->''"Nice try. See, UsefulNotes/TheNetherlands is this make-believe place where Literature/PeterPan and Tinkerbell come from."''
-->-- '''Joey''', ''Series/{{Friends}}'', "The One with the Football"

This is when someone, usually TheDitz or the {{Cloudcuckoolander}}, is ignorant, confused, or ill-informed enough to lump "things that are well known to be real" in with "things that are made up." This is often applied to ethnic groups, but can also include historical characters, countries and animals.

Essentially, ArbitrarySkepticism applied to ''real'' things, likely by someone who CannotTellFictionFromReality, an in-universe occurrence of AluminumChristmasTrees.
A SubTrope of RealityIsUnrealistic.

A SisterTrope to GlobalIgnorance, FlatEarthAtheist.

Compare LegendFadesToMyth, when something that was once considered common knowledge is distorted by the passage of time to the point that it can no longer be believed with 100% certainty. Contrast FaeriesDontBelieveInHumansEither.



[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* In ''Manga/AzumangaDaioh'', Tomo believed reindeer didn't exist. [[note]]This can be TruthInTelevision as in the SantaClaus mythos, Santa's sleigh is powered by ''flying'' reindeer. Meanwhile, outside the countries they live in, "real" reindeer are not commonly featured in non-Christmas media, or in zoos, etc. When they are, they tend to be called by their other name: caribou (To be exact; North American and Eurasian reindeer are the same species, but North American reindeer are called caribou (from Mi'kmaq ''qalipu'' through French) a lot of the time, and Eurasian reindeer are always called reindeer). From this, many Santa-believing children assume that "reindeer" means a magical deer that can fly, so belief in them eventually goes out the same window as belief in Santa. (Flying caribou, we regret to say, almost certainly ''are'' fantasy.) It also doesn't help that until fairly recently, Santa's "reindeer" were depicted as flying roe deer or white-tailed deer, rather than caribou. These depictions, in some cases ''themselves'' due to the Aluminum Christmas Trees phenomenon, are semi-examples of CallASmeerpARabbit.[[/note]]Naturally, the way Tomo's disbelief in reindeer came up is that the girls had just been discussing Santa. Kagura then asks if reindeer are real, and Tomo proceeds to laugh at her and say they don't exist.

* In Creator/StanFreberg's ''Christmas Dragnet'' a man named Grudge doesn't believe in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, [[ChristopherColumbus Columbus]], or Cincinnati, and "ain't made up [his] mind yet about Toledo." At the end he's shown the error of his ways in regards Santa, the Easter Bunny, Columbus, and Cincinnati, but he still ain't made up his mind about Toledo.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* In an early 90s story, while protecting the son of a Madripoor mafia boss, {{ComicBook/Wolverine}} distracts the kid with the tale of a feral child raised by wolverines in snowy Canada.[[note]]It was implied to the reader that this was Wolverine's own youth, although it was retconned later.[[/note]] The boy doesn't know what snow is, and after an explanation, he refuses to believe it is a real thing.
* ''ComicStrip/KnightsOfTheDinnerTable'': Weird Pete doesn't believe that Papua New Guinea is a real country.

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* In ''Fanfic/HarryPotterAndTheNightmaresOfFuturesPast'', Ron pokes fun at Luna Lovegood for having an "imaginary creature" as her Patronus. Luna's patronus was a duck-billed platypus. When Hermione tells Ron that the duck-billed platypus is a real animal, he flatly refuses to believe her.
* ''WebVideo/UltraFastPony'' takes place in a weird version of Equestria where some human ethnicities, like blacks and the Irish, undeniably exist. Nevertheless, the episode "Granny Smith Is Mean" gives us the line:
-->'''Filthy Rich:''' And that was when I figured out, Mexicans aren't even real. So you don't have to be afraid anymore, children.
::And "Pirate Shipping" has:
-->'''Sweetie Belle:''' Yeah, Scootaloo, [[HideYourLesbians the gays]] and the Mexicans don't exist.

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Megamind}}'': "There is no Easter bunny, there is no tooth fairy, and there is no queen of England!" He's [[AccidentallyAccurate technically right:]] There hasn't been a monarch of England since the Acts of Union 1707 united England and Scotland to form Great Britain. Currently, the title is Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
* ''WesternAnimation/HappyFeet 2'': Will the Krill believes "black holes" (whales, actually) are myths to keep people in the swarm.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* ''The Film Crew'': Kevin Murphy believes in many different fantasy lands, but claims that Spain is a myth.
* ''Film/TheMuppets'': "I think that's just an internet rumour. Like that there's a country called Turkey."
* Somewhat averted in ''Film/LookWhosTalking Too''. Baby Mikey is sitting awake at night scared. He lists various things he's worried about, and that they aren't real. This includes monsters, ghosts, witches, and dinosaurs. He knows that one of them ''used'' to be real, but can't remember which. Justified, since he is a baby.
* ''Film/AFairlyOddChristmas'': Denzel Crocker didn't believe in North Pole or polar bears before going there and being chased by one. [[ArbitrarySkepticism That coming]] from someone who already believed in Fairy Godparents and SantaClaus.
* In ''Film/TheKingAndI'', the kids have troubling believing that snow is a real thing. TruthInTelevision, as the Thai language doesn't even have a word for 'frozen' and in the time frame of the setting uneducated Thais would be likely to believe it made up.
** The snow subplot is based on an anecdote of Anna Leonowens that the royal children refused to believe snow was real until she asked the King to give a guest lecture on it.

