''"Man, do you remember that article we wrote about framing devices?"''\\
''"That was a damn good article. How did it go again?"''\\
''"Well, I believe it went something like this..."''

The Framing Device is a narrative technique in which a story is surrounded ("framed") by a secondary story, creating a [[NestedStory story within a story]], often through SeparateSceneStorytelling. The inner story is usually the bulk of the work. The framing device places the inside story within a different context.

Framing devices typically involve outer-story characters as the audience of the inner story, such as a parent reading a bedtime story to a child. Other times, the outer-story character is the author of, or a performer in, the inner story. Occasionally, the inner story is a hallucination or delusion experienced by one of the outer-story characters.

The inner story does not need to be a work of fiction from an frame-story character's point of view: letters, journals, and memoirs can also be used as framing devices, often in the form of DayInTheLife.

Anthologies and {{Clip Show}}s often use framing devices to connect the unrelated elements into a unified whole. The earlier "Treehouse of Terror" specials of ''TheSimpsons'' use a framing device in this way, though the practice was eventually abandoned.

Occasionally, an entire series can use a persistent Framing Device, such as ''{{Cro}}'', which was framed by a recently thawed mammoth, who was telling the stories which composed the bulk of each episode. A noteworthy example from the days of radio is ''Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar'', whose stories were told in the form of explanations to a private detective's expense account. To a lesser extent, devices such as the CaptainsLog can be viewed as a Framing Device, especially when (as in many ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'' episodes) they appear to have been written after the fact.

The Framing Device is OlderThanDirt: It goes right back to the Old Kingdom of AncientEgypt with the "Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor", c. 2300-2100 BC. Sometimes the trope is written using nested framing devices that are several layers deep, as in the ''Literature/ArabianNights''. ''Literature/{{Frankenstein}}'' is framed by a story of an arctic expedition coming across the dying Dr. Frankenstein; ''Literature/TheRimeOfTheAncientMariner'' is framed by the mariner foisting his story on an unwilling wedding guest. One of the first (if not ''the'' first) examples in film is from ''Film/TheCabinetOfDrCaligari'', which (on a suggestion from Creator/FritzLang) framed the original story as a {{flashback}} in an asylum.

The technique sometimes seems to be a byproduct of an ancient notion that it was improper to waste people's time with lengthy fabrications.

This is frequently used as a technique to highlight that the narrator of the framed story is not the actual author, and so draw attention to the possibility of an UnreliableNarrator.

See WholeEpisodeFlashback, StorybookOpening, HowWeGotHere and NostalgicNarrator for more specific examples. When framing devices are stacked on top of each other, they create a NestedStory. If the existence of a framing device is used as a PlotTwist, we're dealing with a NestedStoryReveal. If the framing story is "I came across this story and decided to publish it", the author is invoking the LiteraryAgentHypothesis.

Compare IntroOnlyPointOfView.
----
!!''"Hmm, not bad, not bad at all. But can you give me a few examples of it?"''
!!''"Maybe one or two..."''

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* A particularly ingenious version of this is used in ''MartianSuccessorNadesico,'' in an inversion of its ShowWithinAShow relationship with ''{{Gekiganger 3}}'' -- it airs as an episode of ''Gekiganger'' in which its characters are watching ''Nadesico.'' It manages to [[LampshadeHanging lampshade]] the RecapEpisode when one of the ''Gekiganger'' characters complains that nothing new happens in them, and it's an excuse for the production company to take a break.
* ''TenchiMuyo Extra Chapter: Galaxy Police Mihoshi's Space Adventure'' (a.k.a. ''Mihoshi Special'') is framed by Mihoshi telling the story to the other characters from the original {{OAV}} series. Most of the characters in the "inner" story are AlternateContinuity versions of them.
* ''LightNovel/{{Baccano}}!'' uses this both in the anime and the first of the LightNovels, though in different ways. The anime starts with the Vice President of the Daily Days and his young assistant trying to make sense the bizarre history of the last three years. The book starts with the ''conta Ŕ oro'' of the Martillo family ([[spoiler:eventually revealed to be ''Firo'' rather than the assumed Maiza]]) relaying the 1930 story to a Japanese tourist in the present.
* ''Anime/{{Monster}}'' opens with a passage from Revelations which puts the actions of the series it parallels in a very different context.
* The story of the manga ''Manga/NotSimple'' is told as a reporter named Jim writes a book (also titled Not Simple) detailing the many trials of the protagonist's life.
* ''JingKingOfBandits: Seventh Heaven'' is a 3-episode {{OVA}} series in which the first and third episodes act as a frame for the second one.
* ''Manga/BoboboboBobobo'' frequently has a theater (conveniently placed in the main character's head) which plays various films, directly cutting into plot points in the middle of episodes, done mainly for the RuleOfFunny.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:ComicBooks]]
* [[ComicBook/ConanTheBarbarian Conan]] by Dark Horse Comics. The actual stories are framed by the tale of an Eastern Prince of a less ancient (but still pre-Gutenberg) era that discovers the Nemedian Chronicles (maybe the "Know, o Prince" line gave them the idea).
* Many horror comics had framing devices in which the comic had a "host" who would welcome the reader into their domain, and start to tell this month's story. ECComics was best known for this, with their most famous being [[TalesFromTheCrypt the Cryptkeeper]]. DCComics used the device a lot, with most of their hosts going on to become supporting characters in ''ComicBook/TheSandman''.
* ''ComicBook/TheSandman'' itself used this a few times, most notably in the "World's End" arc, which featured a framing device of characters swapping stories in an InnBetweenTheWorlds.
** The current ''HouseOfMystery'' uses the same framing device.
* In ''ComicBook/AllFallDown'', chapter two's funeral service frames a flashback to the heroes and villains' last hour of glory.
* Many ''ComicBook/AstroCity'' flashback stories use framing devices of one of the participants telling of their experiences many years later, notably "Shining Armor" and "The Dark Ages".
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Fairy Tales]]
* ''Literature/BootsWhoMadeThePrincessSayThatsAStory'' is a framing device for Boots's TallTale.
* ''Literature/TheBlackThiefAndTheKnightOfTheGlen'' is a frame for three stories by the thief.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* ''WebVideo/DragonBallZAbridged: Episode of Bardock'' reveals at the end that all of the events were part of a story told to Gohan by [[IdiotHero his father]] in [[AllJustADream a dream]]. The other movies that don't fall into canon are stated or implied at various times to be movies, written by Krillin, produced by Nappa, and watched on TV by Vegeta.
* In the ''[[WesternAnimation/TotalDramaIsland Total Drama]]'' story, ''Fanfic/{{Legacy}}'', Heather and Duncan at Camp Wawanakwa comprise the frame story, and [[{{Flashback}} their reminiscences]] comprise the inner story.
* ''Fanfic/TheFirstOfMany'' is the story of [[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic Shining Armor]] calming Twilight's fears of her first date becoming a BadDate by telling her how his first date became a BadDate. What a great brother!
