What is Jazz? Here are some (attributed) answers from the best and most influential Jazz musicians of all time:

-> ''"Man, if you have to ask what it is, you'll never know."''
--> --'''Music/LouisArmstrong'''

-> ''I'll play it first and tell you what it is later.''
--> --'''Music/MilesDavis'''

-> ''"Jazz is the type of music that can absorb so many things and still be jazz."''
--> --'''Sonny Rollins'''

-> ''"Jazz is freedom. You think about that."''
--> --'''Thelonious Monk'''

OK, OK, that probably didn't help much, but in our defense, defining jazz really is hard (just look at what the OtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz#Definitions has to say about that]]!). So maybe we can just stick with the following: At its heart, jazz is about spontaneity. That usually means improvising, the art of playing (to a greater or lesser extent) without a script and being free to play whatever you like, sometimes without even confines of traditional music structure (which is what [[LoveItOrHateIt Free Jazz]] is all about).

Jazz started out in the United States in the beginning of the 20th century as 'black music' and is closely related to {{Blues}}, to the extent that many famous jazz compositions can be considered Blues pieces. Since then, there have been different forms of jazz, listed roughly in historical order: New Orleans, Swing/Big Band, Bebop, Cool, Modal, Free Jazz, Fusion, Nu Jazz... and this is a very incomplete list.

Jazz itself probably started out in a small band format in many different cities throughout the US, most famously New Orleans. It became the most popular type of music in the US in its BigBand format (10-30 musicians) during the [[TheRoaringTwenties Twenties]] to [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII Forties]]. Then it evolved into a multitude of different styles, pretty much all of which were played by small bands (duos to octets), starting out with Bebop. The emphasis also changed back to playing more in jazz clubs and having fewer concerts (with some important exceptions, such as the Newport Jazz Festival). The ascension of pop music and RockAndRoll in TheFifties led to the fading of jazz's popularity. Jazz today has, for the most part, a sizable but 'cult' following. Somewhat amusingly (and probably shockingly to the original founders of the genre), jazz has become "respectable" music thanks to the development of technical artistry; jazz is now taught alongside ClassicalMusic in many university music departments across the US--unheard-of for any other genre.

Jazz has left a deep impression in music. Improvised and/or extended solos are the primary example of this. Jazz also contributed to the development of musical instruments, most famously the modern drum set, which was largely developed by early jazz musicians.

Jazz is one of the most unique cultural contributions that the United States brought to the world, along with RockAndRoll.

Finally, a note on the name: there are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz_%28word%29 many, many, many ideas for where and how the word originated]].

----
!!Notable jazz artists include (note, some of these musicians belong in multiple categories!):

[[index]]
[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Big Band Era ]]