* In Daniel Handler's ''Literature/ASeriesOfUnfortunateEvents'', when Count Olaf meets Dewey Denouement in Book the Twelfth, he is surprised he isn't just a legendary figure like unicorns or Giuseppe Verdi.
* In more than one Creator/DanielPinkwater novel, as a throwaway joke, a character claims that UsefulNotes/LosAngeles does not exist.
* In the book ''The Enormous Egg'' (wherein a kid in rural New Hampshire finds one of his family's chickens laid a dinosaur egg), one of Nate's friends says that dinosaurs never existed - some guys found some big bones and made up stories about them.
* In the Creator/PiersAnthony story "Possible To Rue", a young boy's pleas for a pet pegasus leads his father to look the animal up in the encyclopedia and show that they're mythical. So are unicorns. To the father's astonishment, so are zebras, mules, and even horses, which he distinctly remembers placing bets on. It's implied that, by denying zebras are real to avoid having to buy one, the father has inadvertently begun erasing these creatures from the universe.
* In Creator/PamelaDean's ''Literature/TheSecretCountry'', five children have [[WorldBuilding made up a fairytale world]] where magic is real. They argue as to whether it's proper to have a Secret Country villain who doesn't believe in magic. Patrick, a materialist, says that would be as foolish as someone in the real world not believing in the law of gravity. His smartass sister Ellen promptly declares that she doesn't believe in the law of gravity.[[spoiler: When they are in the real Secret Country, they find this man really doesn't believe in magic, he thinks it's all tricks and illusions.]]
* ''Literature/DaveBarrySleptHere'', in the chapter on UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, claims that that Serbia "did not, technically, exist," even at the time that Austro-Hungary made the mistake of trying to invade it.
* In ''Literature/TheSilverChair'', the Lady of the Green Kirtle claims not to believe in lions or any other aspect of the outside world. She's lying, but she nearly bewitches the overlanders into agreeing with her. (This is a typical Creator/CSLewis allegory; in order to describe Narnia to the Lady, they have to do so in terms of things that she ''does'' accept the existence of, allowing her to dismiss it with "So you made up a bigger version of a cat, and called it a lion", in the same way as heaven can only described in terms of the mortal world.)
* In ''Literature/TheHitchhikersGuideToTheGalaxy1'', Arthur Dent is forced to deal with the reality of the Earth having been destroyed by the Vogon Constructor Fleet.
-->''New York has gone. No reaction. He’d never seriously believed it existed anyway.''
* John Hodgman's ''Literature/TheAreasOfMyExpertise'' has a running gag that Chicago is a myth, mostly as a joke on [[BigApplesauce how very New York the author's sensibilities are]]. Revisited in the follow-up ''Literature/ThatIsAll'', [[spoiler: when the mythical city rises at last from the swamp during the [[MayanDoomsday End Times of 2012]].]]