* In ''Fanfic/TheLegendOfTotalDramaIsland'', Brett learns that he will be a contestant on the the newly revived ''Total Drama Island: The Next Generation'' and learns that his mother was a contestant on the first season of the original ''WesternAnimation/TotalDramaIsland'', so he asks her to tell him all about her experience. Her tales comprise the inner story, with the [[GreekChorus byplay between Brett and his mother]] comprising the frame story.
* ''FanFic/TheGodEmpressOfPonykind'' opens with Twilight running in on [[GodEmperor Celestia]] while the princess is wearing her old armor. After an initial [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness freak out]], Celestia calms down and begins to tell Twilight of her rise to power in Equestria. The story really starts moving with an attack on [[{{Warhammer40000}} the Imperial Palace by Abaddon's armies.]]
* The ''Franchise/MassEffect'' fic ''Fanfic/TheTranslationInBlood'' frames the backstory of Rear Admiral Hannah Shepard (Commander Shepard's mother if you chose the Spacer background) and Councilor Sparatus as Hannah, during the early days of the Reaper War in ''VideoGame/MassEffect3'', looking back on the First Contact War 35 years earlier. The fic switches back to the present for the last quarter or so of the story.
* FanFic/TheInfiniteLoops began when the multiverse computer system suffered a system crash and neccessitated the induction of [[GroundhogDayLoop time loops]] while the admins scrambled to repair things. The actual STORY is really a bunch of people screwing with their own canon in any way they see fit.
* The story [[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/8340339/1/The-Quiet-Fox The Quiet Fox]] is predominantly told in flashback with each flashback chapter narrated by a different character. [[spoiler:Sasuke's chapter is particularly memorable.]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Film}} - Animated]]
* ''Disney/{{Aladdin}}'' begins with a peddler selling a magic lamp and proceeding to tell the story of the fortune it brought its previous owner. The third film, ''Aladdin and the King of Thieves'', ends with the same peddler bidding the viewers farewell with a reprise of ''Aladdin'''s opening song, "Arabian Nights."
** One of the proposed endings of the framing device was revealing that the peddler was in fact the Genie, which explains why only these two are four-fingered when everyone else is five: because they were the same character. It also explains why the peddler has the lamp, as obviously Aladdin wouldn't have sold or thrown away a memento of his best friend.
* The children's movie ''WesternAnimation/{{Balto}}'' begins and ends with live-action sequences, where a grandmother is explaining to her granddaughter about the influenza epidemic that led to the creation of the Iditarod dog sled race in Alaska. The end sequence, where they visit the statue erected to honor the dogs who heroically brought the medicine the town needed, reveals that the grandmother is actually Rosie, the little girl who almost died.
* Used often in direct-to-video {{Franchise/Barbie}} movies.
** ''WesternAnimation/BarbieAndTheDiamondCastle'' frames the main plot as a story being made up by Barbie and Teresa for Barbie's sister Stacie.
** In ''WesternAnimation/BarbieInAChristmasCarol'', Barbie tells a YetAnotherChristmasCarol story to her younger sister.
* The film ''WesternAnimation/HeavyMetal''. The first segment of the movie has the Loc-Nar appearing to the little girl: the subsequent segments are the stories it tells her.
* In ''TheSpongebobSquarepantsMovie'', a band of live-action pirates ([[ChewingTheScenery rather]] [[FunnyMoments maniacally]]) run into a movie theater to watch it.
* ''Heathcliff: TheMovie'' (released in 1986), in which the "stories" he tells to his nephews are actually select episodes taken from the TV show's first season (premiered in 1984).
* Disney/TheLionKingOneAndAHalf has Timon and Pumbaa watching the original movie as this.
* The Creator/ChuckJones version of Literature/PeterAndTheWolf had live action segments in between some of the cartoon ones, even crossing RogerRabbitEffect territory at least one time.

[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Film}} - Live-Action]]
* Most of the action in Creator/BusterKeaton's film ''Film/SherlockJr'' is presented as the protagonist's dream, and at the end he wakes up.
* The film ''Film/MerlinsShopOfMysticalWonders'' features an elderly man telling his grandson horror stories. This became especially surreal when the film got the ''Series/MysteryScienceTheater3000'' treatment, since ''MST3K'' also uses a framing device (in this case, people held captive in a sadistic space-cinema), resulting in story within a framing device within a framing device!
* ''Film/TheCabinetOfDrCaligari'' is the first example of this in film, and carries the interesting little twist that the story Francis is telling the old man on the bench is [[spoiler: [[AllJustADream a complete hallucination]]]].
* ''Film/ThePrincessBride'' (movie version) is framed as a book being read by a grandfather to his sick grandson.
* The Framing Device in ''Film/{{Titanic}}'' is elderly Rose telling her story.
* ''Film/StandByMe'' is framed by the Writer (aka the adult Gordy) reacting to the news of his friend Chris being stabbed to death.
* The movie adaptation of ''Literature/OfMiceAndMen'' with Gary Sinise starts and ends with George on a train, recalling the events that led to Lenny's death.
* The story of the Bell family in ''Film/AnAmericanHaunting'' is told through a letter written in the 1800s that is found more than a century later.
* ''Film/TheUsualSuspects'' is told as a testimony given by one of the story's main characters to the police who are interrogating him.
* ''Film/LittleBigMan'' is framed by the very elderly main character, Jack Crabb, being interviewed (in a nursing home) by a collector of oral histories, about his younger life.
* ''TheAutobiographyOfMissJanePittman'' is another interview-framed film. The interview takes place in 1962, when Miss Pittman is 110 years old. Her memories extend back to before the American Civil War.
* ''Film/CitizenKane'' frames the story of Charles Foster Kane's life with the reporter's search to find out who or [[ItWasHisSled what "Rosebud" was.]]
* ''Film/KindHeartsAndCoronets'' is framed by the main character writing his memoirs as he waits in prison to be executed for a murder he ''did not commit''. The memoir details the eight murders he ''did commit''.
* ''[[Film/ThreeHundred 300]]'' uses this coupled with UnreliableNarrator and possibly a kind of unreliable ''listener'', as the events depicted in the {{Flashback}}s are ''very'' over the top. The story is told by the sole surviving member of Leonidas' 300 Spartans, who was sent back to Sparta to tell the tale before the FinalBattle. At the beginning we see him telling the story at a campfire before a group of Spartans, missing an eye ([[{{foreshadowing}} which he still has in the flashbacks]]). [[spoiler:At the end we find he was telling it to inspire his men before the Battle of Plataea]].
* ''Film/ThePrestige'' features a framing device ''within'' a framing device, as Borden reads in Angier's diary about Angier reading ''his'' diary.
* ''Film/MysteryTeam'' begins and ends with the Mystery Team investigating a case.
