and used to cover up badly choreographed action scenes. Like many things, it isn't inherently a bad thing to use but when used in excess (either ''too'' shaky or in too many scenes) many people will describe it as "headache" or "nausea" inducing.

Contrast ScreenShake. See also CameraAbuse, ShakyPOVCam, DizzyCam.
----
!!Examples:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* ''Manga/BlackLagoon'' also uses it. Eg: in a car chase with the RoboMaid, the impact with a palm tree is accompanied by jittering camera tilt and shake, along with sustained motion-blur on palm tree itself.
* ''Anime/EveNoJikan'' uses Jitter Cam a lot. Sometimes, it's used to accentuate dramatic scenes, but mostly just for the hell of it.
* ''Anime/{{Flag}}'' is told entirely from the point of view of various cameras and a computer screen. As such, the cameras can vary often end up moving around quite a bit, particularly when the photographer or the chosen camera is being used in combat.
* ''Anime/FullmetalAlchemist'', in the first episode and an opening sequence.
* Used in the opening sequence for ''Anime/HaibaneRenmei''.
* The very first episode of ''Anime/MagicalGirlLyricalNanoha'' used this while Nanoha was running back to the animal clinic containing [[WeaselMascot Yuuno]].
* Anime Director Creator/SatoshiKon likes to drop hints that he knows his camera (before his AuthorAvatar explicitly brags it in ''Paprika'',) and a few times in ''Anime/ParanoiaAgent'', the ShakyCam effect is illustrated to enhance an impact. It's especially noticeable in the late season fight between Maniwa and Slugger.
* ''Manga/LePortraitDePetiteCossette'', so much. While jittering, the camera constantly goes in and out of focus as well.
* In the final fight scene in the first episode of the anime ''Anime/SamuraiChamploo'', the camera not only jitters, but also loses focus at one point. The effect shows up in a few other episodes as well, always in a fight scene. Looks cool, although drawing attention to the camera raises the question of [[AnachronismStew what a cameraman was doing in Edo Japan]]. [[FalseCameraEffects Or a cartoon]].
** And given the whole premise of the anime, probably deliberately.
* The "camera" in ''Anime/SwordOfTheStranger'' is pretty shaky during the fight scenes, and sometimes seems to have trouble keeping up with the combatants.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Film]]
* One of the largest criticisms of ''Film/BatmanBegins'' was overuse of shakey cam. Thankfully [[Film/TheDarkKnight the sequel]] went easy on it, ''especially'' for the [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome semi flipping scene.]]
** There was one notable instance in Film/TheDrakKnight when it was used. Namely, the scene where SelfDemonstrating/TheJoker is [[ColdBloodedTorture torturing the Batman imposter.]] [[JustifiedTrope Justified]], as the scene was the shot by the [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhpCfSslq1w Joker using a hand held camera.]] Also provides a convenient excuse for a GoryDiscretionShot.
* In ''Film/ChildrenOfMen'', a combination of JitterCam and long sequences made for a very nervous movie, in which half of the screen time consists of TheOner with Parkinson's.
* ''Film/{{Cloverfield}}'', a giant-monster-eats-New-York story shown as "documentary footage" filmed by a guy with a camcorder, is eighty-five solid minutes of this.
* Used in the TransformersFilmSeries, which is generally a staple of Creator/MichaelBay. The first film had the camera mostly at ground level, showing how big the robots are and how chaotic it would be. Later movies tone it down somewhat, as more emphasis was put on robot vs. robot rather than the military vs. the bad robots.
* ''Film/TheBlairWitchProject'' didn't invent this trope, but, along with ''Saving Private Ryan'', helped to popularize it in the modern era of movies.
* ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries The Bourne Supremacy and The Bourne Ultimatum]]'', the first film (by a different director) used it at times but was otherwise more traditional. The other two would have a tilting camera even during quiet dialogue scenes.
** Frankly, one ''could'' argue that Paul Greengrass is notorious for abusing this in all his films.
* Used for effect in ''Film/TwoThousandOneASpaceOdyssey'' in the third act: "My God, it's full of stars!"
* The [[Film/FridayNightLights 2004 film]] ''Film/FridayNightLights''.
* ''Path to 9/11'' does it start to finish, even when characters are seated, socializing, and completely relaxed.
* DiaryOfTheDead mostly (''and thankfully'') averts this, and tends to only suffer it during zombie attacks and for one segment filmed on a camcorder when their main camera's battery dies. We see at this point that, as film students, their main camera features a steady cam device.
* ''TwelveRounds''.
* ''Film/ManOnFire'' has a lot of it.
* ''Film/{{Domino}}''
* ''RachelGettingMarried'' combines this with a lot of [[TheOner long shots]]. Justified in that the movie is basically presented as home videos of the wedding in question and numerous characters are seen with camcorders.
* ''{{Hancock}}''.
* ''SavingPrivateRyan'' is the TropeCodifier for the modern action sequence; many of the films listed here [[FollowTheLeader followed in its stead]]. If they aren't imitating aforementioned ''Blair Witch Project'', that is.
