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->''"We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention assembled do declare and ordain […] that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the 'United States of America,' is hereby dissolved."''
-->--'''[[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar South Carolina Declaration of Secession]]'''

The Union of American States began its existence as [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution 13 rebellious colonial governments]] united only by their dislike of the [[UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire central government]]'s attempts to enforce taxation and one constitution. Two-plus centuries later, that hasn't changed a whole lot. It's a small miracle that a strong central government was formed--against the states' wishes--and has been maintained thus far, though there have been [[UsefulNotes/WarOf1812 perceived]] and [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar dangerously real]] close calls.

So now you're writing a story TwentyMinutesIntoTheFuture, or perhaps in an AlternateUniverse. How do you show that things have irrevocably but believably changed? Break up the Union. Perhaps the State suffered some sort of [[FallenStatesOfAmerica crisis of the type it's never really seen before,]] and then things went FromBadToWorse. Maybe the country was broken up [[InvadedStatesOfAmerica by foreign invaders]], dissent with an [[OppressiveStatesOfAmerica oppressive government led to a break]], or maybe regional separatism and nationalism took hold as it kind of did the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar last time]] it broke up. For whatever reason, the country now consists of many smaller nation-states.

As a bonus, your HollywoodAtlas will seem a lot more authentic. The new and smaller nations, without the tempering influence of what voters on the opposite side of the continent think, will be able to run free with their own agendas, resulting in a bit of cultural {{Flanderization}} that might actually seem justified. Thus you may see:

* The [[MegaCorp MegaCorporate]] Enclave of [[BigApplesauce New York]]. In the case of a European writer, the Dutch might take it back.
* A [[UsefulNotes/{{Mormonism}} Mormon]] [[TheTheocracy theocracy]] in the Holy State of Deseret, formerly known as Utah.
* The People's Republic of [[HollywoodCalifornia California]].
* The Coalition of UsefulNotes/LasVegas, an American [[FreestateAmsterdam Amsterdam]].
* The loud, proud, rather jingoist [[EverythingIsBigInTexas Republic of Texas]]. Alternately, a Hispanic-majority República de Tejas depending on whether the author [[CreatorProvincialism is Hispanic]].
* The descendants of the UsefulNotes/NativeAmerican tribes coming together to form a new nation, complete with BraidsBeadsAndBuckskins. Never mind the cultural differences between the tribes and for most it would mean abandoning their sacred lands for another tribe's lands.
* The South has risen again to form the [[DeepSouth resurrected Confederate States]], hopefully with less overt racism this time around. Possibly, there is a [[MalcolmXerox Black Republic of Nu Afrika]] centered around UsefulNotes/{{Atlanta}} that is at peace, war, or [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar something of both]] with the Confeds.
* The Southwest reclaimed by the [[InjunCountry Reformed Tribal Territories]], and possibly [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack at war with Mexico]]. Alternately, Mexico could fuse with it and call the new country [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconquista_%28Mexico%29 Aztlan]].
* [[TheOtherRainforest Oregon, Washington, British Columbia (the latter being up in Canada), and sometimes northern California]] form Cascadia, which is much more left-wing than the former U.S. and built upon [[GreenAesop environmentalist]] principles.
* The [[HollywoodNewEngland New England]] states are also off on their own, something that both New Englanders and non-New Englanders find very appealing. Sometimes, New England is combined with the Mid-Atlantic to form a Northeast country or it joins {{Canada|Eh}}.
* Alaska is fused with the Canadian territories to form another Inuit province, or [[RussiaCalledTheyWantAlaskaBack the Russians take it back.]] In some cases, if Russia is in its SovietRussia mode, it will be named as Alaskan SSR.
* [[AlohaHawaii Hawaii]] going back to native rule.
* A [[VestigialEmpire powerless rump state]] in Washington DC (or elsewhere if DC [[AfterTheEnd was destroyed]] or [[WashingtonDCInvasion overrun]]), still claiming descent from the Federal government and issuing grandiose proclamations which are ignored by the rest of the 'country'.
* The Midwest [[FlyoverCountry not existing, or becoming a giant farming commune or something.]]

…and so on. More details below.

If you have trouble with the concept of a Balkanized America, consider the [[http://www.tjc.com/38states/ 38-state Union]] imagined by C. Etzel Pearcy, geography professor at California State University, Los Angeles, in 1975. Pearcy's strategy groups cities together based on population centers, shared services, and similarity of lifestyle (for example, the New York metro area would be one state, rather than expanding into New Jersey and using bits of Connecticut and Pennsylvania as suburbs), so they would make reasonable estimates of the territory each neo-state could control. On paper, such a concept could save the country billions each year, but the obvious political FlameWar[[note]]In the proposed state of Allegheny alone, the battle between UsefulNotes/{{Cleveland}} and UsefulNotes/{{Pittsburgh}} over which would be the capital would be epic. And bloody.[[/note]] makes it [[StatusQuoIsGod extremely unlikely]].