* ''Film/BigTroubleInLittleChina'' begins with old Egg Shen telling the entire story to a lawyer, but it's a pretty pointless sequence that has no consequences on the rest of the plot.
* ''Film/ForrestGump'' is mostly framed by Forrest telling his life story to random strangers while waiting for the bus, which also servers as a very long HowWeGotHere.
* The script in ''Film/BadEducation''. The inner story is about Ignacio's past and history with Father Manolo and his time as a transvestite. The outer story is about ┴ngel in the present trying to get Enrique to adapt his script to film.
* ''Film/BroadwayDannyRose'' is told this way. A group of people has gathered around a table, recalling the events that make up the movie.
* The bulk of ''Film/VanillaSky'' is framed as David telling his story to a psychologist while in prison. Much of the narration even sounds muffled due to David wearing a mask at the time.
* The {{Disney}} film ''Film/LtRobinCrusoeUSN'' opens with the title character (played by Creator/DickVanDyke) writing to his fiance about where he's been, and why he missed their wedding. It closes with him finishing the letter.
* ''Film/IronMan3'' is framed as Tony recounting the events of the film from WhenItAllBegan to how it ended. [[spoiler: As it turns out, he was telling the story to [[TheIncredibleHulk Bruce Banner]] attempting to play the role of psychiatrist, even though Bruce isn't that kind of doctor.]]
* In Brazilian film ''Carlota Joaquina - Princesa do Brazil'', the story of the title character is told by a Scot to his daughter (who also plays young Carlota).
* ''Film/RoadTrip'' uses Barry's college tour as a framing device to recount the events of the road trip.
* ''Film/TheHobbit'' film trilogy seems to use this technique by using Bilbo's writing down of his adventure to the Lonely Mountain into the Red Book on his 110th birthday. It cleverly uses it to help establish the relationship between Frodo and Bilbo and the fact that they live together, which was never really done in the ''Film/TheLordOfTheRings''.
* ''Film/TheLoneRanger'': A young boy listens to the story of the Lone Ranger being told by an aged Tonto.
* The very strange and fortunately all but forgotten Martin Short film ''{{Film/Clifford}}'' is framed by Short made up as a very old man being describing his childhood. The main story thus framed involves the bratty prepubescent child, played by Martin Short.
* ''Film/TheForbiddenKingdom'' was [[NeverTrustATrailer implied by its trailer]] and promotional material to be a kung fu film set in ancient China, starring JackieChan and JetLi. It was, in part. It was also a ''JourneyToTheWest'' inspired story, starring a modern day [[{{Southies}} South Bostoner]] [[TeachMeHowToFight learning to defend himself]] and getting {{character development}} through [[AllJustADream a dream]]. OrWasItADream
* Similar to the Spongebob example, [[BarneyAndFriends Barney's Great Adventure]] began with the main characters getting ready watch the film in a theater.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Literature}}]]
* The short story "Literature/HowKazirWonHisWife" by Raymond Smullyan has a framing story in which a sorcerer on an island where the KnightsAndKnaves puzzle is implied to have occurred tells some travellers a story which he says is from the ''Literature/ThousandAndOneNights''. The sorcerer's story takes up most of Smullyan's story.
* In Creator/MichaelEnde's ''Literature/TheNeverendingStory'', Bastian's story is initially used as a frame for Atreyu's, as Bastian reads a stolen storybook. When Bastian finds that the book he is reading contains descriptions of his own life and actions, the line between framing and framed story becomes blurry.
* ''The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar'' by Creator/RoaldDahl has two layers of framing.
* ''Literature/IRobot'', a collection of short stories by Creator/IsaacAsimov, uses the framing device of an interview with famed roboticist Susan Calvin to connect the various stories.
* ''Literature/OneThousandAndOneNights'' is a collection of Arabic folktales connected by a framing device. Shahryar has decided to marry (and execute) a new woman each day. His newest wife, Scheherazade prolongs her own life by telling her murderous husband fantastical stories, each of which ends with a promise of an even more amazing tale. Some of Scheherazade's stories are framing stories themselves; ''One Thousand and One Nights'' contains triple- and quadruple-nested framing devices. This made it dead easy for the ''Nights'' to be expanded with supplemental material over the course of its many editions.
* Creator/GeoffreyChaucer's ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' has the framing device of a group of pilgrims telling each other stories to pass the time on their journey.
* It's possible that Chaucer was familiar with Creator/{{Boccaccio}}'s ''Literature/{{Decameron}}'', featuring a group of young men and women retreating to a country estate to avoid the plague and passing the time by telling stories as a framing device.
* Creator/PoulAnderson's ''Literature/TheHighCrusade'' uses this ''twice'': the action is framed as being the chronicle written by a monk, which in turn is framed as a translation by a group encountering the subjects of the story.
* The book ''Literature/TheManuscriptFoundInSaragossa'' and its later [[TheMovie adaption]], ''Film/TheSaragossaManuscript'' take this trope to extreme lengths, telling stories within stories within stories ''within stories''. The initial Framing Device quickly disappears among the layers of narrative.
* The Literature/PinkCarnation books, featuring the successor to Literature/TheScarletPimpernel, has a framing device in which a modern-day grad student in England is researching the Carnation's exploits, with the help of another spy's descendant.
* Creator/StephenKing used a nursing home and the narrator's old, ''old'' age to frame his re-entries into the serial story of ''Literature/TheGreenMile''
* Also by Creator/StephenKing, book 4 of Franchise/TheDarkTower series, ''Literature/WizardAndGlass'', is a back story told by Roland to his group.
** Similarly, in the next book, ''Literature/WolvesOfTheCalla'', we get a another story within a story. This time, it's Pere Callahan explaining the to [[TrueCompanions ka-tet]] what happened to him in-between ''Literature/SalemsLot'' and now.
* All William King's ''Literature/SpaceWolf'' novels are framed - the first two as his flashbacks because something reminded him, and the third as his recounting to [[NewMeat younger Marines]] an episode as an explanation.
* MichaelCrichton's ''Literature/EatersOfTheDead'' is framed as an analysis of an ancient manuscript written by an Arab traveling to Scandinavia.
* PeterPaysTribute is split between the story, and the story the main character is writing.
* ''Literature/TheBookOfLostTales''--the original draft of the book that would later be published as ''Literature/TheSilmarillion''--employs a Framing Device in which a Man from England, Ălfwine/Eriol, discovers the lost island of the Elves and is told the ancient tales of their folk by a succession of characters.
* {{Lampshaded}} in a later chapter of ''Literature/SophiesWorld''. ThePhilosopher, after coming to the conclusion that they are [[NoFourthWall characters in a book]] written by a UN Major for his daughter's fifteenth birthday, says that the latter two shouldn't get too cocky either, because even they themselves might be just a Framing Device... which they are, of course.
* Many of Creator/EdgarRiceBurroughs' stories had introductions in which the story was said to be a [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis manuscript written by a character]].