* ''MinorityReport''
* ''SchindlersList''
* ''LostInTranslation''
* ''Film/StarTrek'' (the 2009 movie), largely replacing the old "tilt the camera and make everyone fall down" trick, better known as ScreenShake.
* ''PublicEnemies''
* Some parts of ''Film/{{District 9}}'' - but done well enough to seem natural, but not nauseated.
* The independent film ''Amreeka'' uses Jittercam more or less all the time, supplemented by a devout belief in the Close-Up. Not a great combination.
* ''Film/ParanormalActivity''. Though since the camera is on a tripod or stable surface for 3/4 of the movie, it doesn't offend nearly as much as most other "found footage" films.
* ''{{Serbis}}''
* ''Film/{{Crank}}''
* ''{{Feast}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/HowToTrainYourDragon'' uses it 3 times with a refreshingly light hand.
* ''Film/HomeMovie''
* ''Film/BlackSwan'' is filmed like this, even the ballet sequences.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{WALL-E}}'' was meticulously animated to contrast Jitter Cam-like shots on Earth with SteadiCam-esque shots aboard the ''Axiom'' to add another layer of Technology vs. Nature to the film.
* ''HotFuzz'' uses this technique excessively, to the point of parody.
* ''Film/QuantumOfSolace'' uses shaky camera techniques heavily during the action scenes. Despite the fact that jitter cam was used only sparingly in its predecessor, ''Film/CasinoRoyale''.
* ''Film/SilentHouse'' and its predecessor ''The Silent House'' uses it as part of their gimmick of the movies being [[TheOner one continuous shot]].
* ''Film/BattleLosAngeles''
* ''Film/TheHungerGames'' uses this throughout, primarily to prevent the violence from entering R-rated territory, and to heighten the emotional effect of certain scenes. There's also plenty of jitter cam used during the quiet talking scenes, to give the movie a "gritty" feel. Thanks to a new director, [[Film/TheHungerGamesCatchingFire the sequel]] uses it with a lighter hand.
* ''Film/YakuzaGraveyard'' shoots the gunfights like this, to reflect the participants mindset: hysterically blasting away while bumping into each other in confined areas.
** In fact, most of KinjiFukasaku's Yakuza and war films use this.
* Some of the earlier {{Giallo}} films use this technique, such as Argento's ''Film/TheBirdWithTheCrystalPlumage'' and Fulci's ''Film/DontTortureADuckling''. By contrast, most of the later giallo films have very steady camerawork.
* ''Babylon A.D.'' to a nauseating excess.
* Some 75% of ''Film/LesMiserables2012''.
* ''Film/{{REC}}'', as the entire film is shot with a handheld camera.
* A common criticism of ''Film/ManOfSteel'''s cinematography.
* Like the ''Man of Steel'' example above, ''[[Film/TetsuoTheIronMan Tetsuo: The Bullet Man]]'''s overall cinematograhy is criticized for this.
* Done in ''Film/{{Elysium}}'', [[http://i.imgur.com/f4A08tV.gif this]] gif gives wonderful insight into the trope.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* Came into wide TV use in the US with ''HillStreetBlues''...
* ...and in the UK with ''Series/TheBill''.
* Later, ''NYPDBlue'' would use the technique heavily.
* ''TheShield'' goes so far as to have twitchy zoom and focus; for actual action scenes, they go to a higher shutter speed.
* ''Series/{{Lost}}'', particularly in the pilot, when the illusion of running through the jungle was created with actors running in place and filmed by a very shaky camera. However, the camera became less jittery as the series went on; later, this only came up when it made the most sense, such as action scenes.
* ''[[Series/TwentyFour 24]]''.
* ''{{Firefly}}'' was notable for being the first show that ''simulated'' the jittercam effect in its CGI sequences.
* The 2003 reboot of ''[[Series/BattlestarGalacticaReimagined Battlestar Galactica]]''. The use, at least in the space scenes, was actually called for by writer/producer Ronald D. Moore, in his manifesto on "naturalistic science-fiction." The idea was that while in conventional film-making it is important never to draw attention to the camera in order to avoid breaking SuspensionOfDisbelief, CGI special effects shots tend to fall into a sort of UncannyValley effect. The CGI shots in ''Battlestar Galactica'' were therefore shot using only camera placements and techniques that theoretically could have been used if the show were, in fact a documentary.
** It's not just the space scenes. Even in dialog the camera jiggles, although there isn't idiosyncratic zooming.
* The ''Series/DoctorWho'' episode "Love & Monsters". The more recent episodes are entirely filmed with JitterCam. Just look at "Let's Kill Hitler", for one example.
* Most battle scenes in ''BandOfBrothers''.
* ''TheOffice'', both UK and US, since it's a {{Mockumentary}}
* The 2006 ''Series/FridayNightLights'' series, continuing the tradition of the film.