AfterTheEnd settings can sometimes have this on a more-factured scale, with a bunch of city-states that barely have any contact outside the random trade route. Odds are, most of them won't resemble the smoking husks they were built on at all, unless it was a CosyCatastrophe.

A downplayed version of this trope can include mentioning this in the fiction's history, but never really going over overt detail of it. If a work refers to the historical Civil War as "the first American Civil War", or something of the like, this trope is in play.

If there's still an "official" U.S. government, but its control over the country is massively weakened, this can overlap with VestigialEmpire and is usually FallenStatesOfAmerica. See also InvadedStatesOfAmerica and AmericaIsStillAColony. The polar opposite of this is ExpandedStatesOfAmerica, in which America instead grows ''larger''. A subtrope of BalkanizeMe. This can be combined with some form of PunkPunk.


[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* Creator/ShirowMasamune's ''Manga/{{Appleseed}}'' and ''Franchise/GhostInTheShell'' both take place in the same universe, and the United States split up into three countries. A peaceful resolution of the Cold War in 1988 resulted in a portion of the United States turning into the Ameri-Soviet Union (renamed the Russo-American Alliance post real-life-1992.) After WorldWarIII turned Nuclear in 1996, the rest of the United States would divide as well.
** The democratic United States Of America is reduced to the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.
** The Russo-American Alliance consists of Alaska, Hawaii, California, Oregon, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and all of the rest of the New England states. They become minor allies to the main characters in Appleseed.
** Imperial Americana AKA the American Empire takes up all the rest, including Washington D.C. After Non-Nuclear World War IV in 2019-2020, This industrial and militaristic extreme right-wing conservative nation resorted to aggressive foreign policies to help stabilize their economy, casting them as antagonists in Appleseed and in the second season of ''Anime/GhostInTheShellStandAloneComplex'' as a result.
* ''Anime/TurnAGundam'', which largely takes place in the American south, has a few different independent nations. At one point the country known as Inglessa, whose geography is not terribly well defined, was at war with Louisiana.
** The nations are more clearly defined in the [[AllThereInTheManual artbook]] ''Turn A Gundam Art Works''. Inglessia is roughly everything north and east of Ohio, while Luziana is everything from its Western border to the Western border of "MIMAL"[[note]]Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana[[/note]]. There are also regions named Tejas, Floria, and Cuppa; the region consisting of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee and the Carolinas goes unnamed.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* In Creator/FrankMiller's ''ComicBook/GiveMeLiberty'', we get to see the U.S. balkanize throughout the original series. The biggest split occurs when the BigBad [[PresidentEvil Takes Over the Presidency]] -- [[DystopiaIsHard and discovers he's not capable of keeping the various blocs he's been appeasing from just leaving]]. By the time order's restored, New England, UsefulNotes/NewYorkCity, Florida, Texas, the Northwest, South California, the Southwest, and the DeepSouth have all seceded from the US, leaving them with only 20 states. (Alaska and Hawaii aren't even mentioned -- maybe people just forgot about them in the mess.)
* ''ComicBook/JudgeDredd'' of ''ComicBook/TwoThousandAD'' has Mega-Cities One (includes eastern Ontario) and Two (later nuked) on the east and west coasts, Mega-City Three (Texas City), Uranium City (in Alaska), Las Vegas (also eventually nuked) and the ungoverned and desolated Cursed Earth in between. After Chaos Day, The leadership of Texas City tried to overthrow their counterparts in Mega City One to reunite the United States; it backfired on them.
* In ''ComicBook/{{DMZ}}'', a second American Civil War has the Midwest fighting against both coasts, to the point where New Jersey and New York are on opposite sides and the title location (the Demilitarized Zone) is Manhattan Island, where an uneasy cease-fire has formed. DMZ says the free state movement was more of an ''idea'' than a territorial location, making it more in line with modern 4th generation warfare.
* In [[ComicStrip/TheBoondocks Aaron McGruder]] and Creator/ReginaldHudlin's ''Birth of a Nation'', after election fraud causes a George Bush look-alike to be elected president, the city of East St. Louis declares its independence from the United States to become Black Land. Very {{Anvilicious}}.
* In Kurt Busiek's AlternateHistory comic ''ComicBook/{{Arrowsmith}}'' what would be the USA and Canada in our reality is (as of 1914) divided into the United States of Columbia, Acadia-Canada, Tejas, Deseret, California, Dakota, Newfoundland (Northern Canada and Alaska) and Grand Florida.
* Played straight in the Franchise/{{Superman}} story ''[[ComicBook/SupermanRedSon Red Son]]''. The USA experiences a second civil war, with 16 "prodigal states" (including Georgia) successfully seceding. [[spoiler: America gets better, but it takes [[PresidentEvil President Lex Luthor]] to do so.]]
* In the ''ComicBook/OldManLogan'' story arc, the villains took over the US and it gotten broken up in several pieces with the US being the original thirteen colonies.
* In the ''Captain Confederacy'' mini-series, the U.S. has balkanized into several different independent nations. One is trying to reunite them, by any means possible.