* "Jelly Roll" Morton: New Orleans-style jazz pianist and the genre's first great composer. Also an inveterate braggart who claimed to have single-handedly invented jazz and a BoomerangBigot who frequently insulted darker-skinned musicians while emphasizing the white portion of his mixed-race heritage.
* Buddy Bolden: New Orleans cornet player, often regarded as one of the most important pioneers of jazz, but whose reputation is based entirely on verbal testimony because he never got to record anything: he suffered a psychotic breakdown in 1907 and spent the rest of his life in a mental institution, and the first jazz recordings weren't made until ten years later.
* Dominic "Nick" [=LaRocca=]: A highly controversial figure in jazz history, cornet player [=LaRocca=] was the leader of the Original Dixieland Jass Band. He's probably the first jazz musician who was ever recorded, and the first to outsell John Philip Sousa, who had the best-selling artist in America at the beginning of the twentieth century. At the same time, he was notorious for claiming that jazz was exclusively an invention of white musicians and trying to bribe other trumpeters to leave New Orleans so he could be the best in the city.
* Paul Whiteman: Known as the "King of Jazz", Whiteman was one of the first white bandleaders and helped to bring jazz to mainstream attention. Having been trained as a classical violinist, he received some criticism from other classical musicians for "playing below himself", while some black musicians felt he was becoming famous by copying their style. Nonetheless, he helped to introduce the style to white audiences and did his best to give credit to black musicians whenever he could.
* Music/LouisArmstrong: A massively influential jazz musician, played the trumpet and cornet, and engaged in a fifty-year career in jazz. He is considered the inventor of many basic elements of jazz, including scat singing but chiefly improvisation: he's the first great jazz soloist to have been recorded. His later records aren't really jazz but are still highly enjoyable; his recordings from the late 1920s, made when he was already a veteran musician in his own late twenties, are essential listening.
** ''Music/TheCompleteHotFiveAndHotSevenRecordings'' (recorded between 1925 and 1928, but the CD release is from 2000.)
* Music/DukeEllington: ''The'' greatest composer and bandleader in jazz, although he claimed to dislike the J-word and preferred to have his music described as "music". His outstanding compositions notwithstanding, he was equally influential as a bandleader for the way that he encouraged others (such as Billy Strayhorn) to write classic compositions for his band, and fostered more than one generation of great players (Jimmy Blanton, Ben Webster, Johnny Hodges, Paul Gonsalves).[[note]]By way of contrast, Benny Goodman was just as famous a bandleader and his career was longer than Ellington's, but far fewer of Goodman's bandmembers became famous in their own right; this is in part because Goodman had a more fragile ego than Ellington, which in turn was probably to do with the fact that he wasn't a composer.[[/note]] Also a damn fine pianist who more than held his own on a trio session with bebop pioneers Charles Mingus and Max Roach, and possibly the only jazz musician who could have been equally at ease playing with both Louis Armstrong and John Coltrane, although not on the same date, alas. Miles Davis, his only rival for the post of Greatest Bandleader Ever, said that jazz musicians should get down on their knees every day and thank Duke for what he did for music.
* Count Basie: Jazz composer and bandleader (and pianist as well) at the same time as Ellington, Basie's unique styles mark him solidly as a quintessential Big Band leader, along with Ellington. Developing his style with a number of orchestras, Basie specialised in riff-based jazz, which is [[/index]] ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin[[index]].
* Music/BennyGoodman: A classically trained clarinet player known as the "King of Swing", Goodman was responsible for helping to bring hot swing which focused on improvisation into the mainstream in the 1930s, and made an effort to employ black musicians at a time when the music industry was segregated; in so doing he kickstarted the careers of important musicians such as Lionel Hampton and Charlie Christian. Also a notorious martinet to his musicians, famous for his DeathGlare when they did anything he didn't like, which was known as "The Ray".[[note]]Singer Helen Forrest spent 20 months in Goodman's band and said later that it felt like 20 years.[[/note]]
* Fats Waller: Fine pianist and singer but chiefly memorable for writing great songs, some of which ("Honeysuckle Rose", "Ain't Misbehavin'") are so standard it's almost ridiculous.
* Coleman Hawkins (nicknamed "The Hawk" and "Bean"): Huge-toned tenor saxophonist from Missouri. The first great player of what's become perhaps the signature jazz instrument, the tenor sax; a player of amazing power and finesse, whose explorations in harmony are not just a precursor of bebop but also exciting in themselves. His 1939 recording of "Body and Soul" was notable in that he barely bothered to state the tune at all, but went straight into improvising; in 1948 he released "Picasso", an unaccompanied sax solo. Universally recognised as a grandfather of bebop; made recordings in later life with Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane. Miles Davis said listening to the Hawk taught him how to play ballads.