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* In a ChristmasEpisode of ''Series/TheMiddle'', Brick explains that Eskimos know how to put a fire in an igloo, only for Axl to snap that back that Eskimos aren't real, but are made-up creatures like leprechauns.
* There's a ''Series/{{Bones}}'' episode involving the search for a rumored pirate treasure. Zack expresses surprise that Hodgins believes in pirates, and Hodgins snarks back that they're not Santa.
* In ''Series/TheOfficeUS'', Kevin thinks that mummies are fictitious monsters from the horror genre, and expresses surprise and fear when people tell him that they exist and there are some in a local museum.
* In ''Series/{{Episodes}}'', a group of Hollywood TV executives discuss a potential premise for their network's vampire style show. Many ideas are mentioned, culminating in Myra recommending the paranormal creatures in their show should be Gypsies. She recommends it twice, before somebody tells her that Gypsies are real.
* ''Series/WillAndGrace'':
** Semi-example, Karen about an ex-gay group:
--->'''Karen:''' Honey, this is a cult! Yeah! Like the Moonies or the homeless.
** She later repeats this line to Grace about Alcoholics Anonymous, again referencing the Moonies, but this time adding "the homosexuals or the elderly."
* ''Series/HowIMetYourMother'':
** On an episode, Robin believed that the North Pole and reindeer were made up. This is especially weird considering [[CanadaEh where she's from]].[[note]]reindeer are native to Canada (though usually called caribou - the term reindeer is used for the Scandinavian and Siberian populations), and the ''magnetic'' north pole is under the Canadian Northern Archipelago. The ''geographical'' North Pole is claimed by several countries including Canada, US, Norway, Sweden, and Russia.[[/note]]
** In a later episode, Robin's boyfriend Nick reveals that he thought gypsies "were just made up, like goblins, or trolls, or dolphins."
* In ''Series/{{Zoey 101}}'', Michael tries to convince Chase that reindeer aren't real.
* In ''Series/{{Friends}}'':
** Joey and Chandler are both interested in a visiting Dutch woman. Chandler gets an edge by "guessing" that Dutch people come from somewhere near the Netherlands (the place they really come from). Joey responds, "Nice try. See, the Netherlands are this make-believe place where Peter Pan and Tinkerbell come from" , apparently has confused the Netherlands with [[Literature/PeterPan Neverland]].
** When Chandler claims that he's moving to Yemen to get rid of Janice, Joey says "Yemen," that actually sounds like a real country!"
** When Ross becomes obsessed with naming all 50 states, Joey looks at his list and says: "First of all, Utah? Dude, you can't just make stuff up!" And that one comes after Joey lists 56 states, including NewEngland ("They have a sports team!") and South Oregon.
** And the one when Joey and Chandler are fighting over the name of Phoebe's baby.
--->'''Joey''': Oh! Oh-oh, you gotta pick Joey! I mean, name one famous person named Chandler.
--->'''Chandler''': Raymond Chandler.
--->'''Joey''': Someone you didn't make up!
* During an episode of ''Series/MyNameIsEarl'', Randy tries to make a list of famous rich people he and his brother could borrow from, like ''Series/TheBeverlyHillbillies''. Earl points out that they're fictional TV characters, "just like ComicBook/RichieRich and Creator/DonaldTrump".
* In ''Series/BoyMeetsWorld'', when Mr. Feeny starts lecturing about the Hutus and the Tutsis, Cory and Shawn find the peoples' names so weird that they are convinced he can't be talking about real people and has run out of real subjects and is now making it up.
* On the Australian version of ''Radio/TheUnbelievableTruth'', Shane Jacobson was giving a lecture on Vikings when Sam Simmons claimed that he'd always thought Vikings were mythical.
* In ''Series/PowerRangersNinjaStorm'', the MonsterOfTheWeek Boxing Bop-a-roo had a bad case in SesquipedalianLoquaciousness, which annoyed the rest of the villains. Lothor eventually started a [[SwearJar Made-Up Word Jar]], indicating that he didn't realize they were real words.
* In a ''Series/TheDailyShow'' segment satirically examining the "over-commercialization" of Hanukkah, John Oliver refers to the occasion as the "holiest of holy days" and is corrected by his (Jewish) guest. Oliver asks him to name one holier, and responds to Yom Kippur with, "Oh, now you're just making up words."
* In one episode of ''Series/ThirtyRock'', Tracy believes that Diabetes is a white myth, "Like Larry Bird, or Colorado." In another episode, his entourage isn't there when he needs them because one of them had to go to the optometrist, and his response is, "Making up words won't save you!"
* In an episode of ''Series/{{Scrubs}}'', one of the interns is mentioned to be in an elaborate game involving a bar trivia machine. He's later seen arguing about his performance. "There's no way there was a president named [[UsefulNotes/JamesGarfield Garfield]]!"
* In ''Series/TheITCrowd'', Mr Reynholm is interviewed. His favorite non-fictional character is SherlockHolmes. When he's told that Sherlock is fictional, he tells the interviewer to check her facts. She decides to ask him who his favorite fictional character is, which turns out to be TheElephantMan.

[[folder:Newspaper Comics]]
* ''ComicStrip/GetFuzzy'':
** Bucky tries to tell Satchel that Hawaii is a myth perpetrated by the Liberal Media. When Rob informed him otherwise, he reacted with genuine surprise, "It is?? Then why the %*(# DON'T WE LIVE THERE?"
** There's also the time after Satchel's game show, where Bucky states how he believes the ''Harry Potter'' books to be lies. When Rob questions whether he is "breaking the story that magic doesn't exist," Bucky responds with "What? No, magic exists, I saw a thing on TV. But trains?... Owls?... ENGLAND? Nice try, I'm not buyin' it." Cue two-hour argument between Rob and Bucky over the existence of England (Canada and Greece, too).
* ''ComicStrip/{{Peanuts}}'': Lucy Van Pelt once spent several strips mocking Charlie Brown for telling her that birds fly south for the winter: "In all my life, Charlie Brown, I have never met anyone with an imagination like yours!" When Chuck insisted, and also added that they fly north during the summer, Lucy sarcastically retorted that they must fly east during the spring and west during the fall. Then she pressed the issue further with "Chickens are birds, aren't they?! You never see a chicken flying south for the winter, do you?! CHICKENS ARE BIRDS, AREN'T THEY?!" Eventually Lucy learned (from a third party) that Charlie Brown was right about (some) birds flying south for the winter, and had to eat crow.

* One of Jeremy Hardy's surreal rants on ''Radio/TheNewsQuiz'':
-->'''Jeremy:''' America isn't a real place. Think of all the Americans you've heard of: John Wayne, Demi Moore; they're all actors!
* In the ''Radio/CabinPressure'' episode "Timbuktu", Mr. Birling pays MJN Air to take him to the eponymous city so that he can prove to his wife that it exists. While Timbuktu does, in fact, exist, a civil war in Mali prevents the characters from going there, leading to the implementation of a ZanyScheme.
* In Creator/StanFreberg's ''Christmas Dragnet'', the police detectives try to convince a skeptical man named Grudge that the in-universe Santa Claus exists. Grudge also doesn't believe in the Easter Bunny, Christopher Columbus, Cleveland or Cincinnati, but has yet to make up his mind about Toledo.

* Invoked in ''Theatre/RosencrantzAndGuildensternAreDead'', when Rosencrantz claims not to believe in England, meaning he has no mental picture of what's going to happen once they get there, and Guildenstern sarcastically replies "Just a conspiracy of cartographers, you mean?" Later they have the same exchange [[IronicEcho in reverse]].

