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[[caption-width-right:320:Clockwise from top left: Phlegmatic, Sanguine, Choleric, and Melancholic.]]
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Note: All stereotypes can be any of the four temperaments, as style is a separate factor to ones temperament.

There are many ways to make a group of people diverse without giving them overly specialized roles within an ensemble. One way is through matching personality types according to a [[ScienceMarchesOn wacky ancient pseudoscience]]. The Four Temperaments (also called the "four humors") was a theory that behavior was caused by concentrations of body fluids -- the "humors" of classical medicine: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.

A temporary imbalance would create an illness: too much blood caused a fever, too much yellow bile caused a cough, too much black bile caused depression, and too much phlegm caused a cold. A permanent imbalance led to a person having a certain type of intentions, behavior, and personality. Though this has been a theory long-since discredited from a scientific standpoint, the general idea still remains and the theory is still used for personality profiling. An ensemble based on these four humors can make the cast diverse without actually changing the roles of the characters in the story.

Along with a list of characteristics, the four temperaments are:

* '''Sanguine (blood):''' Extroverted, emotional, and people-oriented.
** Key Strengths: Charming, cheerful, loves people, energetic, talkative, [[TheMcCoy passionate and compassionate]], positive, sometimes unpredictable, expressive influencer, an excellent comedian, salesman or clown, quirky or eccentric and [[FunPersonified just plain fun]].
*** In common with phlegmatic: Friendly, [[TurnTheOtherCheek forgiving]], [[{{Pollyanna}} optimistic endurer]], emotionally available, [[SillyRabbitCynicismIsForLosers won't get negative]], good with relationships.
*** In common with choleric: Adventurous, confident, hard to embarrass.
** Key Weaknesses: Undisciplined, [[MotorMouth too talkative]], [[MoodSwinger emotionally unstable]], [[GenkiGirl hyperactive]], scatterbrained, gullible, disorganized, late for work, and sometimes frivolous.
*** In common with phlegmatic: Weak-willed, likes to appease other people, gullible, [[WideEyedIdealist overly idealistic to the point of inability to grasp what's gone wrong]]
*** In common with choleric: Impulsive, [[ItsAllAboutMe egotistical]], shallow and self-absorbed at times
** Expressive high, responsive high; response's delay short, duration short.
** The '''I'''nspired '''I'''nfluencer of D'''I'''SC and UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types generally '''E[[superscript:_]]F[[superscript:_]]'''.
** Will often correspond with the Optimist or the Realist when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Yandere}} or [[TheCutie Deredere]] (Playful and Obsessive).
** [[RedOniBlueOni Oni type]] and GoodCopBadCop: Brash Red Oni with snark, but an overall diplomatic "Good Cop"
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (hot and moist) [[BlowYouAway air]], spring, and morning.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''young childhood''''' (roughly ages 0-13).
** Organ: Liver.
** Archetypal color: Gold, brighter shades of yellow, all shades of pink or aqua (the colors of the Sky).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yang (white).
** Planet or Satellite: Jupiter.
** WesternZodiac Constellations: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius.
** {{Personality Blood Type|s}}: B
** Apocalypse Horseman: Conquest/Pestilence.

* '''Choleric (yellow bile):''' Extroverted, unemotional, and task-oriented.
** Key Strengths: [[TheKirk Takes the lead]], hard worker, strong-willed, practical, [[{{Hotblooded}} passionate]], a good repossession worker, an excellent strongman/woman of the team ([[DrillSergeantNasty drill sergeant at the most extreme]]), [[{{Determinator}} determined]], goal-oriented and thrives under criticism.
*** In common with sanguine: Confident, [[ChallengeSeeker loves a challenge]], hard to embarrass
*** In common with melancholic: [[TheStrategist Good planner]], independent, [[BrutalHonesty honest without any compromisation]], Excellent agent of change, [[TheReliableOne pure hard worker]]
** Key Weaknesses: [[HairTriggerTemper Hot-tempered]], rude, rebellious, can be cruel, stubborn, harsh, [[MeanBoss bossy]], [[MakeanExampleofThem expects complete devotion]], insensitive, [[{{Jerkass}} often condescending]], [[RageBreakingPoint can become psychotic in overbearing situations]], {{workaholic}}, [[TheUnfettered without compassion or conscience]], can be a warmonger, [[RevengebeforeReason vindictive]], a shallow cynic of people's character, most likely a bad winner/loser, and may nastily misinterpret jokes.
*** In common with sanguine: Arrogant, boisterous, often [[DramaQueen dramatic]], unhinged, unfiltered in speech, often likes to make "in your face" insults
*** In common with melancholic: Inflexible, emotionally distant, strict, [[ThePerfectionist demanding and fastidious]], [[IWorkAlone not very cooperative]], [[BestServedCold vengeful]], [[HolierThanThou self-righteous]] and [[BlackAndWhiteInsanity dogmatic]], harshly sarcastic, [[TheCynic sees the worst in people]]
** Expressive high, responsive low; response's delay short, duration long.
** The '''D'''ominant '''D'''river of '''D'''ISC and UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types generally '''E[[superscript:_]]T[[superscript:_]]'''.
** Will often correspond with TheCynic or the Apathetic when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Tsundere}} (Harsh and Maturing).
** [[RedOniBlueOni Oni type]] and GoodCopBadCop: Red Oni and harsh, pure "Bad Cop"
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (hot and dry) [[PlayingWithFire fire]], summer, and afternoon.
** In a person's life, it corresponds with '''''adolescence''''' and '''''young adulthood''''' (roughly ages 13-35).
** Organ: Spleen.
** Archetypal color: Darker shades of yellow, all shades of red or orange (the colors of a Volcano).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yang ([[RedOniBlueOni Red]]).
** Planet or Satellite: Mars.
** WesternZodiac Constellations: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius.
** {{Personality Blood Type|s}}: O
** Apocalypse Horseman: War.