* Lester Young (nicknamed "Pres"[[note]]Short for "President"[[/note]]): Tenor sax player from Mississippi who came to prominence in Count Basie's band. In many ways the {{Foil}} to Coleman Hawkins; his laid-back, intimate, waaaay-behind-the-beat style was the opposite of Hawkins's driving energy, and was so hugely influential that he is pretty much responsible for the trope of [[{{Sexophone}} romantic saxophone music]]. A close friend and frequent collaborator of Creator/BillieHoliday. Shy and introverted, he was jazz's great BunnyEarsLawyer, inventing his own version of hipster slang.[[note]]He famously called everyone "Lady", thereby giving Holiday her nickname "Lady Day". Other examples: "Does madam burn?"=Does your wife cook? "Have eyes"=want, i.e. "I had big eyes for a spot with Basie"=I really wanted to play with Basie. He's even said to have been the first person to use the word "cool" to mean something good or desirable.[[/note]] After a disastrous period of Army service during WW2 he went from being a heavy drinker to a problem drinker, and he died of liver disease aged only 49. Famed for his rumpled sense of style and CoolHat, which gave its name to Charles Mingus's elegy for him, "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat".
* Charlie Christian: Oklahoman guitarist, the first great electric guitarist in jazz, not just because of his fleetness as an improviser but because he recognised that amplification took the guitar from being a barely-audible part of the rhythm section and stuck it out front, making him one of the most influential guitarists of all time. Was the best thing in Benny Goodman's band, while he was in it; also helped create bebop by hanging out in clubs and jamming with musicians such as drummer Kenny Clarke. Died of TB aged 25.
* Creator/ArtTatum: An almost completely blind jazz pianist, whose technique is something that, that, ... [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Cs_zb4q14 Just see for yourself]]. No wonder too, as (so legend goes) he learned to play by repeating the movements on a autopiano... which played pieces for four hands! Playing his material is a truly monumental achievement even to this day.
* Chano Pozo: A short-lived but highly influential Afro-Cuban percussionist best known for his work in Dizzy Gillespie's various outfits, where he played a crucial role in the establishment of Latin jazz. A heavy drinker and brawler, he was shot dead at the age of 33; while there are multiple stories about why he was killed, the prevailing one is that he threatened a marijuana dealer who he thought ripped him off.
* Bix Beiderbecke: A celebrated cornetist whose playing foreshadowed cool jazz and bebop. He played with a number of groups, recorded prolifically and was said to be Louis Armstrong's only true equal as a horn player before dying at a young age.
* Music/DjangoReinhardt: The first non-American jazz innovator, and one of the most influential guitar players of the 20th century. With the ''Quartette/Quintette du Hot Club du France'', he replicated swing with an all-string ensemble, and, by combining this with some influences from Roma music (Reinhardt being Roma), created the sub-genre known as Gypsy Jazz. He did all this in spite of the fact that his left hand (i.e. his fretting hand) had been badly burned in a caravan accident when he was a teenager, so that only two of his fingers on that hand worked properly. Most guitarists even today can't play like Django with four working fingers and a thumb, making him jazz's supreme HandicappedBadass.
* Music/TheAndrewsSisters: While they were actually a singing trio, they worked with many bands during WWII.
* Ella Fitzgerald: One of the most well-known jazz vocalists of all time, her range, accuracy, sense of swing, and the cheerful quality of her voice led many to consider her one of the greatest singers of the 20th century, period. Expect VocalDissonance (Sorry Ella). She was the singer in Chick Webb's orchestra and took over as leader after his death. After the swing era came to a close she remained popular and pioneered singing in a bop style.
* Music/CabCalloway: One of the other [[/index]]{{Trope Codifier}}s[[index]] of scat singing, like Music/LouisArmstrong. He was one of the first African-American performers to make it big, performing alongside Al Jolson at one point. He was also known for his dance moves, and brought jazz to a wider audience by appearing in [[/index]]WesternAnimation/BettyBoop[[index]] cartoons. In his seventies, he acquired a whole new bunch of fans with his performance as Curtis, the janitor/mentor figure in ''Film/TheBluesBrothers''.
* Music/GlennMiller: One of the most popular band leaders, he led his orchestra as one of the biggest record sellers from 1939 to his (literal) dissappearance in late 1944. His greatest hit was "In The Mood", not counting his work with the Andrews Sisters. Expect one of his pieces in any WWII setting. Generally regarded by jazz fans as not really a jazz musician, because his signature style of arranging left very little room for improvisation, but he doesn't really belong anywhere else.
* Music/BillieHoliday: Also known as "Lady Day", probably the most famous jazz and blues vocalists of all time. Much emulated, her tragic life is as well known as her talent. Mostly known for her later work, when her voice had a hoarse and cracked quality that was very moving, although this is a pity, because her earlier work for Columbia (when her voice was in perfect shape) is as good if not better. She is often depicted in media, and even has a cult classic biopic starring Diana Ross. "Strange Fruit" by Abel Meeropol, her signature song, brought attention to the lynchings of blacks in the Deep South, and was voted by Time Magazine as the greatest song of the 20th century.
** ''Music/LadyInSatin'' (1958)
* Music/LawrenceWelk