* A smaller scale version than normal, but in the [[Franchise/{{Batman}} No Man's Land]] arc, Gotham suffers a massive earthquake that devastates the city. Rather than help fix it, the Federal Government and the state of New Jersey both carve Gotham out of their respective borders, turning it into a ruined city-state. Naturally, things got better and Gotham is back as part of the Union.
* The 2012 ComicBook/UltimateMarvel crossover ''Divided We Fall'' has this as its primary plot, as America is divided into several sovereign nations, with Texas now having access to nuclear armaments.
* ''ComicBook/DallasBarr'' had the Florida keys successfully seceding and forming the Conch republic.
* In the alternate version of ''ComicBook/CivilWar'' shown in ''ComicBook/SecretWars2015'', America is divided in twain between the Iron, ruled by [[ComicBook/IronMan Tony Stark]] and the Blue, ruled by [[ComicBook/CaptainAmerica Steve Rogers]]. The Iron being analogous to the Eastern US with the Blue being the west, and St Louis, which was devastated during the escape from the Negative Zone prison, is the boundary between the two. Both sides see their side as an {{Utopia}}: The Iron clamps down on certain civil liberties, such as superpowers, but is very prosperous and growing, with many seeing them as a legitimate nation. The Blue is a free nation where there's only two real rules: don't wreck shit and don't be a deadbeat. However, most of the Blue is barren land where places to grow food is tough and other nations refuse to recognize it as anything more than a rogue state. The Iron, however, is ''too'' prosperous and is growing out of control.
* In the Creator/BoomStudios comic continuation of ''Film/EscapeFromNewYork'', it's shown that Florida has seceded and declared itself a free republic after being taken over by an anarchist militia led by a pair of adolescents who have somehow convinced their followers that they're {{Physical God}}s. They've gotten away with this for so long because they bought Missile Crisis era nukes off of Cuba and buried them along Florida's sole border, threatening to set them off if the US army moves in. [[spoiler: Snake eventually sets them off to spite both sides, turning Florida into an island.]] A map glimpsed in one panel suggests that other states are in similar states of unrest.

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* ''Fanfic/ReimaginedEnterprise'' features scenes set during the [[AfterTheEnd Postatomic Horror]], where this has happened to the USA due to many competing continuity governments, and it is informally referred to as the Disunited States.

* ''Film/TheSecondCivilWar'' depicts the break-up of the USA, starting with the secession of Idaho and snowballing from there.
* The ''Film/VForVendetta'' movie, set in Britain TwentyMinutesIntoTheFuture, mentions a "Second American Civil War" afflicting "the former United States" (presumably by analogy with "the former Soviet Union"). There was no nuclear war in the movie, but from what little inter-national news is shown (on the [[UnreliableNarrator propaganda-heavy]] television of the Norsefire Party) it looks like they have fallen into dire poverty and are plagued by disease to no end (though famine isn't among their problems, possibly).
* In the ''Film/WildWildWest'' film, Loveless proposes to ally with some foreign governments to do this to the burgeoning United States. This has roots in the original series in which Dr. Loveless believed that California was rightfully his due to a Spanish land grant to his family before the Mexican Revolution.
--> '''Loveless''': Great Britain gets back the thirteen original colonies, minus Manhattan. Florida and the Fountain of Youth go back to Spain. [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack Texas, New Mexico, California, Arizona revolve a México]]. ''(points to most of the northwest, labeled "[[{{Egopolis}} Loveless Land]]")'' And a little piece for me to retire on.
* In ''Film/EscapeFromNewYork'' and it's sequel, ''Film/EscapeFromLA'', the title cities have been deliberately cut off from the rest of the country and turned into prison facilities. Still, the United States has also apparently expanded internationally: the second film mentions Bangkok as a U.S. territory.
* In ''Film/{{Idiocracy}}'', the American flag has only twenty-five stars on it, so it’s possible half the states have seceded. On the other hand, there are only eleven stripes, so it’s possible it has simply been forgotten what the stars and stripes are supposed to represent. Or that nobody can count that high anymore.

* The ''Literature/HaloEvolutions'' story ''The Impossible Life and Possible Death of Preston J. Cole'' uses the term "the first American Civil War", hinting that the US fell into at least one more civil war between the present day and the 26th century.
* Marie Lu's ''Literature/LegendTrilogy'' takes place with America being divided east to west: the dystopian Republic where [[spoiler:the ghetto sectors are used for plague testing]] and the Colonies, which we have yet to learn about as of the end of ''Legend'', [[spoiler:but are suggested to be a shining utopia.]]
* The ''Literature/ChooseYourOwnAdventure'' books ''Escape!'' and ''Beyond Escape!'' and the series ''Trio: Rebels in the New World'' took place in an America that had been split into the "nice" Turtalia, the evil Dorado, and Rebellium. This setting was explored in far greater detail in the ''Trio'' series (by the same author), which elaborated on the somewhat simplistic descriptions (and presented a more realistic view) by pointing out that Turtalia was a deliberate attempt to maintain the democratic ideals of the collapsed United States, while Dorado was a military dictatorship set up by a former crusading lawyer and the remains of the New Mexican National Guard, while "Rebellium" was simply a nickname given to the collection of warring city-states that made up much of the East Coast. There was a fair amount of corruption in Turtalia, as well as a number of soldiers in Dorado who sincerely believed that the only way to preserve civilization was to enforce totalitarian rule until things stabilized, and had no doubt that they were in the right and that the Turtalians were deluded idealists whose society would eventually collapse on itself.