* Joseph Conrad's stories ''Literature/HeartOfDarkness'' and ''Literature/LordJim'' both employ this: the former having the story told by Marlow to a group of people on a boat, the latter having the story told once again by Marlow first at a dinner party, then later through a letter. The second example is notable in that Marlow's recollections are mixed in with those of other people telling Marlow the details of Jim's various misadventures, which fits into the book's themes involving [[UnreliableNarrator unreliable narrators]].
* RobinHobb in her ''Literature/{{Farseer}}'' trilogy uses a framing device of the protagonist writing down his memoirs (which is probably the most common framing device of them all). It's played with a bit: [[spoiler:the narrator makes occasional references implying that he's writing as an old man, housebound by the ravages of age. The end of the last book reveals that he's still quite young; his life has been that rough on him]].
* The same framing device is used in Mika Waltari's ''Literature/TheEgyptian''.
* Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'' is doubly framed, with Apollodorus telling his companion a story that Aristodemus had told him, and which he had already told once to Glaucon. Then everyone gets drunk.
* Dan Simmons's ''Hyperion'' (first novel of the ''Literature/HyperionCantos'') is more or less explicitly based on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales'' [[RecycledINSPACE IN SPACE]]!, down to the fact that the storytellers are on a pilgrimage. [[ShoutOut Literary allusions]] and [[GeniusBonus Genius Bonuses]] abound. As it turns out, the stories framed all shed light on the frame story, and the sequel ''The Fall of Hyperion'' picks up from the end of the frame story.
* "The Story of Samson Yakovlich" in ''Literature/TheDeathOfTheVazirMukhtar'' provides some [[StartOfDarkness backstory]] for one of the antagonists.
* Jack Higgins's [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII Second World War]] espionage thrillers ''The Eagle Has Landed'' and ''The Eagle Has Flown'' are framed by the conceit that Higgins himself has stumbled upon evidence of never-before-revealed plots from the war some 30 or so years later.
* ''Literature/TheAutobiographyOfMissJanePittman'', a story about a 110 year old woman who lived from slavery to the civil rights movement, has a framing story that a teacher is interviewing Jane to tell his students about her.
* The above mentioned ''Literature/{{Frankenstein}}'' actually has framing devices neste three deep at the point where the monster tells his own story to Victor; Victor is talking to the Arctic explorer Robert Walton, who's writing a letter to his sister. There is actually a thematic reason for the Walton frame: Walton is in danger of turning out like Victor, but in the end he gives up his crazy ambitions and goes home to his family.
* ''Literature/WorldWarZ'' is briefly framed as initially being for a report on the zombie war, but when the author handed it in to his superiors, they said it was too personal. So he made it into a book.
* The Literature/SherlockHolmes novels ''A Study in Scarlet'' and ''The Valley of Fear'' use the stories of Holmes solving a mystery as frames for the perpetrators telling their stories of why they done it.
** Similarly, Holmes's investigation in the short story ''The Crooked Man'' is a Framing Device for a story about a soldier in India, and his involvement in ''The Adventure of the Gloria Scott'' is entirely incidental.
* ''Literature/ShutterIsland'' is presented as Dr. Sheehan's desire to set the record straight at last.
* In the novel version of ''Literature/ThePrincessBride'', the actual author explains that he's condensing the original book, by "S. Morgenstern".
* ''TheNameOfTheWind'' has Kvothe narrating his story to a scribe. The book is the first in a trilogy, and each book is a day's worth of narration.
* In the novel ''Slumdog Millionaire'' the hero of the story, Raj Mohammed Thomas, frames the story as testimony to the police who have arrested him.
* Mil Millington's ''A Certain Chemistry'' is framed by God telling us how all our emotions, actions and thoughts are governed by our bodies' chemistries, using the main character's story (in which a writer cheats on his girlfriend with a soap star) to illustrate his points.
* In ''Literature/TheIronDream'', we have a banal ScienceFiction story by AdolfHitler, a USA emigrant, followed by a Framing Device in-universe essay to explain the point of this story.
* [[Creator/IainBanks Iain M. Banks]]'s novella "[[Literature/TheCulture The State of the Art]]" is framed by the protagonist writing a letter about the events to a historian interested in their setting ([[InsignificantLittleBluePlanet Earth]]), translated (with snarky footnootes) by her [[RobotBuddy escort drone]].
* The novel of ''Film/DrStrangelove'' has a prologue written by an alien, who [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis found a record of the story]] under a rock in the deserts of the north-western continent of an uninhabited planet they're currently exploring.
* The ''{{Literature/Dinotopia}}'' prequel ''First Flight'' is told as a story that one of the main characters from the main book is studying.
** The first and fourth books are also presented as journals the author had discovered.
* ''Literature/TheTimeMachine'' by Creator/HGWells is told through a guest at the Time Traveller's party, who for all but the first two chapters and the final chapter is taking dictation from the Time Traveller.
* The "Pendragon" series by D.J. MacHale. This is how most of books in the 10 books series are told. The protagonist Bobby Pendragon writes down his thoughts in a sort of diary as a way of organizing his thoughts and keeping himself sane and sends them to his 2 friends back on present-day Earth who read it along with the audience. Though some of the 5th book and all of the 10th are in his first-person point of view.
* ''Literature/HouseOfLeaves'' takes this trope to MindScrew levels. It's about a supernatural house, which is documented by the house's owner, Navidson. The documentary is described in a massive, incomplete essay by Zampano. The essay is edited and commented upon by Johnny Truant, who also relays his own story in the footnotes. Truant's story is commented upon by the book's editors. There's a lot of UnreliableNarrator to be had all around.
* ''Encounter with Tiber'', by Buzz Aldrin (yes, the [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Apollo 11]] Buzz Aldrin) and John Barnes, uses the framing device of a scientist who writes novels. She's selected to be on the first manned voyage to another star. Because of the length of the trip, she has time to write four novels (well, two novels and two translations of existing novels), which together explain [[HowWeGotHere how humanity was contacted by an alien race and developed the technology for interstellar travel]].
* Several Literature/{{Redwall}} books are framed by an Abbeydweller telling a story to a group of Dibbuns. At the end, a character from the framed story would turn out to be the NarratorAllAlong.
* ''Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All'' is framed as the 99-year-old narrator, Lucy, telling stories of her life (and the lives of many people she's known) to a journalist interviewing her. The stories get more personal, revealing, and risky as the book progresses, until TheReveal in the penultimate chapter.
* OlderThanDirt: [[EgyptianMythology The Egyptian]] Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, from the 6th dynasty (c. 2300-2100 BCE) in the Old Kingdom, is framed by the sailor explaining his survival to an official, and the official telling him not to overstep his station by dispensing advice.
* Literature/{{Animorphs}} had ''The Hork-Bajir Chronicles'' framed as a story the Hork-Bajir were telling Tobias.
