->''A calculus fit to compute on,\\
White light, and a head to drop fruit on.\\
A mind to absorb it,\\
and soar into orbit,\\
-- That's all it takes to be Newton.''

Really smart groundbreaking scientist that looked like Robert Plant from Music/LedZeppelin.

To elaborate, Isaac Newton is the originator of the Three Laws of Motion and the classical theory of universal gravitation.[[note]]Before Newton, people were fairly sure Creator/{{Aristotle}} was wrong about the idea that earthly and heavenly bodies are subject to different laws of motion, but until Newton nobody really understood the mathematics of what the rules were--hence "universal", since it applies to all objects everywhere. "Classical" is because it was proven to be wrong by AlbertEinstein's theory of general relativity, but it remains useful as an infinitesimally close approximation under ordinary conditions--i.e. far from very massive objects like black holes and stars.[[/note]] Born 1643 (not very long after Galileo died), the British physicist was a [[OmnidisciplinaryScientist Jack Of All Trades]] and dabbled in astronomy, mathematics, alchemy and theology. His work on gravity would lead to further credibility for to heliocentrism (the belief that the Sun, and not the Earth, is the centre of the universe). To derive the equations for motion in his ''Principia Mathematica'', he had to ''invent integral calculus'' out of whole cloth. He was one of the {{trope codifier}}s for the concept of EquivalentExchange ("for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction") and the idea of a rational, regular universe--the idea that there are certain laws of nature that are always true, everywhere. This idea has become so entrenched in popular thought that, when further work by AlbertEinstein on the [[UsefulNotes/{{Relativity}} extreme]] [[UsefulNotes/QuantumPhysics scales]] of the universe proved that his conclusions ''aren't'' applicable everywhere, the larger body of scientific research since then--including that ''by'' Einstein--has revolved around the idea of reconciling the two and restoring (our understanding of) the physical universe to a single, overarching theory.

Ironically, in his lifetime he was better known for heading the Royal Mint, where he introduced the practice of milling coins--putting a decorative border on them so it would be obvious if pieces had been clipped off. This was important because of a practice at the time where criminals would clip the edges off coins, keep the bits of precious metal to melt down, and pass off the clipped coin as its full value, weakening the currency (and thus causing inflation). This is remembered in the edge inscription of the modern British pound, ''DECUS ET TUTAMEN'' ("an ornament and a safeguard"). Newton is also commemorated in the edge description of the two pound coin (whose tail side bears a representation of scientific and technological progress[[note]]that wouldn't actually work[[/note]]) with his relevant quote ''STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS''. (On being praised for his scientific insight: "If I have seen further than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants."[[note]]although this may actually have been a TakeThat to his rival Robert Hooke, with whom he had the type of relationship that Edison would later have with Tesla, who was rather short[[/note]]) He also furthered the fight against bad money personally: he would go undercover to taverns and so on to catch counterfeiters and clippers and collect evidence to prosecute them at trial--which he would then go on to do, as he was a justice of the peace (at the time more of an investigatory and prosecutorial position rather than a judicial one) in every county. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 counterfeiters while in office, most prominently William Chaloner.[[note]]A particularly unpleasant scammer who had gotten rich off of setting up phony Catholic conspiracies and then turning in the poor idiots who went along with him. He then moved into the counterfeiting game by claiming--again falsely--that the Mint was helping counterfeiters by giving them tools, and then proposing that he be allowed to inspect the Mint tools to "improve" them and make them counterfeiting-proof, while ''really'' just trying to make the best possible fakes.[[/note]] He also inadvertently switched Great Britain from a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimetallism bimetallic]] system to the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_standard gold standard]] by setting the ratio of the value of the gold guinea (and other gold coins) to the value of the silver penny in a way that heavily favoured gold, leading to a mass exodus of silver from the country.[[note]]This led to a very long silver crisis in Britain, one that eventually led to the Opium Wars when the silver finally ran out, and China at the time would only take payment in silver.[[/note]] He aHis tomb in Westminster Abbey references this financial career rather than his scientific one.