* Neal Stephenson's ''Literature/SnowCrash'' takes place in a future where America has broken up into ''millions'' of "micronations", where a given [=McDonald's=] store, for example, would be on the sovereign soil of the [=McDonald's=] nation. The US government is still around, but they just mainly run the post office.
* The webserial ''Literature/{{Sanctioned}}'' briefly mentions that America has split into God's Beloved Chosen America, and the United Northern States of America. As it's set in Scotland, not much is said about things in America.
* Max Barry (of Website/NationStates fame) explored a similar setting in the novel ''Literature/JenniferGovernment''. Nearly all society and law is individually administered by corporations (right down to corporate sponsored schools and security firms), while what's left of the government is relatively weak and looked down upon. At the same time, however, what's known as "The United States" is a SpaceFillingEmpire, albeit one without a meaningful central government. It covers both North and South America, Great Britain, Australia, parts of Asia, and possibly other areas as well.
* Creator/OrsonScottCard's ''Literature/TheTalesOfAlvinMaker'' series is set in a United States that never became one country to begin with. It features a New England still ruled from England by the Puritan Lord Protectorate, the hard-working United States, and the slave-owning southern Crown Colonies (home of the exiled House of Stuart), each a country unto itself. None of these reach further west than the Mississippi River, where the Native American nations stopped the colonial expansion.
* Card also wrote a series of short stories (collected as "Folk of the Fringe") in which US society crumbled after a limited nuclear exchange with Russia. The Mormon church and the population of the mountain west establish a quasi-theocratic society called Deseret in Utah and the surrounding areas. While certainly not a utopia, this nation is implied to be relatively stable and successful, while much of the country has descended into anarchy.
* Robert Ferrigno's ''Prayers for the Assassin'' trilogy takes place in a future where the United States is split into four pieces following the nuking of New York and D.C., with the northern states becoming an Islamic Republic and the southern states becoming "The Bible Belt", with Utah as Mormon territory and Nevada as a free state/American Amsterdam. The inside cover has [[http://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/attachment.php?attachmentid=26602&stc=1&d=1177373663 a handy map]].
* In Whitley Strieber and James Kunetka's novel ''Literature/WarDay'', following a (relatively) limited nuclear exchange with the USSR, Washington DC has been destroyed and the US is slowly splintering into a collection of Balkanized nations, with California aggressively leading the pack.
* Creator/RobertAHeinlein:
** The setting for his novel ''Literature/{{Friday}}'' balkanized the States in just this fashion, with Vicksburg being a center of a laissez-faire economy where the nation of Texas, for example, could go to hire mercenaries for use in battles along the Mississippi River. Meanwhile out on the west coast there is the California Confederacy, headed by a "Chief Confederate". There is also a Chicago Imperium which, despite the name, controls the entire Upper Midwest. Heinlein has it ruled by a "Chairman", thus averting an Anvilicious TakeThat to the Daley political machine in Chicago. Other nations included the Atlantic Union, Vegas Free State (centering on Las Vegas) and Deseret (Mormon-controlled Utah).
** Another Heinlein setting (from his short story "If This Goes On...") had an oppressive theocracy as one part of a divided U.S. The theocracy ruled pretty much the whole U.S., with the exception of Hawaii (mentioned as an independent republic). His novel ''Literature/TheCatWhoWalksThroughWalls'' had this as well. The theocracy, started by the prophet cum President Nehemiah Scudder, is part of Heinlein's "Future History," a title applied to a large percentage of his work which all takes place in the same Universe. Consequently, this version of the United States appears in much of Heinlein's fiction, though it may not be mentioned directly.
* In ''Literature/HisDarkMaterials'', Lee Scoresby is from the country of Texas. [[AllThereInTheManual Supplemental material]] reveals that this world doesn't even have a United States; that area is instead taken up by New France and New Denmark.
* Kurt Vonnegut's ''Literature/SlaughterhouseFive'' shows Billy Pilgrim wandering into the future, where the US has been balkanised for its own good. [[ArcWords So it goes.]]
* The ''Wingman'' series by Mack Maloney (written in the 1980s) takes place in a setting where the United States was forcibly dismantled by the Soviet Union after being tricked into thinking that it lost WorldWarIII. However, by the end of the series, the country has reunited (primarily due to the heroes' efforts).
* ''Literature/ACanticleForLeibowitz'' is set in a [[AfterTheEnd postapocalyptic]] North America and spans several hundred years. In the opening chapters, North America is divided into feudal kingdoms such as "Texarkana". Texarkana is the name of a city that straddles the border of Texas and Arkansas, likely one of the cities that managed to escape the war, and became a power center when people began to rebuild civilization.
