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[[caption-width-right:320:Clockwise from top left: Phlegmatic, Sanguine, Choleric, and Melancholic.]]
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Note: All stereotypes can be any of the four temperaments, as style is a separate factor to ones temperament.

There are many ways to make a group of people diverse without giving them overly specialized roles within an ensemble. One way is through matching personality types according to a [[ScienceMarchesOn wacky ancient pseudoscience]]. The Four Temperaments (also called the "four humors") was a theory that behavior was caused by concentrations of body fluids -- the "humors" of classical medicine: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.

A temporary imbalance would create an illness: too much blood caused a fever, too much yellow bile caused a cough, too much black bile caused depression, and too much phlegm caused a cold. A permanent imbalance led to a person having a certain type of intentions, behavior, and personality. Though this has been a [[ScienceMarchesOn theory long-since discredited from a scientific standpoint]], the general idea still remains and the theory is still used for personality profiling. An ensemble based on these four humors can make the cast diverse without actually changing the roles of the characters in the story.

Along with a list of characteristics, the four temperaments are:

* '''Sanguine (blood):''' Extroverted, emotional, and people-oriented.
** Key Strengths: Charming, cheerful, loves-people, energetic, talkative, [[TheMcCoy passionate and compassionate]], positive, sometimes unpredictable, expressive influencer, an excellent comedian, salesman or clown, quirky or eccentric and [[FunPersonified just plain fun]].
*** In common with phlegmatic: Friendly, [[TurnTheOtherCheek forgiving]], [[{{Pollyanna}} optimistic endurer]], emotionally available, [[SillyRabbitCynicismIsForLosers won't get negative]], good with relationships.
*** In common with choleric: Adventurous, confident, hard to embarrass.
** Key Weaknesses: Undisciplined, [[MotorMouth too talkative]], [[MoodSwinger emotionally unstable]], [[GenkiGirl hyperactive]], scatter-brained, gullible, disorganized, and sometimes frivolous.
*** In common with phlegmatic: Weak-willed, too people-pleasing, gullible, [[WideEyedIdealist not fault-grasping.]]
*** In common with choleric: Impulsive, [[ItsAllAboutMe egotistical]], shallow and self-absorbed at times
** Expressive high, responsive high; response's delay short, duration short.
** The '''I'''nspired '''I'''nfluencer of D'''I'''SC.
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (hot and moist) [[BlowYouAway air]], spring, and morning.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''young childhood''''' (roughly ages 0-13).
** UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types in general: '''E--P'''
** Will often correspond with the Optimist when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Yandere}} (Playful and Obsessive).
** Organ: Liver.
** Archetypal color: Gold, brighter shades of yellow, all shades of pink or aqua (the colors of the Sky).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yang (white).
** Planet: Jupiter.

* '''Choleric (yellow bile):''' Extroverted, unemotional, and task-oriented.
** Key Strengths: [[TheKirk Takes the lead]], hard worker, strong-willed, practical, [[{{Hotblooded}} passionate]], a good repossession worker, an excellent strongman/woman of the team ([[DrillSergeantNasty drill sergeant at the most extreme]]), [[{{Determinator}} determined]], goal-oriented and thrives under criticism.
*** In common with sanguine: Confident, [[ChallengeSeeker loves a challenge]], hard to embarrass
*** In common with melancholic: [[TheStrategist Good planner]], independent, [[BrutalHonesty honest without any compromisation]], Excellent agent of change, [[TheReliableOne pure hard-worker]]
** Key Weaknesses: [[HairTriggerTemper Hot-tempered]], rude, rebellious, can be cruel, stubborn, harsh, [[MeanBoss bossy]], [[MakeanExampleofThem expects complete devotion]], insensitive, [[{{Jerkass}} often condescending]] [[RageBreakingPoint can become psychotic in overbearing situations]], {{workaholic}}, can be a warmonger, [[RevengebeforeReason vindictive]], a shallow cynic of people's character, most likely a bad winner/loser, and may nastily misinterpret jokes.
*** In common with sanguine: Arrogant, boisterous, often [[DramaQueen dramatic]], unhinged, unfiltered in speech, too in-your-face
*** In common with melancholic: Inflexible, emotionally distant, [[ThePerfectionist demanding and fastidious]], [[IWorkAlone not very cooperative]], [[BestServedCold vengeful]], [[HolierThanThou self-righteous]] and [[BlackAndWhiteInsanity dogmatic]], [[TheCynic sees the worst in people]]
** Expressive high, responsive low; response's delay short, duration long.
** The '''D'''ominant '''D'''river of '''D'''ISC.
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (hot and dry) [[PlayingWithFire fire]], summer, and afternoon.
** In a person's life, it corresponds with '''''adolescence''''' and '''''young adulthood''''' (roughly ages 13-35).
** UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types in general: '''E--J'''
** Will often correspond with the Realist when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Tsundere}} (Harsh and Maturing).
** Organ: Spleen.
** Archetypal color: Darker shades of yellow, all shades of red or orange (the colors of a Volcano).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yang ([[RedOniBlueOni Red]]).
** Planet: Mars.