[[folder:Video Games]]
* In ''VideoGame/TeamFortress2'', the Soldier may taunt the Demoman by saying "Scotland is ''not'' a real country! ''You'' are an Englishman in a dress!" While he could be referring to how Scotland is governed as part of the United Kingdom instead of a sovereign state (although it is ''still'' technically considered a different country), it took [[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} Soldier]] several ''years'' to figure out he was in Poland instead of Germany, making this trope much more likely.
* In ''VideoGame/ToTheMoon'', Johnny mentions lies that adults made up in his childhood memories:
-->'''Johnny:''' Santa, the Easter Bunny, kangaroos...
* In the Dragonborn DLC for ''VideoGame/TheElderScrollsVSkyrim'', the Skaal are a group of Nords who live hermetic lives off the mainland, and they believe in a monotheistic deity called the All-Maker instead of the [[FantasyPantheon Nine Divines]] that everyone else worships. Although evidence leans toward the latter, the Skaal will justify their belief by claiming that just as other find their belief of the All-Maker strange, their own belief of the Nine Divines are equally strange.
* The ''VideoGame/SaintsRowGatOutOfHell'' Launch Trailer claimed that William Shakespeare was a fictional character from all those movies about poems and love.

[[folder:Web Animation]]
* ''Machinima/RedVsBlue'' Episode 2:
-->'''Grif:''' No, like a puma. It's a big cat, like a lion.\\
'''Sarge:''' You're making that up.\\
(''and later...'')\\
'''Sarge:''' (''pointing at the front of the Warthog'') Look, see these two two hooks? They look like tusks, and what kind of animal has tusks?\\
'''Grif:''' A walrus.\\
'''Sarge:''' Didn't I just tell you to stop making up animals?!
* [[WebAnimation/StrongBadEmail Strong Bad]] has this to see in a [[ScoobyDoo Teen Super Sleuth]] parody, playing the group septic.
-->''There's no such thing as 'mysterious'.''

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* ''WebComic/{{Chainsawsuit}}'' has a strip appropriately named "[[http://chainsawsuit.com/2012/04/12/the-australia-hoax/ The Australia Hoax]]".

[[folder:Web Original]]
* ''Website/NotAlwaysRight'' has a few examples:
** [[http://notalwaysright.com/not-one-of-historys-mysteries/7038 Native Americans (and cowboys)]]
** [[http://notalwaysright.com/watashi-whaaa/7331 Japan]]
** [[http://notalwaysright.com/rufus-is-stranger-than-fiction/12985 Hairless rats]]
** [[http://notalwaysright.com/it-was-a-one-horned-fabulous-purple-people-lover/23261 Gay people]]
** [[http://notalwaysright.com/so-pho-so-crazy/8857 This]] guy seems to believe that Vietnamese people don't exist anymore because they were all killed in the Vietnam War.
* There is a Website/DarwinAwards Honorable Mention for [[http://darwinawards.com/personal/personal2003-08.html a British soldier in Canada]], who lept over a fence clearly signposted with instructions to keep out because of the buffaloes, despite the begging from everyone else there not to do it, because he was convinced that American buffalo don't exist. He probably misinterpreted the common meme that American buffalo aren't buffalo (they are in the same genus as European bison), as meaning that the animals in question don't exist.[[note]]Of course, American buffalo ''are'' buffalo, since that's what they're called in most of their range and scientists use binomial nomenclature to avoid any ambiguity. They actually have far more right to the name than Eurasian water-buffalo do—French explorers in the New World independently named the large bovines they found "big ox", just like Portuguese explorers in Africa 50 years earlier did; the Eurasian water-buffalo is no more closely related to African buffalo than American bison are, but unlike the American one it ''wasn't'' independently named, it was [[CallASmeerpARabbit named after the African one]].[[/note]] It ended extremely badly for him, although non-fatally.
* Invoked in one episode of ''Podcast/HouseToAstonish'' where they look at the entry for the Netherlands in the ''OfficialHandbookOfTheMarvelUniverse'', and treat it like any other ''Official Handbook'' entry.
* In one discussion on Website/IMDb, a poster was astonished to discover that ''Series/MacGyver'' was an actual show; having assumed that it was something invented for ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons''.
* In ''Podcast/WelcomeToNightVale'', the majority of the townsfolk, at the urging of the secret police, do not believe in mountains. (This is often mentioned in the same breath as the similar disbelief by fiat in angels, which if anything is even more absurd, since a given resident will far more often encounter angels than mountains.)
-->'''Cecil:''' She was then heard to deny the sky, the existence of a living deity, and eggs. "Eggs aren't real," she said. "Nuh-uh. Show me an egg. That's not an egg! Who let you in here?"
* As collected by ''Website/{{Snopes}}'', [[http://www.snopes.com/business/money/tacobell.asp one of the funnier stories]] achieving MemeticMutation is the one about a guy who went into a Taco Bell with a $50 bill and a $2 bill and attempted to pay with the $2, but had the cops called on him because none of the employees thought $2 bills were real.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/PhineasAndFerb'' CharacterBlog ''Doofenshmirtz's Daily Dirt,'' [[MadScientist Doof]] lists UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln among "fictional characters" that people cosplay as.
* JonTron, after playing ''VideoGame/ClockTower'', assures himself that the Scissorman is all make believe because [[ComicallyMissingThePoint there's no such thing as scissors.]]
** During his review of ''VideoGame/ZooRace'', points out that Pirates and Ancient Egyptians were from different times and that one of them might not have existed at all. Whether he was talking about the former or the latter is unknown.
* The SCPFoundation has [[http://www.scp-wiki.net/scp-1173 SCP-1173]], The Islamic Republic of Eastern Samothrace. Which is either an example of Eskimos Aren't Real that convinces you it's a example of {{Qurac}}, or an example of Qurac that convinces you that its an example of Eskimos Aren't Real.
* From [[http://www.cracked.com/article_22022_5-video-game-adaptations-that-botched-sources-message.html?wa_user1=2&wa_user2=Movies+%26+TV&wa_user3=article&wa_user4=feature_module this]] {{Cracked}} article, discussing the [[GenreShift rather odd]] video game sequel to ''TheGoonies'':
-->"[[OurMermaidsAreDifferent Mermaids]] aren't real. Neither are [[OurDragonsAreDifferent dragons]], {{golem}}s, and [[OurGhostsAreDifferent ghosts]], but the Fratellis apparently control all of those things anyway. They also recruit an Eskimo gang to throw axes at Mikey, because some poor developer got confused and thought Eskimos were mythical creatures."
** Another [[http://www.cracked.com/personal-experiences-1562-8-facts-about-vietnam-war-i-learned-as-viet-cong.html article]] written by a former Viet Cong fighter describes his group's shock at finding a squad of dead African-American soldiers.
-->"We thought they must have been charred by an explosion until we realized their skin was ''naturally black''. None of us had seen a black person before. Some people thought they were myths. "