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Bebop, Cool and Modal ]]

* Chet Baker: cool jazz trumpeter, famously handsome as a young man, who was also a lovely singer; beloved for his intimate way with a ballad but also a notorious junkie whose addiction to heroin seriously messed with his career for most of his life..
* Art Blakey: Brilliant drummer and bandleader whose band, the Jazz Messengers, created almost as many big names as Coltrane's various lineups. The Jazz Messengers' style of hard bop is one of the most important codifiers of mainstream jazz, but they were also one of the most sheerly exciting bands to listen to.
* The Dave Brubeck Quartet: Redefined what could be done with bebop, bringing odd time signatures and classical influences with such oddly-timed instant classics as "Take Five," "Blue Rondo a la Turk" and "Unsquare Dance"; pianist Brubeck was the second jazzman, after Music/LouisArmstrong, to be featured on the cover of ''Time'' magazine, although it's much to his credit that he would have preferred Music/DukeEllington to have that honor instead, and felt he himself was honored because he was white.[[note]]Ellington made it onto the cover two years later, after his band played a barnstorming performance at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival.[[/note]] They were also one of the first well-known ''integrated'' jazz bands -- three white men and one black -- and were known for refusing to play gigs in places where their bassist Eugene Wright would be discriminated against.
* Music/JohnColtrane: Master saxophonist and spiritual thinker who went from being a sideman for Miles Davis to leading his own quartet, in which he blew jazz open with a revolutionary approach to composition and improvisation: his compositions became more and more complex to the point that only he could play them absolutely fluently, at which point he drastically simplified them, helping to codify Modal Jazz in the process. Extremely divisive in his day, with some critics thinking he was just going too far: now universally acknowledged to be one of the greats. Went on to be one of the codifiers of free jazz.
** ''Music/BlueTrain'' (1957)
** ''Music/GiantSteps'' (1960)
** ''Music/MyFavoriteThings'' (1961)
** ''Music/ALoveSupreme'' (1965)
* Music/MilesDavis: Jazz trumpeter and bandleader who started in bebop, went on to pioneer multiple styles of jazz (Modal Jazz, Cool Jazz, and Fusion, among others). His 1959 album ''Music/KindOfBlue'' is the best selling jazz album in history, with 1970's ''Music/BitchesBrew'' not far behind. Many great jazz musicians, from the 50's to the 70's and beyond went through his band for at least a short time. Famous for constantly reinventing his music, and for his signature style of slow, melancholy playing.
** ''Music/KindOfBlue'' (1959)
** ''Music/SketchesOfSpain'' (1959)
** ''Music/BitchesBrew'' (1969)
** ''Music/{{Panthalassa}}'' (1998)
* Music/BillEvans: Considered one of the most influential jazz pianists of all time. Eschewed Tatum-style soloing for a more collective approach, choosing languid, breezy sound colors. His short-lived trio with bassist Scott [=LaFaro=] and drummer Paul Motian was one of the most influential bands in jazz, even though it only lasted from 1959 to 1961.[[note]]It ended when [=LaFaro=] was killed in an auto accident.[[/note]] The jazz ballad, "Waltz for Debby", became an international hit, and a jazz standard. Lyrics have been added to the piece in many different languages.
* John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie: Trumpet player and singer from North Carolina, probably the most virtuosic trumpeter in jazz history, known for his brilliant and powerful tone and terrifying speed; Miles Davis devised his own style of playing trumpet precisely because he couldn't play like Gillespie. One of the founding fathers of bebop, wrote many important compositions and also brought Afro-Cuban influences into jazz. Famous for his ebullient and often comic onstage persona, which has harmed his reputation among people who think jazz musicians should never smile; also for his peculiar habit of inflating his cheeks while playing, and for his strangely-shaped trumpet. His tireless gigging and infectious enthusiasm probably did more than anyone else to popularise bebop and establish it as the foundation of mainstream jazz.
* Dexter Gordon: A Tenor Sax phenom who helped spread bebop to other instruments. Famously eccentric; his interviews are trainwrecks. At the end of his life, gave a lovely performance as an ailing jazzman (which he was at the time) in Bertrand Tavernier's 1986 film ''Round Midnight''.
* Music/VinceGuaraldi: A famous jazz pianist who is most famous for his scores for the early [[/index]]''ComicStrip/{{Peanuts}}''[[index]] animated specials. For instance, his ''WesternAnimation/ACharlieBrownChristmas'' soundtrack has become a perennial holiday classic and many kids' first introduction to jazz. Despite his fame for the Peanuts score, his style was heavily influenced by Afro-Cuban Jazz and Brazilian music. Before he died, his later Peanuts scores experimented with harpsichord, Hammond organ, hard bop, fusion, and funk.