* Creator/RobertSilverberg's short story "The Palace at Midnight" is set in The Empire of San Francisco, in a ''really'' balkanised USA. One of the characters is the ambassador from the Republic of Monterey; also mentioned are the Holy Carolina Confederation, the Three Kingdoms of New York, the Realm of Wicca in Oregon, and The Grand Duchy of Chicago.
* Richard Morgan's ''Literature/BlackMan'' (also known as ''Thirteen' in North America) includes a United States that was forced to Balkanise through a mix of external and internal pressure; the remnants take the form of the fairly moderate, civilised North Atlantic Union, comprising the North East and New England, the extremely conservative, economically and socially backwards Confederate States of America (informally referred to as "Jesusland", in a nod to the common nickname for "Red State" America) and the capitalistic, libertarian Pacific Rim Union. The Union and the Rim don't get on particularly well, but both are united in their mutual distaste for the Republic, which is more than reciprocated.
* Many Russian science fiction writers include in their novels a mention that the US has been split into several nation-states due to ideological differences and/or corruption. One notable exception is Creator/MikhailAkhmanov's novel ''[[Literature/ArrivalsFromTheDark Invasion]]'', in which the US actually merges with Canada to form United States and Canada (USC) and is as strong as ever (with Russia by its side).
* The ''Literature/{{Deathlands}}'' action/adventure novels (by Jack Adrian et al) has a [[AfterTheEnd post-nuclear United States]] consisting entirely of feudal baronies, as no-one has the technology to control anything larger.
* In ''Literature/TheAccidentalTimeMachine'' by Joe Haldeman, the main character visits a future in which the northeastern part of the United States has become a theocracy and closed itself off from the rest of the country.
* In ''Broken Angel'' by Sigmund Brouwer, Appalachia is a [[{{Dystopia}} dystopian]] theocracy independent from the United States.
* Ernest Callenbach's ''Literature/{{Ecotopia}}'' details the titular country, composed of the entire West Coast minus Southern California. A forerunner of "Cascadia", discussed elsewhere on this page.
* The historical background of the Literature/VorkosiganSaga involves the United States falling apart due to internal conflict. The borderline utopian Beta Colony in the series was an attempt to preserve the best of America and is a rather "Blue State" kind of place.
* Stoney Compton's ''Russian Amerika'' features an alternate universe where North America is made up of The United States, The Confederate States, The First People's Nation, New France (Quebec), British Canada, The Republic of California, Deseret, The Republic of Texas, New Spain (Mexico), and the titular Russian Amerika (Alaska). Notably, the latter is not an example of RussiaCalledTheyWantAlaskaBack, as, in this reality, the Alaska Purchase never happened due to the Union not having enough money to acquire it after losing the Civil War.
* By the end of William R. Forstchen's ''One Second After'' [[spoiler: China has taken over the West Coast, Mexico has grabbed a large chunk of the South West, the US Government controls the East Coast and the rest of the country is more or less up for grabs and in chaos.]]
* In L. E. Modesitt's ''Ghosts'' series, history is different due to the presence of actual, scientifically-verifiable ghosts that appear after a violent death in which the person knows he or she is dying. North America is split into Columbia (a United States analogue where the Dutch are one of the prominent people), the Mormon Theocracy of Deseret, New France, and Quebec, among other things.
* Daniel da Cruz's ''Republic of Texas'' trilogy. The title says it all.
* Neil Cross's ''Literature/{{Christendom}}'' has this as part of its {{backstory}}--America collapsed into anarchy, but eventually the fundamentalist Christian nation of New Jerusalem arose on the East Coast and took back the rest of the country. After a series of wars, it went on to 'reclaim' parts of Australia, India, China, and northern Europe, as well as all of Egypt and Japan.
* Octavia Butler's ''[[Literature/ParableOfTheSower Parable of the Talents]]'' takes place during the "Al-Can War", when Alaska successfully secedes from the United States. The rest of the country is in shambles and is being run by a fundamentalist Christian leader.
* In Creator/HarryTurtledove's AlternateHistory/sci-fi work ''Disunited States of America'', every state becomes its own country after the United States cease to exist because they kept the Articles of Confederation. California is an economic and technological superpower in the region and is one of the most liberal societies, while many former slave-owning states in the South have a racial caste/hierarchy/apartheid system where the white people are the top of the ladder while the blacks are treated as trash (with the exception of Mississippi, where the racial oppression is reversed). Some states are also geographically different, including a united Virginia, a united Carolina, and the state of Boone (Kentucky and half of Tennessee). Since every state is its own country, there are many conflicts in North America, such as the Florida Intervention (the state was forcibly split into three parts, one of which becomes owned by Cuba). Most of the plot centers around Virginia, where Ohio decided to piss off that state and start a war by spreading a genetically modified measles virus and supplying weapons to the oppressed black population in Virginia.
* Another Turtledove work, ''The Vally-Westside War'', depicts a US even far more throughly broken up in the aftermath of a nuclear war in 1967. A hundred years later, there are a score of sovereign nations in the territory of the city of Los Angles alone - each with its own national pride, specific system of government, hereditary enemies, miniature national army and even protective tariffs to defend the national product. In the whole of the former US territory there must be many thousands of such mini-states.