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'':
** Homer does it in "Treehouse of Horror IV":
--->'''Homer:''' Lisa, vampires are make-believe, just like elves, gremlins, and Eskimos.
** In another episode, Bart refers to Music/MichaelJackson on a list of fictional things adults make up to scare children. Interestingly, in an [[NegativeContinuity earlier episode]] Bart was a big Michael Jackson fan.
** In an episode of ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' where they find the skeleton of what looks like an angel, Lisa postulates via ImagineSpot that it may be a [[AllCavemenWereNeanderthals Neanderthal]] who had been attacked by two big fish biting each of his arms simultaneously.
--->'''Wiggum:''' Everybody's heard of an angel, who ever heard of a "neanderthal?"
** In the same episode:
--->'''Lisa:''' If you believe in angels, why not unicorns, or elves, or leprechauns?
--->'''Kent Brockman:''' Oh that's ridiculous Lisa; everyone knows leprechauns are extinct!
** Combined with GirlfriendInCanada in another episode. At an ice-skating event, Moe insists that all figure skaters are gay. Professional ice-skater Elvis Stojko points out that this is a common misconception as he has a girlfriend in Vancouver, to which Moe retorts, "Made up girlfriend, made up city."
** When Homer reads a bird watchers' guide, he's surprised to learn that [[WesternAnimation/WileECoyoteAndTheRoadrunner roadrunners]] are real.
** In "The Great Money Caper" Marge gets drunk on a Long Island Ice Tea and remarks:
--->'''Marge:''' I'd like to visit that Long Island Place, if only it were real.
** Principal Skinner once got in trouble for refusing to give a Jewish student the day off because he thought Yom Kippur was a made-up holiday.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheVentureBrothers'':
** In "Ghosts of the Sargasso" Hank speculates that if pirates are real, Santa and the Tooth Fairy could be real. Brock points out that no-one said pirates weren't real.
--->'''Hank:''' So you agree with me that this is impossible!
** A possible example is when Dr. Venture denies the Monarch's claim that if he dumped them in a river, fish called candiru would crawl up their pee-holes. It's not entirely clear if Venture is saying candiru ''themselves'' don't exist (they do), or just saying the idea of them crawling into a human's bodily orifice is a myth (which it is).
* From the ''WesternAnimation/GarfieldAndFriends'' episode "It Must Be True":
-->'''Garfield:''' There's no such place as Wyoming. Think about it. Have you ever met anyone from Wyoming?
* ''WesternAnimation/InvaderZim''
** After [[ParanormalInvestigation Dib]] proves that "Chickenfoot" is a fraud.
-->'''Reporter 1:''' I bet this means [[BigfootSasquatchAndYeti Bigfoot]] is a fraud too!\\
'''Reporter 2:''' And [[FlyingSaucer UFOs.]]\\
'''Reporter 1:''' And [[TheLastOfTheseIsNotLikeTheOthers hobos.]]\\
'''Dib:''' No wait! Those are real! Except the hobos. Wait, no. They're real. I... I guess. But- [[SurroundedByIdiots what's wrong with you people!?!]]
** Likewise [[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} Bill]], a paranormal investigator who believes that cereal mascots are real, nevertheless insists that dinosaurs are a fraud.
* In ''WesternAnimation/TheAdventuresOfJimmyNeutron'', Carl and Sheen are positive that ancient Egyptian curses are a myth, just like the Loch Ness Monster and North Dakota. And permanent records.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheFairlyOddParents'':
** In one episode of , a giant squid is treated as a mythical creature... [[TheCloudCuckooLanderWasRight until one actually shows up]]. Possibly a reference to the fact that the giant squid used to be considered a cryptid, and scientific evidence only started emerging in the past century or so. A giant squid was not photographed alive until 2004.
** Back when Timmy used to claim the stuff his Fairy Godparents gave him came from the Internet, there was one episode his parents assumed he stole the stuff from Wall 2 Wall Mart. When Timmy first used the Internet excuse, Timmy's Dad asked where Timmy got the internet.
** Timmy's Mom just discovered that Uzbekistan is a real country and not a made-up comedy word.
* In ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDad'', when Stan tries searching for Oliver North's gold, Francine tells him it's just a myth, "Like unicorns or speed reading."
* While he doesn't actually believe this, Mr. Krabs of ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants'' at one point cracks in front of the police while trying to keep them out of his freezer, leading to this quote.
-->'''Mr. Krabs:''' There's no ice! There's never been any ice! Ice is just a myth!
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Metalocalypse}}'':
** The guys don't like that Toki has befriended Dr. Rockso the Rock and Roll Clown and has him over -- Nathan angrily exclaims "There's no such things as clowns!!!"
** When Murderface seeks for meaning through religion, Skwissgar declares that "Religion isn't real." Nathan then points to a Bible, which makes Skwissgar decide to reconsider a lot of things.
* In ''WesternAnimation/{{Detentionaire}}'', Cam doesn't believe in hypnotism, claiming it is "movie and comic book stuff."
* On ''WesternAnimation/AdventureTime'' [[ElementalEmbodiment Flambo]], a catlike creature made out of fire, insists that ninjas "ain't real for nothing no-how."
* ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyG3'' Rainbow Dash [[HilariousInHindsight/MyLittlePony did not believe in pegasi.]]