* Music/CharlesMingus: The ''angry'' man of jazz, absolutely brilliant and over-opinionated in every place that counted. Known for taking pot shots at other jazz musicians, being an outspoken social activist, inspiring The Who to trash their instruments on stage, and writing a [[http://www.mingusmingusmingus.com/Mingus/cat_training.html guide for how to toilet-train cats.]] Also one of the great jazz composers after Duke Ellington (who he cited as a major influence), writing longer, more complex compositions that seamlessly brought together blues and more avant-garde influences (as a teenager growing up in Watts, Los Angeles, he studied Schoenberg and Stravinsky alongside Ellington) in addition to more conventional jazz "tunes" based on 16- or 32-bar progressions. He's the first- and only, so far - jazz musician to have his entire (gigantic) catalog acquired by the Library of Congress.
** ''Music/MingusAhUm'' (1959)
* Thelonious Monk: Bebop's greatest composer and one of its founding geniuses; almost single-handedly defined its style with his jagged, quirky, exhilarating compositions, almost all of which have become standards. Became known for his odd onstage antics, his collection of unusual hats and his idiosyncratic style of piano playing -- you have to be a really good musician to play so apparently haphazardly and still make it come out ''exactly right''. One commentator said that Monk's compositions were like buildings which had been constructed, then decorated, and then everything had been taken away except the decoration, which was somehow still strong enough to keep the building up.
** ''Music/BrilliantCorners'' (1957)
* Music/CharlieParker: Kansas City alto saxophonist, composer and bandleader whose virtuoso approaches to rhythm, harmony, and tempo laid the foundations of Bebop and revolutionized jazz (and music itself!) like few others. Famous for his blisteringly aggressive tone, which was the result of constant practice; playing in a KC jam session as a teenager, he lost his way during a solo and was publicly humiliated, making him vow that they'd never catch him out again.[[note]]The way it's gone down in jazz legend is that drummer Jo Jones told Parker to get off the bandstand by throwing a cymbal at his feet, an incident self-consciously echoed in Damian Chazelle's 2014 film ''Film/{{Whiplash}}''.[[/note]] Friend and occasional co-leader with Dizzy Gillespie. A big eater, a big drinker and a big drug user, he was dead by 34 but jazz was never the same again. Creator/ClintEastwood's ''Bird'' is a careful, reverential and misleadingly depressing biopic of Parker; he had his demons, to be sure, most of the time, he was swaggeringly confident, charming and mischievous, much like his music.
* Joe Pass: one of the most influential guitarists of bebop.
* Oscar Peterson: A Canadian jazz piano legend who was and still is often compared to Art Tatum in terms of virtuosity; indeed, Tatum was a major influence, but Oscar's style was more contemporary to the early bebop era of the mid 1940's (as opposed to the swing era of the 30's) while maintaining some of the more melodic idioms of swing as well as incredible ballad and blues playing. Criticised occasionally for his slightly formulaic approach, but one of the giants of Canadian jazz.
* Bud Powell: Pioneering bebop pianist and composer; with Parker and Gillespie, one of the great virtuosos of bebop. Liked to point out that, unlike horn players, pianists didn't need to take breaths, and so could play longer lines, which he did. Compositions tend to be high-energy and harmonically ''very'' sophisticated, requiring a high level of schooling to even understand, let alone play. Regarded by later players such as Barry Harris as one of the motherlodes of jazz piano. Unfortunately, a combination of drugs, alcohol and a [[/index]] [[PoliceBrutality police-inflicted]] [[GameBreakingInjury head injury]] caused him to have a CreatorBreakdown[[index]], and he was seldom the same afterwards.
* Sonny Rollins: Pioneering saxophonist whose career is one of the longest and most influential in jazz history, starting from the late 40s to this very day. Helped codify hard bop when barely out of his teens; was a junkie and convicted armed robber by his mid-20s; then inspiringly cleaned himself up and released a string of albums that earn him the status as John Coltrane's main rival. Noted for his thoughtful, angular phrasing and interest in Afro-Caribbean music, as well as pioneering the sax/bass/drums trio format, and for his occasional sabbaticals in which he stops playing in public for a couple of years at a time and rethinks everything. Appeared on ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' in 2013. Still playing in his mid-80s.
* Wayne Shorter: A master saxophonist and great composer who was a member of one of Miles Davis' most brilliant groups, the so-called Second Great Quintet (1964-68), whose ''Live at the Plugged Nickel'' is one of the foundational texts of mainstream jazz. Later went on to co-found the seminal jazz-rock band Music/WeatherReport and is still touring in his early 80s.
* Jimmy Smith: A jazz organist with a half-century recording career, Smith helped popularize the Hammond B-3 electric organ.
** ''Music/HomeCookin'' (1959)
* Music/TonyWilliams: Drumming prodigy who joined Miles Davis's band at the age of 17, went on to play avant-garde jazz, and with guitarist Music/JohnMcLaughlin and organist Larry Young he helped to invent jazz-rock with his band the Tony Williams Lifetime.
** ''Music/{{Emergency}}''