* '''Melancholic (black bile):''' Introverted, emotional, and task-oriented.
** Key Strengths: Detailed, conservative, [[TheSpock analytical]], organized, [[ThePerfectionist perfectionistic]], [[UndyingLoyalty faithful to a fault]], discreet will of stone, elegant (in the more dignified ways), selfless, an excellent medic or lawyer.
*** In common with choleric: Excellent leader, [[CrazyPrepared practical]], [[GuileHero an effective manipulator of people]], punctual.
*** In common with phlegmatic: Polite, ethical to a fault, deep, thoughtful, sensitive, artistic
** Key Weaknesses: Rigid, too straight-laced, [[AccentuateTheNegative critical]], bashful, [[GrumpyBear pessimistic]], [[MoodSwinger moody]], [[TheEeyore depressed]], impractical (yes, both practical and impractical), has unrealistically high expectations, [[TheParanoiac very paranoid]]
*** In common with choleric: Inflexible, snobbish, emotionally distant, strict, [[TheResenter resentful]], [[BestServedCold vengeful]], [[HolierThanThou self-righteous]] and [[BlackAndWhiteInsanity dogmatic]], [[TheCynic sees the worst in people]].
*** In common with phlegmatic: [[ShrinkingViolet Shy]], [[NervousWreck insecure]], easily embarrassed, slowpoke
** Expressive low, responsive low; response's delay long, duration long.
** The '''C'''ontemplating '''C'''onscience of DIS'''C''' and UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types generally '''I[[superscript:_]]T[[superscript:_]]'''.
** Will often correspond with TheCynic or the Realist FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Kuudere}} (Cold and Blunt).
** [[RedOniBlueOni Oni type]] and GoodCopBadCop: Stoic, aloof Blue Oni, a cold "Bad Cop" with less involvement (if not a coward)
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (cool and dry) [[DishingOutDirt earth]], autumn, and evening.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''middle-aged adulthood''''' (roughly ages 35-65).
** Organ: Gall Bladder.
** Archetypal color: Navy blue, dark purple, olive green, all shades of brown or black (the colors of a cave or cavern).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yin (black).
** Planet or Satellite: Saturn.
** WesternZodiac Constellations: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn.
** {{Personality Blood Type|s}}: A
** Apocalypse Horseman: Famine.