* '''Melancholic (black bile):''' Introverted, emotional, and task-oriented.
** Key Strengths: Detailed, conservative, [[TheSpock analytical]], organized, [[ThePerfectionist perfectionistic]], [[UndyingLoyalty faithful to a fault]], kept-quiet will of stone, elegant (in the more dignified ways), self-sacrificing, an excellent medic or lawyer.
*** In common with choleric: Excellent leader, [[CrazyPrepared practical]], [[GuileHero an effective manipulator of people]]
*** In common with phlegmatic: Polite, ethical to a fault, deep, thoughtful, sensitive, artistic
** Key Weaknesses: Rigid, too straight-laced, [[AccentuateTheNegative critical]], bashful, [[GrumpyBear pessimistic]], [[ByronicHero moody]], [[TheEeyore depressed]], impractical (yes, both practical and impractical), has unrealistically high expectations, [[TheParanoiac very paranoid]], desires obsessively to be regarded formally, such as Mr/Mrs, or Dr.
*** In common with choleric: Inflexible, snobbish, emotionally distant, [[TheResenter resentful]], [[BestServedCold vengeful]], [[HolierThanThou self-righteous]] and [[BlackAndWhiteInsanity dogmatic]], [[TheCynic sees the worst in people]], harshly sarcastic.
*** In common with phlegmatic: [[ShrinkingViolet Shy]], [[NervousWreck insecure]], easily embarrassed
** Expressive low, responsive low; response's delay long, duration long.
** The '''C'''ontemplating '''C'''onscience of DIS'''C'''.
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (cool and dry) [[DishingOutDirt earth]], autumn, and evening.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''middle-aged adulthood''''' (roughly ages 35-65).
** UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types in general: '''I--J'''.
** Will often correspond with TheCynic when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Kuudere}} (Cold and Blunt).
** Organ: Gall Bladder.
** Archetypal color: Navy blue, dark purple, olive green, all shades of brown or black (the colors of a cave or cavern).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yin (black).
** Planet: Saturn.

* '''Phlegmatic (phlegm):''' Introverted, unemotional, and people-oriented. [[note]]The temperament called '''Supine''' from another theory is covered in this temperament.[[/note]]
** Key Strengths: Calm, humble, an excellent assistant, spy or librarian, kept-quiet will of steel (flexible steel), elegant (in the simpler ways), thoughtful, patient, modest, [[NiceGuy a real sweetheart]], [[EnigmaticMinion accommodating]], steady-paced, sympathetic, perceptive, very compassionate, [[TheIdealist assuming innocent until proven guilty]], a good listener, and empathetic to all.
*** In common with melancholic: Polite, reserved, gentle, ethical to a fault, dependable, [[EnsembleDarkhorse mysterious]], [[TheQuietOne quiet]] and [[StealthExpert stealthy]], [[TheStoic a deep poker-face]]
*** In common with sanguine: Pleasant, forgiving, witty, easygoing, [[{{Pollyanna}} idealistic endurer]], emotionally available, a good sense of humour.
** Key Weaknesses: Indifferent, [[YamatoNadeshiko submissive]], [[LazyBum lazy]], slow, [[TheSlacker slacker]], indecisive and [[ExtremeDoormat too yielding]].
*** In common with melancholic: [[ShrinkingViolet Timid and docile]], scared of sudden change, stubborn (about certain things), easily embarrassed
*** In common with sanguine: [[TheGadfly teasing]], too compromising, forgetful, [[WideEyedIdealist not fault-grasping]]
** Expressive low, responsive high; response's delay long, duration short.
** The '''S'''table '''S'''upporter of DI'''S'''C.
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (cool and moist) [[MakingASplash water]], winter, and deep night.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''older adulthood''''' (roughly ages 65 and up).
** UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types in general: '''I--P'''.
** Will often correspond with the Apathetic or the Conflicted when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Dandere}} (Shy and Calm).
** Organ: Lungs/Brain.
** Archetypal color: Teal, green, white, gray, all shades of blue or black (the colors of the ocean).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yin ([[RedOniBlueOni blue]]).
** Planet: Moon.