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Free Jazz and Contemporary Jazz ]]

* Derek Bailey: English guitarist, impresario, writer and record label owner. Born in Sheffield, arguably indirectly responsible for prompting more YouTube trolling than any other improvising musician. Was a Charlie Christian fan and Royal Navy bandsman who became a professional musician after leaving the service; worked as a top UK session man in the 50s and 60s before encountering free improvisation, whereupon he broke down his playing style and adopted a new one derived partly from his love of 20th century classical music, especially Anton Webern: splintered, dissonant, lots of artifical harmonics and note clusters, all based in absolutely rock-solid technique, but creating the impression in the minds of some people unfamiliar with atonal music that he was just plinking and bashing at random, hence the trolling. Insisted that what he played was not jazz, but free improvisation. Played with ''everybody'' on the improv scene from the late 60s to his death in 2005; wrote a brilliant book on improvisation (called ''[[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Improvisation]]''); a dry, sceptical, funny presence. In later years, revisited his roots with gorgeous albums of his unique, spiky takes on standard tunes. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUgcKnwnTTE Could also shred]].
* Peter Brötzmann: German free jazz saxophonist best known for his blistering 1968 album ''Machine Gun'', which remains one of the most formidable albums in the jazz canon to this day. Occasional collaborator with Derek Bailey.
* Ornette Coleman: Texan saxophonist, composer and bandleader with a uniquely loose, exploratory approach to playing and composing. His third album ''The Shape of Jazz to Come'' rewrote the rules of jazz harmony and melody, but his 1960 album ''Free Jazz'', which is ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin, pretty much tore the rules into shreds and flushed them down the drain. Coleman got heaped with more derision than almost any other musician of his generation, some of it coming from his own peers, but he persevered and became a beloved figure. One notable later album is his dizzying 1985 collaboration with guitarist Pat Metheny, ''Song X''. Coleman tunes such as "Lonely Woman" and "Mob Job" have become standards.
** ''Music/TheShapeOfJazzToCome'' (1959)
* Music/EricDolphy: Gifted multi-instrumentalist, playing alto sax, flute and bass clarinet with equal facility. Influenced by hard bop, free jazz and also 20th century classical music such as Bartok and Stravinsky; played with Mingus and Coltrane and was equally at home with both. His style was notable for its use of wide intervals; he used to listen to birdsong and try to imitate it. Beloved by everyone who worked with him, apparently. Died young of an undiagnosed diabetic condition after collapsing onstage in Germany.
** ''Music/OutToLunch'' (1964)
* Jim Hall: Widely regarded as one of the great guitarists in jazz; avoided the general tendency among 50s jazz guitarists to be super-fast show-offs and instead developed a subtle, thoughtful and highly musical approach which was very influential, especially on later players such as Bill Frisell and Pat Metheny.
* Music/HerbieHancock: Seminal keyboardist who started in hard bop and has lasted through many shifts of style. Wrote three of modern jazz's standards -- "Cantaloupe Island," "Dolphin Dance" and "Watermelon Man." His lineup on the ''Head Hunters'' album helped to create jazz fusion by adding funk influences into the mix. The first artist to have a jazz-hiphop crossover hit with "Rockit", memorable now for its MindScrew of a video.
** ''Music/HeadHunters'' (1973)
** ''Music/FutureShock'' (1983)
* Wynton Marsalis: New Orleans trumpet prodigy, probably the most famous and popular living jazz musician (together with Sonny Rollins), who plays a more "traditional" jazz, with heavy influences from anything up to the Bebop and Cool jazz era. Has recorded both jazz and classical works. Respected for his immaculate technique and his longterm campaign to make jazz be treated as America's classical music, but controversial for his sometimes strident rejection, especially during the 1980s, of anything he regarded as anti-jazz, e.g. post-1965 avant-garde jazz and anything resembling jazz-rock or fusion.[[note]]On the one hand, Marsalis's efforts to make jazz respectable have indeed helped to make jazz respectable, in the sense that it's taken more seriously and can attract more funding; on the other hand, in the process of boosting his own version of the music, he badmouthed alternative takes on it.[[/note]]
** His similarly acclaimed brother Branford is much more open to new styles and experimentation - he played on a Public Enemy track, for starters. As Wynton has got older, he too has become much more broad-minded: he was performing Ornette Coleman's music as long ago as 2004.
** The whole Marsalis family, really. Ellis, their father, is a pianist, and other brothers include Jason, a drummer and Delfeayo, a trombonist. They also play classical as well as jazz.
* Pat Metheny: Missourian guitarist, composer and bandleader. Started out as a massive Wes Montgomery fan, but his own early stuff was in a fusion vein, and became enormously popular; he's one of the few jazz musicians who can sell out big venues. Famous for his big hair, enormous toothy smile, spacious and accessible compositions and remarkable willingness to try anything: collaborated with Music/DavidBowie on the soundtrack to the film ''The Falcon and the Snowman'', and with Ornette Coleman on 1985's blistering ''Song X'' in the 1990s, released an album of solo skronk guitar that his fans hated, but which was praised by Thurston Moore of Music/SonicYouth, and also collaborated with English avant-guitar legend Derek Bailey on the album ''The Sign of Four''. Despite all this, still regularly sells albums by the truckload.
* Wes Montgomery: One of the most influential jazz guitarists. Taught himself six-string guitar at the extremely late age of 20, although he'd played four-string guitar since 12; played with his thumb, a habit he picked up from practising late at night and not wanting to wake up his sleeping family, which gave him a huge warm tone. Released a string of fine albums between 1958 and 1965, but then largely abandoned jazz for pop-jazz, playing bland instrumental version of pop hits. Died of a heart attack aged 45. Revered by many guitarists, most notably Pat Metheny, who regards Montgomery's 1965 album ''Smokin' at the Half Note'' as the album that taught him how to play.
* Music/TheRippingtons
* Sonny Sharrock: Jazz guitarist from Ossining, New York, who took jazz guitar in a completely different direction from the mainstream. Instead of turning down, rolling back the treble and playing intricate harmonies, he cranked up the volume, played mostly melody and experimented with pure noise and extended techniques, developing them independently of Music/JimiHendrix, who was doing similar things but in a rock context. Said that he didn't consider himself a guitar player but a "horn player with a really fucked-up axe." Became visible in the 60s for his work as avant-guitarist in the band of jazz-fusion flautist Herbie Mann, and also played with one-time Coltrane sideman Pharoah Sanders; also did uncredited work on Miles Davis's ''Jack Johnson''. Career slumped in the 70s, but bass player Bill Laswell coaxed him back into the scene and he released a series of increasingly brilliant, raging albums before dying in 1994 of a heart attack aged only 53.[[note]]Check out his soaringly romantic take on Music/KateBush's [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MV50e19yFwc "Wuthering Heights"]].[[/note]] There is now a street in his home town named Sonny Sharrock Way.
* Music/SunRa: His birth certificate states that he was born Herman Blount in the early 20th century Birmingham, Alabama, but Sun Ra would maintain throughout much of his later life that he was in fact a native of a far away planet. As such, his eccentric worldview and lifestyle would often overshadowed his extremely extensive body of music, which ranges from bop, to free jazz, to doo-wop. His world view, a unique blend of black nationalism, science fiction, and magic realism, would prove to be extremely influential in both the musical and literary worlds.
** ''Music/TheFuturisticSoundsOfSunRa'' (1961)
** ''Film/SpaceIsThePlace'' (1974)
* Music/JohnZorn: Eclectic and highly prolific saxophonist and composer, best known as the bandleader for the avant-garde klezmer/jazz group Masada. Founded the experimental jazz and improv label Tzadik Records. Impossible to pigeonhole, mostly active in jazz, though his gigantic catalogue has tried out various genres and styles throughout the years.
** ''Music/{{Spillane}}'' (1987)
** ''Music/{{Radio}}'' (1993)
** ''Music/MusicForChildren'' (1998)

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Latin Jazz ]]

A special subdivision of Latin American bandleaders who mixed jazz with influences from salsa, mambo, cha-cha-cha, son and other genres.
* Pérez Prado
* Music/TitoPuente
** ''Music/DanceManiaVol1'' (1958)

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Crooners ]]


A special subdivision of jazz are crooners. Sometimes they aren't seen as part of jazz at all, because they just ''sing'' jazz standards and don't play instruments themselves. But they are often categorized and closely associated with the genre as such. Crooning was very dominant from the 1920s until the early 1960s, but then lost popularity thanks to the emerging rock and roll scene. Nevertheless several several singer-songwriters from the rock, soul and pop world have emerged to keep crooning alive.