[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLpgxry542M He is the deadliest son-of-a-bitch in space]]. Also the inventor of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_flap#History cat flap]]. No, really.

He had a lonely, unhappy childhood, which may have been due to the fact that he was about a billion times smarter than anyone else around him. Even after he became a professor at Cambridge he frequently lectured to an empty classroom. Contemporary accounts peg him as an InsufferableGenius; his nickname was "The Tyrant." He never married and apparently had no interest in romance and sex. It was only when he began corresponding with Christopher Wren and the other members of the Royal Society in London that he began to blossom as England's leading scientist.

!! Works featuring Isaac Newton:
* He is an important character in Creator/NealStephenson's ''Literature/TheBaroqueCycle'', which posited that he took the job at the mint and moved England to the gold standard because [[spoiler:he was trying find Solomonic gold (the raw material for making the Philosopher's stone), which was accidentally put into general circulation as currency because of a quirk of fate involving a few vegabonds. He made it such that all the gold in the world will circulate through England at some point, allowing him to test them at his leisure]]. After all, historians did refer to Newton as the last alchemist.
* Robert Langdon visits his tomb in ''Literature/TheDaVinciCode''.
* Newton turns up twice in ''Franchise/StarTrek''. The first time in ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' as hologram, playing cards against AlbertEinstein, StephenHawking and (non-holographic) Data. The second time, he is briefly transported onto the ''[[Series/StarTrekVoyager Voyager]]'' by a Q, who mentions that if he never had gotten the inspiration to put forth the notion of gravity, he would have died penniless in debtor's prison... and a suspect in several prostitute murders.
* Is the codifier of all (European) Magic in the ''RiversOfLondon'' books, and the reason all spells are in GratuitousLatin.
* Missed meeting wizards from the Unseen University in ''Discworld/TheScienceOfDiscworld II: The Globe'' having just stepped out for some fresh air when [[MissedHimByThatMuch they pop in]]. It was probably for the best. A footnote in the science text says that if anyone on Roundworld was going to discover laws of magic it would be him. This inspired his role in ''RiversOfLondon''.
* Plays the OnlySaneMan in ''Webcomic/FrederickTheGreat'', where he is literal math wizard. Notably, he once held a symposium to discover the secret of time travel- a symposium where ''every member'' was an alternate version of himself.
* In ''Webcomic/IrregularWebcomic'', Newton is a time-travelling [[HistoricalBadassUpgrade historical badass]].
* It turns out that Newton himself is the [[spoiler:BigBad Emperor]] in ''Anime/VisionOfEscaflowne.''
* Major character in the ''Age of Unreason'' series, not surprising when the first book is called ''Newton's Cannon''. The book opens with Newton successfully making alchemy work, and goes from there.
* He is the main character -- sort of -- of Creator/{{Gotlib}}'s ''Rubrique--Brac'', in what could be the longest RunningGag ever.
* As mentioned in the intro, referenced in ''VideoGame/MassEffect2'' as the reason one does not "eyeball" the firing of a kinetic kill munition that travels at significant fractions of lightspeed.
* Mentioned very briefly in ''Film/{{Apollo 13}}''. When Jim Lovell powers down the LEM's reaction-control thrusters to save battery power, he remarks, "And that's it. We just put Sir Isaac Newton in the driver's seat."
* He appeared at the end of a [[MonicasGang Pitheco]] story Centuries after Pitheco failed to pitch the famous discovery.
* He's an Age II leader in ''TabletopGame/ThroughTheAges''.
* In ''Manga/{{Nobunagun}}'', he's reincarnated in the present day as a woman named Jess Beckman who has GravityMaster powers.
* Featured in the animated segments of 2014's ''WesternAnimation/CosmosASpacetimeOdyssey'', being an incredibly important figure in the history of science and physics, and one of [[AuthorAppeal Neil deGrasse Tyson's favorite scientists]].
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