* ''WesternAnimation/TheLooneyTunesShow'': in "Double Date" Lola, while crushing on Daffy for... ''[[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} complicated]]'' reasons, insists that Tina is a made-up name like Crabthar. [[BrickJoke Later, she poses as a waiter and introduces herself as Crabthar]].
* In ''WesternAnimation/BigTopScoobyDoo'', Shaggy does not believe in Sweden, stating that is a made-up place like Fairyland. Or Australia. By extension, he does not believe in kangaroos.
* On ''WesternAnimation/PhineasAndFerb,'' [[TheBigGuy Buford]] insists that cowboys are fake, and asks the other characters if they've ever seen one. They all get looks of amazement on their face as they realize that they haven't -- even though, in point of fact, they had ''been'' cowboys in one episode. It was AllJustADream instead of a SeriesContinuityError, though.
* On ''WesternAnimation/KingOfTheHill,'' [[ConspiracyTheorist Dale]] once used a pirate radio station to ask viewers if they had ever seen any proof that Hawaii was real.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' episode "The Tooth Fairy's Tats 2000": The American Dental Association laugh when Dr Foley [[CassandraTruth tries to convince them of exactly what’s happening to the teeth]], favouring their own chicken-squirrel hybrid theory. They further ridicule Foley when he says that he says that he has seen it before in UsefulNotes/{{Montreal}}, derisively asking “And where, pray, is this Montreal?”.
* ''WesternAnimation/RandyCunninghamNinthGradeNinja'': Howard Weinerman doesn't believe isosceles triangles are real.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* As the TropeNamer indicates, there are people out there who don't believe that the Eskimos (a.k.a. the Inuit people of North America) exist. Some people don't believe that American Indians ''in general'' still exist (despite the existence of reservations ''and casinos'', along with [[http://www.bluecorncomics.com/vanish.htm millions of Indians living independently]]).[[note]]The former is generally due to assuming that the Eskimos seen in cartoons as children were made up for the cartoons, while the latter is generally because of the assumption that the Native Americans have all been wiped out. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Earle_Fraser_%28sculptor%29#/media/File:JEFEndOfTheTrail.jpg This kind of thing doesn't help.]] UnfortunateImplications abound for both, of completely different types.[[/note]]
* The [[MoonLandingHoax Moon Flight Skepticism]] could well be the TropeCodifier.
* Santa Claus. Most people cannot see the name is an alteration of St. Nicholas, a Christian saint, who most definitely has been a historical character (Bishop Nikolaos of Myrna) and whose grave, containing his earthly remains, is in Bari, Italy. That said, the image of the jolly old man in red everyone knows is still fabrication.
* Surprisingly there's people out there that don't realize reindeer are real animals. Though obviously they don't really fly or have red noses, [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPKTub8iUB0#t=0m30s they can be and have been trained to pull sleds.]]
** Most artists have no idea what reindeer look like, so they draw [[RudolphTheRedNosedReindeer Rudolph]] to look like Disney/{{Bambi}}. Actual reindeer have gray or muted brown fur, flat and wide muzzles, large hooves and an entirely white short tail. (For reference, Bambi is a white-tailed deer, a relatively small species that is essentially a pest animal that lives significantly south of the caribou/red deer latitudes).
** Strangely enough, people should know about the real species of deer because they go by another name in North America: caribou. Most people don't know that they're the same animal.
* Some people are unaware that a wolverine is a real animal, and not just an X-Men character.
* Many people are shocked to learn that narwhals are real and not some type of mythical creature on par with unicorns. Just check the comments on [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSjjHiysBbE this clip]] or [[http://www.2birds1blog.com/2009/12/what-fuckity-fuck-fuck.html this hilarous blog post]].
* There are also people who believe that Tigons and Ligers are fictitious, and that photographs of them are actually fake.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snipe Snipes]] are real. Well, there is a type of bird called a snipe. The thing you're sent [[SnipeHunt hunting]] for might or might not be it, if it's anything at all (the trope/term comes from the difficulty of shooting or catching them, as does the word "sniper").
* Some people don't realize Tasmanian devils exist until they look it up (they look very little like the cartoon character, though they can be similarly aggressive).
** Australian fauna in general is a major offender, because of how weird it may appear and how little-known it is outside of Australia itself. Historically, most people didn't believe platypuses existed because the idea was too-farfetched. The bandicoot is a real animal too (and looks nothing like the video game character). In fact, Australian fauna was so weird for westerners that the Bunyip is an inversion.
* The Tokyo neighborhood Nerima does exist. However, because Manga/{{Ranma|OneHalf}} doesn't, some people think the neighborhood itself doesn't exist either. For that matter, the Bāyánkālā Mountain Range in China also exists.
* Azabu-juban (home of Manga/SailorMoon) also exists.
* Similarly some people don't believe Scranton exists because of the American version of ''Series/TheOfficeUS''. Or its UK counterpart Slough, for that matter.