* ''Series/BostonLegal''
* ''Series/TheXFiles'' episode "X-Cops", since the episode was presented as a show much like ''Series/{{COPS}}''.
* ''Kath & Kim'' (the original Australian version)
* ''{{Medium}}''
* ''Franchise/LawAndOrder''.
* ''Series/{{House}}'', from about the third season on.
* ''Series/TheThickOfIt'', especially in the first series.
* A staple of British young-lawyers drama ''This Life''.
* ''Series/BreakingBad''
* ''Series/PowerRangersRPM'' makes use of this during the fight scenes. Thankfully the Ranger suits are so brightly coloured so you can just about tell what's going on.
* ''Series/StargateUniverse'' might as well be named Shakycam Universe. There is roughly 4 combined minutes of not shaking for a 45-or-so minute TV series.
* ''NTSF:SD:SUV::'' Justified since this show is a parody of police procedural shows.
* ''[[Series/JeopardyCBBC Jeopardy]]'' had this with the group's video diaries.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Music]]
* A good early example: R.E.M.'s "Pretty Persuasion" video.
* This trope became popular with music videos in the late [[TheEighties 80's]], used by everyone from Steve Winwood to Guns N' Roses.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* Happens when the player sprints in ''GearsOfWar'', despite the game being third-person. WordOfGod says that this masks the fact that running isn't really much faster than normal speed.
** Third Person Shooters, First Person Shooters and other genres use this trope during sprinting.
* The ''Film/{{Transformers}}'' video game based on the movie.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 3}}'', whenever you use the VATS.
* ''VideoGame/ResidentEvilTheDarksideChronicles'' uses this; although it results in a more cinematic presentation than the game's predecessor, ''The Umbrella Chronicles'' (which does not feature a shaky cam), it also makes it much more difficult to hit enemies in critical areas, and accuracy is one of the criteria upon which the player is rated.
* ''KaneAndLynch 2'': Dog Days uses this trope as a portrayal of Lynch's mental state. However, [[TropesAreNotGood one of the many complaints critics had with the game is that the shakey cam made them nauseous.]]
* The ''Franchise/MassEffect'' series simulates it, mostly for flybys and establishing shots in cutscenes, and ''especially'' prevalent whenever [[MindRape Shepard gets a memory of the Reapers.]]
* ''BlackSnow'''s intro features this somewhat heavily - you ''are'' technically viewing a recording of your character's headcam as he's running away from the EldritchAbomination that ate his teammates - but then stabilizes after you take control of the character proper - until you're assaulted by the monster itself.
* ''VideoGame/PokemonXAndY'' uses some of this in battle scenes, although oddly not generally when any action is happening.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Web Original]]
* ''{{lonelygirl15}}'': {{Justified}} since, InUniverse, these are kids recording their experiences with camcorders.
** Same for ''KateModern''
* Parodied in ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtWPW8yJtgM "Epic VFX Time"]]'':
-->'''Harley:''' Well, this shot's ''boring!'' Too stationary. Let's get some camera-shake! (''JitterCam'') Feels like you're really there. ''More camera-shake.'' (''Stronger JitterCam'') '''More camera-shake!''' (''[[SerialEscalation Stronger]] JitterCam'') ...Too much camera-shake.\\
'''Freddie:''' This isn't ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries Bourne Identity!]]'' You ain't Creator/MattDamon!,
* ''WebVideo/BumReviews'' used it to review ''The Hunger Games'', listed above (complete with complaining that the IMAX makes it even more nauseating).
* ''WebVideo/TheAutobiographyOfJaneEyre'': Most of Episode 3 is shot in this style. Jane had lost her mobile and was freaking out because she thought she was stranded late at night in the middle of nowhere. She was walking and running, shooting an authentic entry for her fresh vlog.
* ''WebVideo/HallowedWorldly'': Hallowed Worldly is both the cameraman and the main character in his primary series, so this is inevitable.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* The pilot for ''MoralOrel'' used this during dramatic moments, mainly when [[StepfordSmiler Bloberta]] was alone (not sure about the rest of the series).
* Mocked in ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' when WesternAnimation/SouthPark is attacked by guinea pigs. Even when just walking around normally, Randy Marsch breathes heavily and shakes his camera around manically, going from his wife's face to his shoes and making a big show for dramatic effect until his wife tells him to knock it off.
* ''WesternAnimation/JusticeLeague'' used it frequently in fight scenes, most notably Superman vs. Captain Atom in "Flashpoint".
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Duckman}}'' used it for almost the entirety of the DocumentaryEpisode "American Dicks", as the episode is shown from the point of view of a cameraman filming Duckman's attempts to solve the eponymous ShowWithAShow's 100th case.
* Used lightly in the ''WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender'' episode "The Firebending Masters" to emphasize the size and weight [[spoiler:of the two dragons]] as they're circling.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Mocked in the opening video for the 2012 London Olympics, featuring Creator/DanielCraig's Film/JamesBond. The Queen's corgis are shown running about... in the then newest ''Bond'' style of shaky-cam.
[[/folder]]
----