* Music/TheAndrewsSisters
* Charles Aznavour
* Paul Anka
* Music/FredAstaire: In his movies.
* Tony Bennett
* Music/MichaelBuble
* Music/NatKingCole: Started out as a brilliant jazz pianist in a trio with equally brilliant guitarist Oscar Moore and a succession of bass players. Achieved fame as a singer in the early 40s, but continued as a singer/piano player until well into the 50s, and went on working as an in-demand pianist long after he'd achieved fame as a singer. Worked himself to death (admittedly, the heavy smoking didn't help) in 1965.
* Perry Como
* Harry Connick, Jr.
* Music/BingCrosby
** ''Music/MerryChristmas'' (1942)
* Jamie Cullum
* Music/BobbyDarin
* Creator/SammyDavisJr
* Music/PalomaFaith
* Music/MarianneFaithfull: From the late 1970s and 1980s on she reinvented herself as a jazz and blues singer.
* Engelbert Humperdinck
* Burl Ives
* Music/GeneKelly
* Music/BarryManilow
* Music/DeanMartin
* Music/NellieMcKay
* Bette Midler
* Music/ScatmanJohn: Was actually a jazz crooner and scat singer, before he managed to score a number one pop/rap hit single worldwide with "(I'm a) Scatman" (1995), four years before his death.
* Music/FrankSinatra
** ''Music/SongsForYoungLovers'' (1954)
** ''Music/InTheWeeSmallHours'' (1955)
** ''Music/SongsForSwinginLovers'' (1956)
** ''Music/MyWay'' (1969)
* Creator/BarbraStreisand
* Mel Tormé
* Rudy Vallee
* Music/SarahVaughan
** ''Music/SarahVaughanWithCliffordBrown'' (1954)
** ''Music/AfterHours'' (1961)
** ''Music/LiveInJapan'' (1973)
* Music/TomWaits: Waits is a cross between Jazz, Blues and Alternative Indie. But his first six albums, all recorded under the ''Asylum'' label, breathe very much the atmosphere of a jazz crooner and pianist in a late night bar.
** ''Music/ClosingTime'' (1973)
** ''Music/TheHeartOfSaturdayNight'' (1974)
** ''Music/NighthawksAtTheDiner'' (1975)
** ''Music/SmallChange'' (1976)
** ''Music/ForeignAffairs'' (1977)
** ''Music/BlueValentine'' (1978)
** ''Music/HeartattackAndVine'' (1980)
* Music/AmyWinehouse
** ''[[Music/FrankAlbum Frank]]'' (2003)
** ''Music/BackToBlack'' (2006)
* Monica Zetterlund: A legendary Swedish jazz vocalist. She's most famous for singing jazz treatments of Swedish folk tunes and popular music. Her most famous recording internationally was the Swedish version of "A Waltz for Debby", "Monicas Vals", with the Bill Evans Trio.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Jazzrock/ Jazzpop/ Fusion/ Nu Jazz ]]


Some rock, pop and electronica musicians have created recordings that fuse this music together with jazz influences.