* The Italian town of Narni is also known as Narnia, the same name as CS Lewis' enchanted country; he was possibly inspired by the real town for the name. Another explanation, though, is that C. S. Lewis used bits of Tolkien's early Elvish, in which "narn" means "tale": Thus, the latinization "Narnia" would mean "land of tales".
* There is a humorous notion about in Germany that the town of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bielefeld_Conspiracy Bielefeld does not actually exist]], but is simply a conspiracy. There's also the Bielefeld-conspiracy-conspiracy, a conspiracy that the Bielefeld-conspiracy doesn't exist. [[LightNovel/HaruhiSuzumiya Looks like we have entered an endless recursion of time.]]
* Brazilians also joke about the non-existance of the state of Acre, a small and distant part of TheAmazon annexed after a war with Bolivia (or according to [[{{Cloudcuckoolander}} Bolivian president Evo Morales]], traded in exchange for a horse).
* You'd be surprised how many people believe that UsefulNotes/{{Romani}} people -- that is, "gypsies" -- are either entirely fanciful and fictional, like swarthy, fortune-telling leprechauns, or no longer exist. (This is particularly the case in America; in many places in Europe active antiziganism, or prejudice against Romani people, is still going strong and they're seen as quite real, just subhuman social pests.)
* Website/{{Twitter}} reaction to the media coverage of the 100th anniversary of the ''Titanic'' disaster [[LegendFadesToMyth revealed that]] [[http://twistedsifter.com/2012/04/people-who-didnt-know-the-titanic-was-real/ a disturbing number of people]] apparently believed that Creator/JamesCameron made up the whole story from scratch.
** In fact, there are two Italian cartoon {{mockbuster}}s of James Cameron's ''Film/{{Titanic 1997}}'', both of which are presented as being new takes on a fanciful story, instead of telling about a real tragedy.
** In the same vein, the ''Costa Concordia'' disaster which took place in early 2012 was described by several news outlets such as ''Series/EntertainmentTonight'' as being like a "[[ShapedLikeItself Real-Life Titanic]]".
* Some people apparently believe that dinosaurs were made up by Creator/StevenSpielberg, and/or claim that they "grew up" and stopped believing in them, [[DinosaursAreDragons conflating them with dragons]]. Some Young-Earth creationists don't believe in dinosaurs either, for religious reasons (though most creationists are fine with dinosaurs being real things that existed, they just have doubts as to when and how they lived and died).
* Whataburger, because of its appearance in ''WesternAnimation/KingOfTheHill'', is thought to be a fictional fast food chain by many who have never been to Texas, but it's not only real, it's even expanded across the American southeast.
* Similar to the Tasmanian devil example above, some people are unaware that roadrunners are real birds, and not just a fictional character created by ''Looney Tunes''. This belief is especially strange when held by people in the southwestern US, since many of them would just have to take a nature walk outside to find out they exist. Granted, real roadrunners have little in common with their cartoon counterpart.
* The giant squid was generally thought to be a fictional animal until one was found in 1880 foundered at Newfoundland shore. Then they found a species of squid that was ''even bigger'' and had to call it the "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_squid colossal squid]]".
* The former president of Mongolia, Nambaryn Enkhbayar, recounted how he was detained by an immigration official when visiting England as a young man. The immigration official apparently thought that Mongolia was a fictional country, until finding it in an atlas.
* This also often applies to many historical figures who have attained an almost mythological status in popular culture, such as captain Blackbeard (real name Edward Teach), Attila the Hun, Jack the Ripper, and (Grigori Yefimovich) Rasputin.
** Jan Rogozinski's "Pirates" lists "Blackbeard" as a fictional character ''separate'' from Edward Teach on the grounds that he's been mythologised beyond recognition... but also lists Grace O'Malley as straight-up fictional. (She's been mythologised too, but she did exist.)
** It may be because of this trope that historians ''still'' can't agree on whether Robin Hood was a real person or not.
** Quite a few people just cannot accept that 15th century London really did have a Lord Mayor called Richard Whittington, and he was indeed elected three times (although he probably didn't have a cat of any note).
* Not only people, but the occasional place as well. Timbuktu has been used as shorthand for "far away" and/or "middle of nowhere" for so long some people assume it's merely made up instead of a real town in Africa (Mali to be precise). Kathmandu (Nepal, the capital, no less, and the heart of a metropolis of nearly 3 million people), Kalamazoo (Michigan), and Uryupinsk, [[OtherRussianTownsAndCities Volgograd Oblast]] fare a little better.
* If Plutarch is to be believed, many Romans believed Britain wasn't real until Julius Caesar invaded it.
* Many ancient Europeans believed that Asia and Africa were fictional places.
* Some people believe that UsefulNotes/{{Greenland}} and UsefulNotes/{{Iceland}} are fairytale places, like Mordor.
* [[RuthlessModernPirates Pirates still exist.]]
* Likewise, cowboys (and -girls) still exist. Depending where you are, they may well ''[[RealityIsUnrealistic be]]'' "[[CowboysAndIndians Indians]]", a ''lot'' of Native Americans took to ranching as a means of subsistence. Not having got their expectations for their own existence from Hollywood, they're unlikely to consider it ironic.