The four temperament system, while interesting, was seen as flawed even back then as some people did not fit with any of the presented humors, so a neutral temperament has been used, labeled sometimes as the '''Leukine''', other times the '''Eclectic''', although in fiction this has been mostly reserved either for the lead character or more commonly for secondary characters; additionally, this "fifth humour" often shares many common elements with the Phlegmatic.

Historically in plays, there was a whole genre: Comedy of Humors, where the impetus of the story is the sudden banding of these opposing types. This is in contrast to the Comedy of Errors, where the story is driven by the events and situations.

They are similar to the four PersonalityBloodTypes, and are sometimes also a FourElementEnsemble.

See also CastCalculus for the overarching archetypes in this and differently numbered ensembles. [[ImageLinks/FourTempermentEnsemble Here is an Image Archive for this trope]]. Additionally, Pseudolonewolf (of ''Videogame/{{MARDEK}}'' fame) has a page that goes into great detail on the four temperaments, [[http://temperaments.fighunter.com here]] (older version with blends [[http://web.archive.org/web/20150324140648/http://archive.fighunter.com/?page=temperaments here]]), and TheOtherWiki offers its information [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_temperaments here]]. For another way to split up a group of four, see FourPhilosophyEnsemble.




* FourTemperamentEnsemble/AnimeAndManga
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/ComicBooks
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Film}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Literature}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/LiveActionTV
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Music}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/VideoGames
* [[FourTemperamentEnsemble/WebOriginal Web Comics / Web Original]]
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/WesternAnimation


[[folder:Fan Fiction]]
* The four main anthropomorphic animal characters in the ''Anime/SonicX'' fanfic ''FanFic/DontKeepYourDistance''. Paint (Sanguine), Maxwell (Choleric), Jewel (Melancholic), and Arrowhead (Phlegmatic) seem almost designed after the four classical temperaments at times.
* Barack and the White House Boiz, consisting of Barack Obama (Melancholic), Joe Biden (Sanguine), Bill Clinton (Phlegmatic), and Mitt Romney (Choleric) in the RPF ''Fanfic/IceIceBaby''. Barack is cautious and thoughtful, and refuses to be divisive. Joe is the happy-go-lucky, loudmouth of the bunch, Bill is humble in his talents, quiet and always willing to lend a helping hand. Mitt stays plotting, and only wants what's best for him. The four boiz work together to stop the assassination of Queen Elizabeth II.

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* The [=McMahons=]: Vince (melancholic), Linda (phlegmatic), Shane (sanguine), and Stephanie (choleric)
* The Radicalz: Wrestling/ChrisBenoit (melancholic), Wrestling/EddieGuerrero (choleric), Wrestling/DeanMalenko (phlegmatic), and Wrestling/PerrySaturn (sanguine)
* Wrestling/{{Evolution}}: TripleH (melancholic), RicFlair (phlegmatic), RandyOrton (sanguine), and {{Batista}} (choleric)
* Wrestling/{{Fortune}}: Wrestling/JamesStorm (sanguine), Wrestling/AJStyles (choleric), Wrestling/BobbyRoode (melancholic/leukine), Kazarian (phlegmatic)

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* In ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer}}'' and ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'', appropriately enough, the four gods of Chaos each represent an emotion and mindset. Khorne the god of anger and bloodshed is choleric. Slaanesh god of passion and lust is sanguine. Tzeentch god of ambition and hope is (ironically) melancholic. Nurgle god of despair and disease is phlegmatic.
* This is an explicit game mechanic in ''TabletopGame/PrometheanTheCreated'', where four out of the five main player {{Splat}}s is full of a specific humour that affects their personality and powers (with the fifth, Ulgan, being filled with the "ectoplasmic" humor of spirits). There are even mechanical benefits to travelling with a full FourTemperamentEnsemble.