* Still another Turtledove work, a series called ''Literature/{{Timeline 191}}'' by its fans, is set InAWorld where the Confederacy won the Civil War. Along with the obvious, some of the states in this timeline are different from real life. North and South Dakota are one state (just called Dakota), and Arizona and New Mexico are also just New Mexico. Down South, the Confederates are sold the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora. They also have Oklahoma, which is called Sequoya and was given to Native Americans. The books range from the year 1881 to the 1940s, and a lot more changes take place, such as a piece of [[ItMakesSenseInContext Texas being broken off and renamed Houston]].
* In ''Cloudsplitter'' by Russell Banks, John Brown constantly predicts the takeover of the United States by pro-slavery forces which, he says, will force New England to secede.
* In S.M. Stirling's ''Literature/{{Emberverse}}'' novels, the world suffers 'the Change', in which electricity and gunpowder suddenly cease to work. Much of America ends up as a bone-littered wasteland, but in the inhabitable parts, small countries and fiefdoms of every stripe spring up; what used to be Oregon ends up with a half-dozen or so.\\
In the later books, all the little nations in Oregon have formed a UN-like organisation, and we have the Church Universal and Triumphant that initially occupies what is roughly Montana, the United States of Boise which is basically Idaho (but calls itself just the United States because it thinks of itself as the VestigialEmpire), and New Deseret, the Mormon theocracy based in Utah. So large states do survive in some areas.\\
Further east, about a dozen new nations form around the east side of the Mississippi--the Republics of Fargo, Marshall and Kirksville, the Provisional Republic of Iowa, the State of Nebraska and the Emergency Powers Zone of Concordia (basically Kansas). The rest of the U.S. is either a death zone full of corpses and cannibals (the highly populated areas, like the East Coast and California), or small townships, in places like the Gulf of Mexico and the remote parts of the Appalachians. This is a completely JustifiedTrope; considering just how much our civilization relies on the electricity and oil that become useless, it's not surprising that this occurs - though of course AuthorAppeal applies as well, considering that Great Britain survives with its monarchy intact.
* In the ''[[Literature/TheHungerGames Hunger Games]]'' series, the United States has been renamed "Panem" and split into a Capitol (the Rockies) and twelve distinct and separate Districts in various parts of the country, such as Appalachia. The name "Panem" is derived from [[GratuitousLatin the Latin phrase "panem et circenses"]] or "bread and circuses", hence Peeta being the son of a baker and the titular "Games" serving as circuses to entertain the masses and keep them in check. It could also mean "Pan-am", as in "Pan-American".
* In ''After America'', John Birmingham's second book in his ''Wave'' trilogy about a mysterious energy field called "the Wave" that wipes out the populations of huge chunks of Canada, the United States, Mexico and Cuba (especially the United States, only Alaska, Hawaii and a small piece of Washington state are unscathed) then keeps those sections unenterable for a year before disappearing, most of the continental US remains uninhabited three years after with a renegade general becoming the Governor of Texas and running it as a quasi independent state, Manhattan being a battleground between jihadis, pirates, European mobsters and the reestablished US government and said government, based out of Seattle, trying to create seed colonies scattered around the country. [[spoiler: By the end of the trilogy both Manhattan and Texas are back under control]].
* The [[AlternateHistory alternative nineteenth century]] of Creator/TerryPratchett's ''Literature/{{Nation}}'' features the ''Re''United States of America, implying that this trope must have happened at some point.
* Dean Ing wrote a trilogy beginning in ''Systemic Shock'' with World War IV: the Chinese-Indian alliance launches a massive nuclear and bio-weapons strike that kills roughly 100 million Americans. Afterward, the U.S. government quarantines the southern East Coast, where most of the bio-weapons spread, from New York down to the tip of Florida, and west to the Mississippi. Mexico grabs a strip of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and almost all of the California coast; New England and each northernmost state along the border become a Canadian Protectorate. The rest is "Streamlined America."
* Creator/CliveCussler:
** ''[[Literature/DirkPittAdventures Flood Tide]]'' had a secret plan to carve a Latin nation called "Hispania" in the Southwest east from UsefulNotes/LosAngeles, and a Chinese-run nation of Pacifica on the West Coast from UsefulNotes/SanFrancisco, through Seattle and Vancouver up to Alaska. Even the President (in this book, a less honorable guy) feels that this is inevitable.
** The first Kurt Austin Adventure, ''Serpent,'' had a BigBad who not only wanted to [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack make himself leader of a country called Angelica formed from the Southwest plus Mexico]], he also had contingencies in place for the Chinese-controlled Pacifica, plus Quebec separating from Canada and the Maritime Provinces, cut off from the rest of the country, joining the remainder of the USA.
* In Bruce Sterling and Creator/WilliamGibson's ''Literature/TheDifferenceEngine'' the USA is split into Union, Confederacy, Texas and California. Among the minor characters is Sam Houston, an emissary from the Republic of Texas. A Marxist Manhattan Commune, actually founded by Karl Marx, is also mentioned.