** ''The Andalite Chronicles'' is presented as Elfangor's last testament (known by Andalites as a ''hirac delest''), given in the final moments of his life. ''Visser'' has, by far, the most in-depth one, switching back and forth between Visser One's memories and her present-day trial. Finally, ''The Ellimist Chronicles'' is narrated to a then-unnamed dying Animorph, indicating that at least one of them will be die.
* The ''Literature/WarriorCats'' guidebooks ''Code of the Clans'' and ''Battles of the Clans'' are framed as the reader being a cat that visits the Clans, with the beginning and ending, and a few chapters inside the book, set up this way. In ''Code'', Leafpool tells them stories about the warrior code, and in ''Battles'', they visit all four Clans and attend a Gathering, not only listening to stories told by cats, but also being visited by deceased warriors in their dreams for stories that the current Clans couldn't possibly know.
* Though the frame of Margaret's story in ''Literature/TheThirteenthTale'' is its own story as she goes through her own discovery and development, the business of writing a biography is mainly to tell the story of Vida's past.
* Meridion's story in ''SymphonyOfAges'' is set in an apocalyptic future as he observes and manipulates the past (i.e., the present to the rest of the story) in order to avert the end of the world.
* ''Literature/TheGoBetween'' is narrated by an elderly man reminiscing about a summer fifty years earlier. Only at the very end do we see any live action.
* Hiob's account of his voyage to India frames the story of the fall of Pentexore in ''Literature/DirgeForPresterJohn''.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Starcraft}}'' novel ''Liberty's Crusade'' is a {{novelization}} of the Terran campaign, framed as an anti-Terran Dominion documentary by reporter Michael Liberty.
* In GeorgeMacDonald's "[[http://www.online-literature.com/donne/3643/ Port In A Storm]]", the whole story is told by a man to his children, about how he and their mother came to marry.
* Creator/PGWodehouse often used this in his stories, particularly the ones about golf, and Mr. Mulliner's tall tales.
* ''DonQuixote'' is framed by a historian finding stories about the "famed" knight.
* A good third of ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' is Odysseus telling the story of his return from Troy to the Phaeacians.
* In ''Literature/TimeEnoughForLove'', the ScheherezadeGambit for Lazarus Long's memoirs in the first part. In the second part, much of the TimeTravel segment is retold through Lazarus' letters that he writes and sends to his Tertius family via [[TheSlowPath Delay Mail]].
* Someone tells the story of ''Literature/WhoMovedMyCheese?'' at a high school reunion.
* Some ''Franchise/DoctorWhoExpandedUniverse'' books use this:
** In the first ''Decalog'', a psychometrist gets the stories from the things in the Seventh Doctor's pockets (including a scene where the psychometrist "goes deeper" to explain the first person stream-of-consciousness story).
** In ''Short Trips: Repercussions'', Charley finds herself on a strange airship full of people who were removed from history as a threat to the Web of Time, and learns their stories.
** In ''Short Trips: SevenDeadlySins'', the Eighth Doctor makes seven jaded and sinful people experience one of his past adventures that illustrates the sin they examplify.
** The ''Literature/DoctorWhoNewAdventures'' Literature/SherlockHolmes crossover ''All-Consuming Fire'' has a framing story of the Doctor and his companions reading ''The Adventure of the All-Consuming Fire'' by [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis John Watson]].
* ''[[Literature/{{Temps}} EuroTemps]]'' by the Midnight Rose Collective has a framing device of powerful sorcerer and DPR offical Loric looking through reports and using magic to turn them into narratives.
* In each book of the ''Literature/CronusChronicles'', the story is separated into four parts, each with a clever title (ex. in ''The Shadow Thieves'', the parts are called ''We Start in the Middle, Now the Beginning, The End of the Beginning'', and ''The Beginning of the End'').
* ''Literature/TheOrphansTales'' is about tales told, well, [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOntheTin by an orphan]]. Like an updated version of the ''Literature/ArabianNights,'' the four books are framed by the story of the prince who seeks out the outcast orphan by night, and asks to hear her tales, which nest inside one another to sometimes six levels deep.
* In Literature/TheCandlemassRoad, the novel is presented as the memoir of Frey Luis Guevara, an elderly priest who witnessed the events.
* WinnieThePooh has the frame of bedtime stories told to Christopher Robin. It's dropped for ''The House at Pooh Corner.''
* The ''Literature/ProvostsDog'' trilogy in the Literature/TortallUniverse is framed as a young George Cooper reading a cop ancestor's journal at his mother's insistence, to try and dissuade him from being a thief.
* ''Literature/TheLastWish'' is set up as six short stories framed by "The Voice of Reason", where a priestess treating injuries he sustained in one of the tales asks him to recount some of his adventures to her.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:LiveActionTV]]
* Most of ''Series/{{Lost}}'''s flashbacks do ''not'' have a Framing Device. The continuous flashbacks, however, do. "Meet Kevin Johnson" is a story Michael is telling Sayid and Desmond. The other ones launch off due to prompting in the frame story: Charlie and Hurley getting Desmond drunk, Locke remembering his death...
* ''TheGoldenGirls'' had several episodes constructed of three or four shorter stories, always framed by the girls recalling events fitting a particular theme. (For example, in one episode the girls are dieting, and they recall past attempts at self-improvement.) The show also did several [[ClipShow clip shows]], in which the framing device was usually a time of crisis, such as Blanche considering selling the house.
* The ''Series/StarTrekEnterprise'' GrandFinale had the episode being run as a holodeck simulation as its framing story (though the fact [[Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration Commander Riker]] kept intruding into the events it might as well not have been a Framing Device at all).
* The ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' episode "Trials and Tribble-ations" (in which the cast go back in time to sneak about on [[Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries Captain Kirk's]] ''Enterprise'') is framed with Sisko is recounting the events of the episode to agents from the Department of Temporal Investigations.
** Also the episode "Necessary Evil".
* And let's not forget the original ''Series/{{Star Trek|The Original Series}}'' frame story, "The Menagerie," the only 2-parter of the original series, which was a frame story added around the original pilot episode -- whose differences from the regular series were justified by claiming it took place 13 years earlier.
* The whole of ''Series/HowIMetYourMother'' is a framing device. It's older Ted telling his kids [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin how he, well, met their mother.]]
* ''Series/DoctorWho'' has experimented with them on occasion; Timothy Dalton's NarratorAllAlong in ''The End of Time'' is an example, but the clearest one is the season-spanning ''Trial of a Time Lord'', where three complete four-part stories were presented as evidence in the Doctor's trial.
* ''GossipGirl'' is told from the perspective of a semi-omniscient gossip blogger. What makes this unique is said blogger is an actual (albeit anonymous) character, and the rest of the cast is fully aware of the fact that she is telling the world all about their lives with much of the story conflict revolving around keeping her from knowing too much.
* Not only is most of the ''RoundTheTwist'' episode "Santa Claws" a flashback told by Pete, explaining to his classmates how his mouth was shrunk, [[AllJustADream this was a dream]] as well (which we knew from the opening scene).