* Music/BohrenUndDerClubOfGore: German jazz band who mixes ambient with metal.
* Brand X: A jazz fusion group whose best known member was Music/PhilCollins, although his participation dropped off once he became the lead singer of Music/{{Genesis}}. The core members were also [[Music/ProgressiveRock progressive rock]] veterans, John Goodsall (Atomic Rooster) and Percy Jones (Soft Machine).
* Music/TheCatEmpire: jazz/latin/ska/funk/soul/indie fusion band from UsefulNotes/{{Melbourne}} UsefulNotes/{{Australia}} with emphasis on the ''fusion'' aspect. They also throw in rock, reggae and hip-hop elements when it suits them.
* Music/{{Chicago}}: Started out as examples of this and ProgressiveRock; moved more towards pop later on.
* Music/JonahDempcy (and his various pseudonyms): similar to the aforementioned St Germain, combines jazz with the various types of electronic music, creating an alternatingly darker and lighter style. A word of warning: hip-hop, dubstep, and house are in his musical vocabulary, and he will use them.
* Music/TheElectricBananaBand
* Kenny G: He has to be mentioned to some extent. An American saxophonist, Kenny G is probably the most successful jazz musician worldwide in terms of record sales, but he's probably the most controversial musician on this list. He's the best known exponent of "smooth jazz", a sub-genre which has been criticized by jazz critics and fans for being barely one step above Easy Listening lounge music. He defines his own music as "instrumental pop" rather than jazz, but his critics (most memorably, Pat Metheny) have pointed out that since he is an improvising musician working within an instrumental framework, he deserves be treated as a jazz musician.[[note]]Virtually anyone who enjoys the music made by ANY of the musicians listed above would seriously dispute whether Kenny G can be called a jazz musician, but Metheny had a very good reason for calling him one. After Kenny G released a track which consisted of him overdubbing himself onto Louis Armstrong's recording of "What A Wonderful World", the normally mild-mannered and easygoing Metheny subjected him to a blistering TheReasonYouSuckSpeech, based on the argument that if a player of Kenny G's dubious level of competence thinks that he has earned the right to play on a recording by the undisputed godfather of jazz, even if it's not one of the all-time greatest Armstrong recordings ever, then he's demanding to be assessed according to the same criteria as any other jazz musician -- on which basis Mr G comes out very, very poorly indeed. It can be read in all its awesomeness [[http://www.jazzoasis.com/methenyonkennyg.htm here]].[[/note]]
* Exivious; Dutch instrumental progressive metal/jazz fusion act that leans more towards the fusion side of the equation but still has a subtle metallic undercurrent.
* Music/GordianKnot: An instrumental Jazz fusion band formed by Music/{{Cynic}} bassist Sean Malone, whose music mixes elements of jazz, prog and metal.
* Music/AllanHoldsworth
* Music/JagaJazzist
* Music/ShawnLane: Guitar genius whose style is difficult to pinpoint, but he's often classified as Jazz fusion.
* Medeski Martin & Wood: Brought fusion into the 21st century with a mix of funk and hip-hop.
* Music/JohnMcLaughlin: English guitarist, started out playing 60s R&B and rock with the Graham Bond Organisation, soon moved into avant-garde circles in Britain, then went to America and played with Miles Davis before launching a solo career which involved him getting seriously into Indian spirituality and co-founding the highly successful jazz-rock band Mahavishnu Orchestra. Branched into a fusion of jazz and Indian classical music with Shakti; since the 80s, has mostly returned to electrified jazz. Famous for having short hair in the early 70s "because it is my guru's will", but also for his formidable technique as a player and his restless musical imagination.
** ''Music/TheBostonRecord'' (2014)
* Music/TheNuttySquirrels: Bebop meets [[/index]]''Franchise/AlvinAndTheChipmunks''[[index]]. Seriously.
* Panzerballett: German jazz fusion quintet with very prominent metal influences and GenreRoulette tendencies. Their drummer, Sebastian Lanser, is also known for his role in Music/{{Obscura}}.
* Planet X: Instrumental jazz fusion/progressive metal supergroup helmed by Derek Sherinian and Virgil Donati. Known for having featured some ''serious'' big names as session musicians (Tony [=MacAlpine=], Allan Holdsworth, Billy Sheehan, and Dave [=LaRue=] are but a few of the people who have contributed to it).
* Music/PinkMartini
* Brian Setzer: A bit of an oddball entry, he's done a lot to revive interest in big-band swing, including creating arrangements that add parts for lead electric guitar alongside the brass section, and making arrangements of classical compositions redone in a big-band swing style with electric guitar leading. The the resulting arrangement ''works'' and works ''well''.
* Music/SteelyDan: One of the best known and most acclaimed jazz-rock bands of the '70s.
* Music/StGermain: a French musician, he's among the pioneers of Nu Jazz and the most famous exponent, combining electronic music with jazz.
** ''Music/{{Tourist}}'' (2000)
* Trombone Shorty: A New Orleans-born singer and horn player associated in recent years with a funk metal take on fusion, popularized in part by his appearances on the cable series ''Treme''.
** Music/{{Backatown}} (2010)
* Music/WeatherReport: A jazz fusion band formed by keyboardist Joe Zawinul and the aforementioned Wayne Shorter, both members of Miles Davis' jazz fusion-era quartet. Among the band's best known recordings is the Grammy nominated 1977 album ''Heavy Weather'', one of the best selling jazz fusion records of all time. During the late 70's and early 80's, the band's lineup famously included...
** Jaco Pastorius: Hugely innovative bass player from Florida; also a good drummer. Started out playing R&B, played on Pat Metheny's early recordings and also with Music/JoniMitchell. Pioneered the fretless electric bass when he acquired a Fender Jazz Bass which had had the frets ripped out and filled in, thereby making him the first bass guitarist who could make the instrument sing.[[note]]The legend was that he'd taken the frets out himself, but Pastorius later said that it was like that when he got it.[[/note]] His first solo album contained an exhilarating and almost-unaccompanied rendition of the ferociously difficult Charlie Parker/Miles Davis bebop classic "Donna Lee", forever earning him jazz credibility. Volatile and erratic, but he was to the bass guitar in the 70s more or less what Charlie Christian was to the electric guitar in the 30s. Suffered from bipolar disorder and had major substance abuse problems, and died tragically young in 1987 after being fatally beaten by a club bouncer in Florida.
* Music/FrankZappa: Musical iconoclast who mixed classical music, rock, jazz and doowop in unique contrasts and combinations. Some of his albums have a very distinctive jazzrock feeling to them.
** ''Music/HotRats'' (1969)
** ''Music/WakaJawaka'' (1972)
** ''Music/TheGrandWazoo'' (1972)
** ''Music/TheBestBandYouNeverHeardInYourLife'' (1991)
** ''Music/MakeAJazzNoiseHere'' (1991)
* The Disney tribute album ''Music/StayAwake'' (1988) features many different kinds of musical interpretations of classic Disney songs, some in a crooner version, others more jazzy and even avant-garde.
* Music/CaravanPalace, which mixes traditional gypsy-style jazz with Daft Punk-style house and techno.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Beat poetry ]]


Poets whose recite their poetry accompanied by a bongo and conga arrangement are sometimes classified as Jazz as well.

* Music/GilScottHeron
** ''Music/TheRevolutionWillNotBeTelevised'' (1974)
[[/index]]
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