* In ''Literature/ThePassage'' both California and Texas secede when the Vampire Apocalypse hits. [[spoiler: California didn't last. Nearly a century later the Republic of Texas is still a going concern.]]
* In Creator/MikeResnick's ''The Buntline Special'' the United States of America's border, as of 1881 stops at the Mississipii River thanks to Indian (specifically Cheyenne and Apache) magic. There are white settlements west of the river but they are independent entities and exist on Indian sufferance.
* Creator/WalterJonWilliams's ''Hardwired'' has a heavily balkanized territory formerly known as the USA, in which Hovertank jockeys make a fortune flying contraband across fortified state borders.
* In John Barnes's ''Mother of Storms'', set in 2028 (written in 1994) Alaska successfully petitioned the UN for its independence.
* Creator/KimNewman's ''Literature/DarkFuture'''s America plays on the Southern States leaving--Tennessee, Missouri, Mississippi, Florida, Arkansas and Kentucky are unofficially known as the Independent States of America. Utah was sold to an {{Expy}} of the Mormon Church and was renamed Deseret by them. It's a sufficiently separate state that its citizens have their own passports.
* On [=E3=] in Creator/IanMcDonald's ''Planesrunner'' there are the Confederate States of America, which apparently seceded in the 1850s, the United States and Mexica which is the west coast and used to belong to Mexico before ''it'' seceded.
* Creator/PoulAnderson's "No Truce with Kings" features this in a recovering post-disaster world.
* In Creator/MattRuff's ''The Mirage'' the Christian States of America is composed of 17 States, 18 after Mississipii joins in 1990. An attempt to annex Louisiana results in the Mexican Gulf War. There is also an Evangelical Republic of Texas that also claims Oklahoma, New Mexico and the Mexican state of Coahuila although the inhabitants of these place all beg to differ, a Rocky Mountain Nation that controls,more in theory than fact, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and the Dakotas because it itself is split up into small tribal factions, a Mormon nation although it's based in Missouri rather than Utah and a Pentacostal Heartland State of Gilead. How big the latter is is unstated but Tennesee, Kentucky, Ohio and Michigan form it's eastern edge.
* Though it doesn't impact the story directly, in George Alec Effinger's ''Literature/MaridAudran'' series, this is mentioned as one of the reasons that the Islamic world has risen to dominate world politics. Bill the cab driver was born in the nation of Deseret, centered around the former state of Utah.
* Although technically still a single nation the United Seven States of America (USSA), in Jerry Jenkins's ''Soon'', has been divided into seven semi-independent districts as depicted in [[http://bayimg.com/GacNdAadg this fanwork]].
* In Maurice Dantec's ''Cosmos Incorporated'' the combination of the Grand Jihad and the Second Civil War results in an America with three capitals (Detroit, Washington DC, which is little more than a city-state surrounded by a Muslim Caliphate controlling the east coast and Atlanta). There is also a Mohawk nation straddling the former US-Canada border.
* In ''Literature/ItCantHappenHere'', widespread revolts erupt after Haik assumes power, and America is quickly divided into areas that dissidents control and areas that Haik's government controls.
* In the alternate universe created by the prevention of JFK's assassination in Creator/StephenKing's ''Literature/ElevenTwentyTwoSixtyThree'', Maine is a Province of Canada.
* In ''Metatropolis'' a series of environmental and energy crisises have reverted civilization into city-states. There's the anarcho-environmentalist community of Cascadiopolis hidden in TheOtherRainforest, the decaying slums of Detroit, the tightly controlled "zero-footprint" city of New St. Louis...
* ''ResurrectionDay'', a novel by Brendan Dubois, explores a world after a Cuban Missile crisis where nobody blinked. The resultant nuclear exchange destroyed Russia and devastated the USA, leaving Europe largely untouched. A crippled rump USA hangs on, but roles have reversed: a resurgent Britain is now effective leader in the English-speaking world and is succouring the Americans with aid. This is not given unconditionally; as the book progresses it becomes clear the British are planning to take over and reverse the whole 1776 thing, exploiting deep divisions and resentments in what is left of America.
* At the end of Spider Robinson's ''Night of Power'' New York City secedes and declares itself a black homeland.
* In Alan Steele's ''Jericho Iteration'' Oregon and Washington have seceded to form the nation of Cascadia.