* The final episode of ''{{Smallville}}'' featured Chloe Sullivan reading a comic book to her son titled "Smallville" that framed Clark Kent's transformation into Superman.
* The Nickelodeon series ''AreYouAfraidOfTheDark'' sets up each episode with the Midnight Society, a group of teens, gathering around a campfire in the woods to tell ghost stories. After the tale was finished, the episode would end with the Midnight Society calling their meeting to a close.
* The ChristmasEpisode of Series/PowerRangersZeo consisted of Tommy and Cat telling a grandchild of theirs about how King Mondo almost ruined Christmas and [[DivideAndConquer set the rangers apart]].
* The ''Series/BabylonFive'' TV movie 'In The Beginning' has the story of the Earth-Minbari war being told by an elderly Centauri Emperor Mollari, with neat tie-in to the 3rd season two-parter 'War Without End'.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Multiple Media]]
* The novels, comics and movies of ''Franchise/{{Bionicle}}'''s 2004 and 2005 run told the ancient tales of the abandoned city Metru Nui, with the framing story of the village elders recounting them the Toa Nuva (2004) and Turaga Vakama explaining his personal account of the events to Tahu Nuva (2005), in order for them to be ready for whatever may await them when they return there.
** The novel ''Tales of the Masks'' is a prelude to this, with the six Turaga elders discussing whether revealing this truth would be a wise decision. To support their position, each tells a story of how the Toa have retrieved their Nuva masks, which happened between the scenes of the last novel. This was an effective way of keeping this [[GottaCatchThemAll item-hunt]] from interfering with the previous book's story.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Music}}]]
* Music/PinkFloyd's ''Music/TheWall'' is framed by a concert where Pink sings about how his wall went up and came back down.
* SoundHorizon's ''Moira'' starts with a Russian billionaire trying to discover the truth behind the Elefseya, an ancient Greek [[TheEpic epic]] that tells the story proper. In a case of StealthPun {{Lampshading}}, the song makes a number of references to [[NestedStory Matyroshka dolls]].
* Music/ChildishGambino's "III. Telegraph Ave. (Oakland by Lloyd)" is framed as the narrator getting in a car and turning on the radio, hearing a radio DJ introduce the next song, "Oakland", by Lloyd (not a real song). The song starts playing and ambient noises (such as car noises, phone ringing) are heard in the background as the narrator sings along to the song. Finally Childish Gambino takes over singing at the chorus.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Pinball]]
* The ''Pinball/CreatureFromTheBlackLagoon'' pinball takes place in a DriveInTheater where the titular movie is playing. The bulk of the game has the player waiting for the film to start and trying steal a kiss from his girlfriend. The action switches to the film itself during multiball, where the goal is to rescue Kay from the Creature.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Radio}}]]
* [[Creator/CharlesDickens Dickensian]] {{parody}} ''Radio/BleakExpectations'' tells the story of Pip Bin surviving his HilariouslyAbusiveChildhood and going from "[[RagsToRiches riches to rags to riches to rags]] [[UpToEleven to ''worse'' rags to riches to rags to riches again]]" presented by the now-elderly (and extremely wealthy) Sir Philip Bin telling his story to a journalist for serialisation in ''The Times''.
* Every episode of the radio serial 'The Adventures of Sam Spade' (based on the novels by Dashiell Hammett, and Humphrey Bogart's character in 'The Maltese Falcon) opened and closed with Sam dictating a record of the episode's events to his secretary, Effie. Sometimes subverted when Effie was, herself, involved in events.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:{{Theatre}}]]
* Oddly, Creator/WilliamShakespeare's ''Theatre/TheTamingOfTheShrew'' begins with a framing device, but never follows up on it once the story proper starts. There's speculation that there was a follow up, but it's been [[LostForever lost to the ages]]. The additional frame story passages have been restored in The Oxford Shakespeare, edited by Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor.
* The same goes for ''Shrew's'' musical adaptation, ''Theatre/KissMeKate''; the show ends during the play-within-a-play and not with an external sequence.
* ''Theatre/{{Brooklyn}}'' is framed as five street musicians putting on a play for passersby in hopes of donations.
* Cervantes and the Inquisition in ''ManOfLaMancha''.
* ''Equus'' is the story narrated by a psychiatrist about a particularly disturbing case, inside the same story his patient recalls the events that led to his hospitalization through hypnosis.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: TabletopGames]]
* The {{Traveller}} universe has a StandardSciFiHistory as a sort of Framing Device.
* The 3.5 Edition ''DungeonsAndDragons'' module ''The Vortex of Madness'' is actually five separate adventures, the first one (involving the dreaded Machine of Lum the Mad) a possible Framing Device for the other four. (Although, the DungeonMaster can disregard it and run any of them as stand-alone adventures.)
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''AceCombat04ShatteredSkies'' is framed by a letter written to the protagonist, detailing the author's life during the game's war.
** ''AceCombatZero'' is presented as a Osean television documentary centered around the hero's journey, with the cutscenes presented as footage and interviews of your enemies.
* ''VideoGame/PrinceOfPersiaTheSandsOfTime'' has the Prince narrating his adventure to an unseen individual, explaining the story and "backing up" when the player dies and restarts. Near the end of the game, it's revealed that his audience is [[spoiler:Princess Farah, who doesn't remember any of these events due to the Prince's large-scale rewind.]]
* The text adventure game ''SpiderAndWeb'' is known primarily for its ingenious framing device, wherein the player is a spy who has been captured and is being interrogated using a machine that causes them to relive their actions. If the player ever strays too far from the correct path, the interrogator interrupts them and says, "That's impossible, that's not how it happened" and makes you try again.
* ''VideoGame/DragonAgeII'' is framed by Varric, a dwarven merchant prince, telling Cassandra, a Chantry Seeker, the tale of [[PlayerCharacter Hawke's]] rise to power.
* The overarching narrative of ''{{Okami}}'' is told by a mysterious narrator, beginning with the legend of {{Orochi}} and [[PhysicalGod Shiranui]] one hundred years ago. By the end of the game, if you haven't figured out the narrator's identity, he'll berate you and switch to more familiar speech patterns that make it easier to recognize him.
* ''Franchise/AssassinsCreed'':
** The franchise is framed around the idea that a modern-day MegaCorp has developed technology ([[ImportedAlienPhlebotinum reverse-engineered from the leavings of an ancient civilization]]) that allows GeneticMemory to be experienced in real-time and recorded. Thus, you play as a character who is reliving the lives of his ancestors (or other people's ancestors). This [[JustifiedTrope justifies]] the use of GameplayAndStorySegregation in the Animus portions of the game, since you are "playing" it through a VR interface that simplifies the memory-reality.
** ''VideoGame/AssassinsCreedRevelations'' makes the framing device recursive by having Ezio (the Renaissance-era ancestor) use First Civilization artifacts to experience memory-recordings left by Alta´r (the Crusades-era ancestor), thus crossing over the bloodlines since Ezio was not Alta´r's descendant. So you're playing a character experiencing the memories of a character who is himself experiencing the memories of a character.