* The {{samurai}} effectively lost their status in 1876, but many samurai held onto parts of the tradition well into the 20th century. There is a lot of subversion associated with the samurai, however. A lot of alleged samurai traditions came to be enforced only after the victory of the Tokugawa clan effectively ended feudal warfare of the Sengoku Era. Samurai traditions were emphasized again in early 20th century, as part of political propaganda in an era of ultranationalism and militarism, decades after the samurai class was abolished.
* There's some evidence that Japanese intelligence during the Imperialist period (from the Meiji Restoration till the end of World War II) was partly set up by former members of the O-Niwa Banshu, the Tokugawa shogun's bodyguard-spies. At least some O-Niwa Banshu methods were inherited from the ninja of Koga and Iga. That's well under 200 years ago that there were people you might call "{{ninja}}" in RealLife.
* A man in Alaska is reported to have stated in public that Aragon never existed. (Hint: It's a country that is now part of Spain.)
* Many people think that hedgehogs are fictional creatures too, due to the fact that they only live in certain parts of the world and are common in those places but rare elsewhere (and they are often more often found as roadkill). The American media were not sure Sonic the Hedgehog would take off in the US due to the obscurity of the animal -- Sega had to clarify with them that hedgehogs are indeed common in Japan. To this day, many people automatically think 'Sonic' when they think of a hedgehog.
* Some Americans have been surprised to find out that storks actually exist. They only know storks as the bird who delivers the babies, and since babies obviously aren't delivered by birds, they think the bird itself is fictional too. Storks don't naturally live in most of North America, with only the wood stork being a rare breeder in a couple of the southern states, and since the typical "baby delivery stork" is the white stork which doesn't live in America at all, they'll never see a real stork to disprove their assumptions (unless, they go to a zoo with white storks, of course).
* Some peopled don't believe in zedonks, the zebra-donkey hybrid. But, believe it or not, [[http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/09/23/what.is.zedonk/ zedonks are real]].
** The same goes for [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liger ligers]] (and tigons), due in no small part to being NapoleonDynamite's favorite mystical creature ("bred for their skills in magic").
* A running joke that started in the early '90s in Chile and just won't die is that Combarbalá (a small town in northern Chile) doesn't actually exist and it's on the map because of a conspiracy/propaganda campaign by the State's tourism department; people from the place ''hate'' this. Made doubly hilarious because the town is known mainly for its artisanal figures made out of ''combarbalita'' (an ornamental rock that is available in abundance in close-by mountains and pretty much nowhere else). Combarbalita is even the country's "national stone", having replaced lapis lazuli in 1993... which only adds fodder to the "conspiracy" angle.
* TheMafia Members of the organization historically claim it doesn't exist rather than they are not members. It still exists today even though it doesn't have the power it used to.
* ''Franchise/StarWars''' Tatooine is a real place, although it's not another planet; it's a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tataouine city in Tunisia]].
* Some Shakespearean scholars -- usually the ones afraid of research -- believe that ''Theatre/TwelfthNight'''s setting of Illyria is a mythical land of Shakespeare's own invention. It's actually the [[IstanbulNotConstantinople Greco-Roman name]] for the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea -- what is now Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, and Slovenia -- and a perfectly reasonable place for an Italian ship to run aground, as happens at the beginning of the play.
* Played with by Dave Barry in his 1987 year-in-review column: "Libya is defeated by some place called ''Chad'' in some kind of war. This really happened." There have been multiple comedic expressions of disbelief that there is a country called "Chad".
* Madagascar is a real country and was not made up by Dreamworks.
* Vampire bats are real. Since vampires are already heavily associated with bat motifs, many people think that the idea was easily made up and something too obvious to be true, when in fact real vampire bats likely influenced the association of vampires with bats.
* Electric eels are real (though they're not really eels). Some people treat them as legendary creatures.
* Britons are prone to this misunderstanding about bluebirds- probably because of their genuinely incorrect appearance in the iconic 1940s hit ''There'll be bluebirds over the white cliffs of Dover''. This is a case of MisplacedWildlife: the lyricist was an American who didn't realise bluebirds don't exist in Britain, but they do in America (they were a fashionable motif in songwriting at the time for peace and joy.).
* Many outside of America find it hard to believe that ChuckECheese-style restaurants are a real thing.
* Apparently some people don't realize American two dollar bills are a real thing and not just a mistake made by clueless counterfeiters. [[http://www.snopes.com/business/money/tacobell.asp this page]] lists some examples