* '''Phlegmatic (phlegm):''' Introverted, unemotional, and people-oriented. [[note]]The temperament called '''Supine''' from another theory is covered in this temperament.[[/note]]
** Key Strengths: Calm, humble, an excellent assistant, spy or librarian, discreet, flexible will of steel (flexible steel), elegant (in the simpler ways), thoughtful, patient, modest, [[NiceGuy a real sweetheart]], [[EnigmaticMinion accommodating]], steady-paced, sympathetic, perceptive, [[TheFettered faith in morality]] (and leading by example), very compassionate, [[TheIdealist assuming innocent until proven guilty]], a good listener, open-minded, considerate, and empathetic to all.
*** In common with melancholic: Polite, reserved, gentle, ethical to a fault, dependable, [[EnsembleDarkhorse mysterious]], [[TheQuietOne quiet]] and [[StealthExpert stealthy]], [[TheStoic a deep poker face]]
*** In common with sanguine: Pleasant, forgiving, witty, easygoing, [[{{Pollyanna}} idealistic endurer]], emotionally available, a good sense of humour, good with relationships.
** Key Weaknesses: Indifferent, [[YamatoNadeshiko submissive]], [[LazyBum lazy]], slow, shy and passive, [[TheSlacker slacker]], indecisive and [[ExtremeDoormat too yielding]].
*** In common with melancholic: [[ShrinkingViolet Timid and docile]], scared of sudden change, stubborn (about certain things), easily embarrassed.
*** In common with sanguine: [[TheGadfly teasing]], too compromising, forgetful, [[WideEyedIdealist unable to find what's wrong]]
** Expressive low, responsive high; response's delay long, duration short.
** The '''S'''table '''S'''upporter of DI'''S'''C and UsefulNotes/MyersBriggs types generally '''I[[superscript:_]]F[[superscript:_]]'''.
** Will often correspond with the Optimist or the Apathetic when in a FourPhilosophyEnsemble.
** Amongst the four main "Dere Types" can qualify as a pure {{Dandere}}.
** [[RedOniBlueOni Oni type]] and GoodCopBadCop: Blue Oni and gentle, diplomatic "Good Cop"
** Corresponding element, season, and division of a day: (cool and moist) [[MakingASplash water]], winter, and deep night.
** In a person's life, it corresponds to '''''older adulthood''''' (roughly ages 65 and up).
** Organ: Lungs/Brain.
** Archetypal color: Teal, green, white, gray, all shades of blue or black (the colors of the ocean).
** The Yin-Yang Duo: Yin ([[RedOniBlueOni blue]]).
** Planet or Satellite: Moon.
** WesternZodiac Constellations: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces.
** {{Personality Blood Type|s}}: AB
** Apocalypse Horseman: Death.

The four temperament system, while interesting, was seen as flawed even back then as some people did not fit with any of the presented humors, so a neutral temperament has been used, labeled sometimes as the '''Leukine''', other times the '''Supine/Eclectic''', although in fiction this has been mostly reserved either for the lead character or more commonly for secondary characters (as for FourPhilosophyEnsemble, usually the Realist or Apathetic).

A fifth temperament was originally derived in modern temperament theory from the once popular FIRO-B psychometric instrument, which included moderate scales. When the temperaments were mapped to it, the traditional Phlegmatic ended up moderate in both "expressive" (classic "extrovert" and "introvert") and "responsive" (classic "people vs task" focus) scales, and the low expressive high responsive area was labeled "Supine". In some versions of the theory, this is reversed, with the Phlegmatic kept in its old place, and the new temperament considered the moderate one.

This "fifth humour" often shares many common elements with the Phlegmatic. The difference is that the Phlegmatic is this way from a lower energy reserve which leads him to take the path of least resistance (to either go with the flow and be agreeable, or to be stubborn and slow), while the Supine has an emotional energy that drives him to be reserved, but wanting of acceptance from others.

Historically in plays, there was a whole genre: Comedy of Humors, where the impetus of the story is the sudden banding of these opposing types. This is in contrast to the Comedy of Errors, where the story is driven by the events and situations.

They are similar to the four PersonalityBloodTypes, and are sometimes also a FourElementEnsemble.

See also CastCalculus for the overarching archetypes in this and differently numbered ensembles. [[ImageLinks/FourTempermentEnsemble Here is an Image Archive for this trope]]. Additionally, Pseudolonewolf (of ''Videogame/{{MARDEK}}'' fame) has a page that goes into great detail on the four temperaments, [[http://temperaments.fighunter.com here]] (older version with blends [[http://web.archive.org/web/20150324140648/http://archive.fighunter.com/?page=temperaments here]]), Eric B has a page that explains the five temperaments, [[http://www.erictb.info/temperament1s.html]], and Wiki/TheOtherWiki offers its information [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_temperaments here]]. For another way to split up a group of four, see FourPhilosophyEnsemble.




* FourTemperamentEnsemble/AnimeAndManga
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/ComicBooks
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Film}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Literature}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/LiveActionTV
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/{{Music}}
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/VideoGames
* [[FourTemperamentEnsemble/WebOriginal Web Comics / Web Original]]
* FourTemperamentEnsemble/WesternAnimation



[[folder:Fan Fiction]]
* The four main anthropomorphic animal characters in the ''Anime/SonicX'' fanfic ''FanFic/DontKeepYourDistance''. Paint (Sanguine), Maxwell (Choleric), Jewel (Melancholic), and Arrowhead (Phlegmatic) seem almost designed after the four classical temperaments at times.
* Barack and the White House Boiz, consisting of Barack Obama (Melancholic), Joe Biden (Sanguine), Bill Clinton (Phlegmatic), and Mitt Romney (Choleric) in the RPF ''Fanfic/IceIceBaby''. Barack is cautious and thoughtful, and refuses to be divisive. Joe is the happy-go-lucky, loudmouth of the bunch, Bill is humble in his talents, quiet and always willing to lend a helping hand. Mitt stays plotting, and only wants what's best for him. The four boiz work together to stop the assassination of Queen Elizabeth II.