** ''VideoGame/AssassinsCreedIIILiberation'' and ''VideoGame/AssassinsCreedIVBlackFlag'' take this a step further by postulating that Abstergo has formed an entertainment division dedicated to bringing Animus technology to the mass-market in the form of video games and movies, providing streamlined and carefully edited excerpts from the memory-sequences that are researched in their labs. As a meta-joke, the company they hire to deliver these products is Creator/{{Ubisoft}}, the developer of the real franchise, and ''VideoGame/AssassinsCreedIVBlackFlag'' contains multiple in-jokes and {{Fandom Nod}}s as a result.
* Used in a memorable way as part of a TwistEnding in ''SecondSight'', where the player character, an amnesiac with psychic powers, seems to be having flashbacks to his past self...[[spoiler:until it turns out that the flashbacks were instead in the present day, and everything else was a part of his premonitions of things to come]].
* The [[CanonDiscontinuity old Satellaview sequel]] of ''VideoGame/ChronoTrigger'' : ''VisualNovel/RadicalDreamers'' starts with Serge's grandson opening the diary of his grandfather, the story ends in a similar way.
** So does ''VideoGame/ChronoCross'', except it's Kid's diary in [[AlternateContinuity this version of the tale]].
* The story of ''VideoGame/OdinSphere'' is told when a little girl finds the books telling each character's role in the tale of Armageddon in her attic and starts reading them. In the end when she finishes reading the last book, she notices that a Pooka coin is lodged in the back cover. She offers a silent prayer to the people in the story before leaving the attic [[spoiler:and in the True Ending Pooka!Cornelius and Pooka!Velvet take the coin to complete their collection to make the wish that restores their humanity.]]
* ''{{VideoGame/Catherine}}'' has the whole game be an episode of the show The Golden Playhouse, with your hostess, Trisha: The Midnight Venus. It plays out as if it's a TV series that shows late night movies, complete with opening and closing narration by Trisha. There's even a watermark in the corner of some cutscenes.
* The epilogue voiceover for VideoGame/MetalGearSolid4GunsOfThePatriots strongly suggests that the Franchise/MetalGear series was created by Otacon to tell Snake's story. [[IShouldWriteABookAboutThis Otacon could be thinking of writing a book]], but video games are the perfect medium for an {{Otaku}} and GadgeteerGenius. Also, Hideo Kojima looks a bit like Otacon if you squint.
* Yasumi Matsuno's ''VagrantStory'' is told as a collection of reports from VKP Intelligence Agent Callo Merlose, regarding an inquiry on VKP Riskbreaker Ashley Riot's apparent murder of Duke Bardorba and his subsequent disappearance.
* ''FinalFantasyTactics'', also by Matsuno, is the retelling of the contents of the ''Durai Papers'', the chronicle of the true history of Ivalice during the War of the Lions. Banned by the [[CorruptChurch Glabados Church]], and their author, Orran Durai, burned for heresy, they were uncovered centuries later by Orran's descendant Arazlam, who published them to reveal the truth behind the Zodiac Braves and King Delita's rise to the throne.
* And the Yasumi Matsuno hat trick, ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyXII'' is narrated by Marquis Halim Ondore IV, uncle of Princess [[spoiler:and later Queen]] Ashelia B'nargin Dalmasca, from his own memoir.
* The RailShooter spin-off of the ''Franchise/ResidentEvil'' franchise, ''[[VideoGame/ResidentEvilTheDarkSideChronicles The Dark Side Chronicles]]'', includes two scenarios that are recaps of the events of ''2'' and ''Code Veronica''; said scenarios are framed as flashbacks during the game's present storyline:
** ''VideoGame/ResidentEvil2'': Krauser, having no experience with the zombies and monsters they're currently facing, asks Leon to recount everything he knows about them. Cue flashback to ''2''.
** ''VideoGame/ResidentEvilCodeVeronica'': After it's revealed that the BigBad got his hands on the Veronica virus, the ''Code Veronica'' scenario is framed as Leon thinking back to Claire's experience fighting Alexia Ashford, the creator of said virus.
* In ''VideoGame/TheCompanyOfMyself'', it turns out that the whole thing is one long [[spoiler:therapy]] session.
* Many ''ProfessorLayton'' games are told as Luke writing a letter to the player.
* ''VideoGame/{{Drakensang}}'': The prequel is framed by two of the main characters of the first game. Forgrimm is telling Gladys how her parents came to be married.
* ''[[VideoGame/MafiaTheCityOfLostHeaven Mafia]]'''s story is told by the main character as he describes his time in the mafia to the chief of police.
* ''{{VideoGame/Penumbra}}'' is being told in an e-mail from the soon to be dead Philip to an unspecified individual, asking that person to complete what he started, though Requiem does away with this.
* The original ''VideoGame/EscapeFromButcherBay'' opened with Riddick during his years on the ice planet he was hiding on at the start of ''Film/TheChroniclesOfRiddick''. The Furyan woman in his visions tells him to remember his past, and what happened in Butcher Bay. Then the rest of the game begins, which is actually one long flashback. At the end Riddick awakens and is told of his destiny, and sees visions of the Necromongers. The framing story was dropped in the 2009 remake to better connect it to ''VideoGame/AssaultOnDarkAthena'', its immediate successor in the chronology.
* ''VideoGame/CallOfJuarezGunslinger''. The idea behind the game is that our hero is telling stories about his past as a BountyHunter to the other patrons in a bar. However, [[UnreliableNarrator our hero gets more and more drunk over the course of the game, and he starts exaggerating parts of his story, and eventually starts outright lying and making stuff up.]] [[spoiler: He isn't quite as drunk as he makes himself out to be, though, [[SecretTestOfCharacter and he has a reason to be lying.]]]] Interestingly, this actually affects the gameplay. Parts of the scenery and setting change as our hero points out things he didn't mention before, realizes that he isn't remembering what happened correctly, and, amusingly, when the other bar patrons misinterpret what he's saying or jump to conclusions about what happened next.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Borderlands 2}}'''s fourth DLC, ''Tiny Tina's Assault on Dragon Keep'', is presented as the vault hunters sitting down at a table and playing a game of ''[[DungeonsAndDragons Bunkers and Badasses]]''. Just about every joke you could crack about this subject is made.
* The story of ''VideoGames/VampiresDawn'' is told by a grandfather to his grandson.
* ''An Oriental Alphabet Primer'', a game for ''VideoGame/UnlimitedAdventures'', is a dark horror story... told through the medium of a cheerful word-learning book for schoolchildren, which uses excerpts of a supposed horror novel (fragmented, and in a more-or-less random order) as short usage examples for the words it's teaching.