* The five heroes of Fanfic/FantasyDatabase fit this trope:
** Sanguine: Phaeton, fun loving, and somewhat dumb and perverted.
** Choleric: Icarus, an extrovert who has trouble making friends, and is quite HotBlooded as a result.
** Melancholic: Erika, TheStoic, and the most serious of the group.
** Phlegmatic: Frey, who tries to stay cool headed in the face of danger.
** Leukine: Mikael, the mediator, who tries to ensure that none of the above kill each other.

** It's worth noting that while Frey is generally Phlegmatic, Icarus' {{Troll}} tendencies can push her into Choleric territory. Also, despite Frey being Phlegmatic, [[RedOniBlueOni she is the Red Oni to the Choleric Icarus' blue]].
* The 5 main characters of ''Story/AesirCrossWars'' have this dynamic:
** Sanguine: Freya. She is largely a GenkiGirl and TheHeart of the group. Also TheGadfly, and it takes a lot to get her mad.
** Choleric: Azazel. The poster boy for {{Jerkass}}ery and is very HotBlooded. Though, due to being a CrouchingMoronHiddenBadass, he falls into Sanguine quite often.
** Melancholic: Uriel. The EmotionlessGirl, and the OnlySaneWoman. Often clashes with Azazel.
** Phlegmatic: Azrael. NiceGuy (until he starts [[TookALevelInJerkass taking levels in prickery]], and even that only lasts until Chapter 7) and DeadpanSnarker supreme. Also tries to be TheHeart (emphasis on 'tries').
** Eclectic: Forseti. Tends not to participate in group dynamics, but when he does, he is levelheaded and calm enough to stay out of Sanguine and Choleric, but not enough to enter Phlegmatic and Melancholic.
* ''Literature/TheSpectrumGame'': The first 4 characters to join the Inspectors have this dynamic with each other.
** Sanguine: Silas, the energetic NiceGuy. Not too bright, but somewhat HotBlooded. Incredibly benevolent, and a patient foil to Inigo.
** Choleric: Scarlett, the low-key {{Tsundere}}. The OnlySaneWoman of the group, and the others tend to get on her nerves, releasing her anger issues.
** Melancholic: Inigo, the [[BrutalHonesty brutally honest]] [[TheStoic stoic]]. The most intellectual and snarky of the ensemble. Borders on SociopathicHero at times, and may be mildly depressed.
** Phlegmatic: Azurine, the gentle NiceGirl. Treats everyone with kindness and is the most optimistic member of the group, as well as the one putting the most emphasis on the 'Iron' part of IronWoobie.

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* The [=McMahons=]: Vince, the bitter, scheming BadBoss (melancholic), Linda, the [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure reasonable]] StraightMan (phlegmatic), Shane, the energetic, [[NonIdleRich scrappy]] [[EnsembleDarkhorse fan favorite]] (sanguine), and Stephanie, [[RichBitch spoiled harridan extraordinaire]] (choleric)
* The Radicalz: Wrestling/ChrisBenoit (melancholic), Wrestling/EddieGuerrero (choleric), Wrestling/DeanMalenko (phlegmatic), and Wrestling/PerrySaturn (sanguine)
* Wrestling/{{Evolution}}: Wrestling/TripleH (melancholic), Wrestling/RicFlair (phlegmatic), Wrestling/RandyOrton (sanguine), and Wrestling/{{Batista}} (choleric)
* Wrestling/{{Fortune}}: Wrestling/JamesStorm (sanguine), Wrestling/AJStyles (choleric), Wrestling/BobbyRoode (melancholic/leukine), Kazarian (phlegmatic)

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* In ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer}}'' and ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'', appropriately enough, the four gods of Chaos each represent an emotion and mindset. Khorne the god of anger and bloodshed is choleric. Slaanesh god of passion and lust is sanguine. Tzeentch god of ambition and hope is (ironically) melancholic. Nurgle god of despair and disease is phlegmatic.
* This is an explicit game mechanic in ''TabletopGame/PrometheanTheCreated'', where four out of the five main player {{Splat}}s is full of a specific humour that affects their personality and powers (with the fifth, Ulgan, being filled with the "ectoplasmic" humor of spirits). There are even mechanical benefits to travelling with a full FourTemperamentEnsemble.
* The five praetors of ''TabletopGame/MagicTheGathering'': [[PrinciplesZealot Elesh Norn]] is choleric, [[EmperorScientist Jin-Gitaxias]] is melancholic, [[KnowledgeBroker Sheoldred]] is phlegmatic, [[MadArtist Urabrask]] is sanguine and [[VillainousGlutton Vorinclex]] is eclectic.