* The entire plot of the three ''Series/MassEffect'' games is implied to have been told through one of these in TheStinger of the third game, where a young child asks his grandfather if that story about [[SpellMyNameWithAThe "The Shepard"]] was true. It's worth noting that the suggestion that the entire plot [[ShaggyDogStory may not have even happened]] as well as the implication that the audience is like a child was one of the [[BrokenBase several]] reasons the third game's ending got such a [[InternetBackdraft notoriously poor reception.]]
* In the arcade game Rastan Saga (releases outside Japan as simply "Rastan"), the attract mode's OpeningNarration (given by the title character, a Literature/ConanTheBarbarian expy) is implied to be this:
-->I used to be a thief and a murderer, otherwise I could not survive in such difficult times. Sit beside me and listen to my story of days full of adventure.
** Furthermore, there is an additional intro that plays before the first level that further implies this trope, but it was cut from the non-Japanese releases.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:WebAnimation]]
* The letters between the Director and the Chairman in ''Machinima/RedVsBlue: Reconstruction'' run parallel to the main plot and serve to put the central conflict in the context of the larger world the characters exist in.
* ''BowsersKingdom'' episode 9 had the Karate Duo explain the story of they tried to steal the [[VideoGame/SuperMarioRPG Seven Stars]] and failed.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:WebComics]]
* The second part of ''[[YuMeDream Yu+Me: Dream]]'' is apparently a story being read by Don, sometime after [[spoiler:Fiona and Lia leave the Dream World to reincarnate and find each other again on Earth.]]
** And Don, [[spoiler:the current Dream King, was given the position by technically "killing" Fiona through sending her back, since ownership of Nod works via KlingonPromotion and she took the title from [[BigBad Sadako..]]]]
* The bulk of ''{{Spacetrawler}}'' is a personal history that Nogg is sharing with Mr. Zorilla.
* ''{{Erstwhile}}'' concludes "A Tale with A Riddle" with [[http://www.erstwhiletales.com/a-tale-with-a-riddle-0-6/#.T29zLdm6SuI the revelation that the mother is telling her daughter the story, so her husband can tell the daughter what the answer to the riddle is.]]
* In ''Webcomic/TheRedStar'', Maya is, nine years later, telling the story of the battle that destroyed their Union and killed her husband.
* Most of the "Catnip" chapter of ''Webcomic/ElGoonishShive'', is ostensibly a video shown to Sarah made by Tedd and Grace.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:WebOriginal]]
* Literature/DragomirsDiary is narrated through diary entries, with the eponymous character providing most of the entries - though other characters, including the diary itself, occasionally join in the fun.
* The Literature/NottingCove series is narrated by the muse Calliope (from GreekMythology) and apparently, all the other muses quit.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:WesternAnimation]]
* An episode of ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDad'' used a character (Klaus) explaining that he and another character are just a framing device, and not part of the actual story as a joke.
* ''ThomasTheTankEngine'' was framed as being stories being told by Mr. Conductor in ''ShiningTimeStation''.
** The early episodes featuring the narrow gauge engines were framed as Thomas telling the other engines a story about them.
** Actually, a few years before Shining Time Station was conceived, the Thomas series had existed as a series of shorts created for British television, making the above a subversion.
* A show named ''TheNoddyShop'' framed episodes of the BBC's stop motion ''{{Noddy}}'' series as being stories the child characters told to each other.
* For that matter, any of the WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes antholgy movies fit this trope. For instance, The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner movie presented the selected shorts as Bugs Bunny reminiscing about his "hare-raising" exploits.
* The early [[HalloweenEpisode Treehouse of Horror episodes]] of ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' had them:
** The first one had Homer listening in on Bart and Lisa exchanging stories in a treehouse ([[ArtifactTitle hence the name of the series' Halloween episodes]]).
** The second one had Bart, Lisa, and Homer eating too much candy before bed, with the ThreeShorts themselves presented as prolonged {{Nightmare Sequence}}s. The last short appears to have ended with a return to the frame story, only to continue where the short left off by [[spoiler:revealing that Mr. Burns had his head grafted to Homer's body]]. Cue fake OnTheNext.
** The third one featured the family throwing a Halloween party, with Lisa, Grandpa, and Bart telling the stories.
** The fourth episode is the last one to feature a framing device, with Bart presenting the stories in the manner of ''NightGallery''.
:: Whatever plot the subsequent Halloween episodes had outside of the three stories is mostly confined to the {{Cold Opening}}s.
** The bulk of an episode containing several StoryWithinAStory cases turned out to be Bart telling Principal Skinner the reason he failed to turn in an assignment.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'' Used a similar Framing Device in it's "Anthology of Interest" stories, using the "WhatIf" machine. In the first episode it turns out that the Framing Device was itself a product of the professor asking the WhatIf machine a question.
* ''TheTownSantaForgot'' opens and ends with an old man (who it turns out [[spoiler:is the now-elderly main character]]) telling the story to his grandkids.
* ''Mister Magoo's Christmas Carol'' has the title character performing in a Broadway production of [[Literature/AChristmasCarol Dickens' story]].
* The ''WesternAnimation/KimPossible'' episode "Rewriting History" has a story of Kim's great-grandmother (who vanished in disgrace at the start of the century), which is framed by Kim uncovering what really happened, while her ArchEnemy Dr. Drakken chases his own ancestor's involvement in the same events, piling up into GenerationXerox and ContrivedCoincidence [[spoiler: and ending as AllJustADream]].
* The ''WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender'' episode [[VillainEpisode "Zuko Alone"]] features this: the A-story of Zuko wandering around the Earth Kingdom and being offered hospitality by a peasant family mirrors the story (told in flashbacks) of Zuko's childhood and how Ozai became Firelord.
* Many episodes of ''TinyToonAdventures'' used this trope to tie together otherwise unrelated skits.
** WesternAnimation/{{Animaniacs}} also did this sometimes.
* Early ''WesternAnimation/{{Caillou}}'' episodes start with a grandmother telling her grandchild a story of Caillou's life, which is a setup for the episode itself. Later episodes ditched this beginning though.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheCareBearsMovie'' is told by [[spoiler:an elder Nicholas about how the Care Bears helped him]].
* ''Creator/{{Toonami}}'' is notable for not just creating a framing device with TOM and the Absolution, but for giving them a pretty extensive backstory and universe to boot. It even ties into the SpaceGhost universe, occasionally.[[note]]Moreover, the SpaceGhostCoastToCoast version of Moltar was the original host, when (in-universe) Toonami originated from Ghost Planet.[[/note]]
* The "Graybles" episodes of ''WesternAnimation/AdventureTime'' are framed by the character Cuber, who [[BreakingTheFourthWall speaks directly to the audience]] and seems to exist outside the canon of the show in some kind of futuristic space setting. These episodes begin and end with him asking the viewer to try to guess the theme of five seemingly unrelated short clips of the show (called graybles), which he plays on a triangular screen.
[[/folder]]
----
''"...and I believe that's about it."''\\
''"Good times. So what do we do now?"''\\
''"What else? Go write more articles!"''
----