* The ''Daybreak'' series is about a radical environmentalist group using nanotech, biological agents, and fusion bombs (super nukes) to destroy modern technology and infrastructure, sending the world back into (at best) early [=1800s=] tech. While this is a global event, the main focus is on the United States, and its disintegration over the course of the series. By the time the series is done: after the nuking of DC, two rival governments emerge -- the Provisional Constitutional Government, based in Olympia, Washington, which directly controls the Pacific Northwest and has influence over the entire western half of the country, and the Temporary National Government, based in Athens, Georgia, which controls most of the South (and which is later taken over by religious extremists who declare the region the Christian States of America). Utah, Texas, and California (which is taken over by a neo-feudal movement and declared a duchy) become highly autonomous, with the latter two eventually seceding. Alaska secedes early on. Hawaii dissolves into chaos and loses contact with the mainland. Arizona loses territory to California and Nevada, as well as the Apache and Navajo nations, which declare independence. Oklahoma likewise loses its eastern half to Native American independence, resulting in the Allied First Nations and Western Oklahoma. Montana is part of the PCG, but has strong movements for both independence and federating with Alberta. And then there's the Lost Quarter, the entire region north of the Carolinas and east of Kentucky and Illinois, which is so heavily devastated by the immediate and after effects of Daybreak and overrun by pro-Daybreak tribals that any large government in the area is impossible. That said, there are a few centers of civilization -- Castle Earthstone in Indiana, a tribal stronghold that declares independence from Daybreak and eventually establishes a Domain around the eastern Great Lakes region; Pelissipi, several counties along the Virginia/West Virgina border region which banded together to drive off the tribals and found a new state; and Manbrookstat, which is technically just a city-state operating out of the ruins of New York City, but whose totalitarian leader, the Commandant, declares nominal control of all Lost Quarter territory not claimed by the TNG/CSA or the Domain. And further complicating things is the Commandant founding the Atlantic League (a confederacy of similar city-states around the Atlantic), and opening the Lost Quarter to colonization by his partners.
* In Murray Leinster's story "Sidewise in Time" time fractures bringing dinosaurs to the suburbs and other mixed up time zones. In one a salesman for the "Uncle Sam Candy Company" is arrested because he slipped into a place where the Confederacy still exists and the Stars and Stripes cannot be displayed. He is set free to return to the Union in order not to exacerbate the tensions between the two nations.
* ''Literature/{{Unsong}}'' is set in the "Untied States of America" (sic), an EU style federation of sovereign countries. The release of [[BrownNote the Broadcast]] by the forces of hell, via Nixon, caused the collapse of the American federal government. The United States proper still exists, but controls only the east coast. Independent countries include the California Republic, the Texas Republic, the Salish Free State, and the Oklahoma Ochlocracy. The Midwest is an anarchic land ruled by feudal warlords. The American Southwest and northern Mexico were ruled by the Comet King, and have since been mostly usurped by the Other King.
* ''Literature/{{Victoria}}'': The central premise is the dissolution of the United States owing to a combination of hyperinflation, pestilence, and disobedience in the face of growing lawlessness. The heroes occupy the Northern Confederacy/Victoria, a deeply conservative version of New England, and in the South a New Confederacy forms, torn between it's cosmopolitan and rural elements. Past that, Wisconsin is taken over by Nazis, the 'Party of the Will.' Insane parodies of 'Deep Greener' enviornmentalists take over the Pacific Northwest, forming Cascadia. California is renamed Azania, moving the capital to the Berkley campus and outlawing men. The rest is overrun by 'orcs' as minority gangs and rioters are called in-story.

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* ''Series/{{Amerika}}'' (1987): The Soviet Union plans to do this to the United States in order to prevent a resurgent America from posing a threat. At the end of the series the protagonist Devin Milford is shot by the leader of Heartland's defence force as he's about to make a radio broadcast calling for Americans to resist the breakup; [[WeAreStrugglingTogether this is viewed as 'treason' against Heartland]].
* ''Series/BostonLegal'': The town of Concord, Massachusetts tried to secede from the United States in one episode, citing reasons involving disagreement with the government's current policy. Judge Brown threw it out as ridiculous.
* ''Series/{{Jericho}}'': Has two federal governments by Season 2 in the wake of a CosyCatastrophe; the larger of the two's flag is at the top of this article. It is the Allied States of America, a corporate dictatorship [[spoiler: ( at least some of whose leaders were behind the catastrophe)]] which rules the states west of the Mississippi (except Texas) and has its capital in Cheyenne, Wyoming. The other is what's left of the legitimate federal government, with its capital in Columbus, Ohio [[spoiler: (notably the city Hawkins was supposed to deliver his bomb to)]]. Off on its own, able to tip the balance, is the fully independent Republic of Texas. Season 1 makes a mention of ''six'' federal governments, and briefly shows a map with Sacramento, California; Cheyenne, Wyoming; San Antonio, Texas; Columbus, Ohio; Albany, New York; and Montgomery, Alabama marked as capitals. There is also mention of a Senator from Oregon and a Senator from Alabama making claims to the Presidency. By season 2, though, this has been narrowed down to the above two governments and the Republic of Texas.
** When discussing the six factions in Season 1 mentioned above, it is stated that one of those claiming the Presidency, the man who eventually becomes the (off-screen) leader of the eastern States in Season two and thus the United States, is actually the legal and legitimate successor to the Presidency as he was a member of the late President's cabinet when the attacks occurred. However, as Russell explains, there are [[WeAREStrugglingTogether "five other guys who seem to think the attacks have changed the rules"]]. Not surprising given the disaster the country has experienced, which involves [[spoiler: ''23 cities'' destroyed by]] nuclear terrorism, [[spoiler: not to mention that one of the upstarts was very likely involved in the attacks]]. Naturally there's going to be some chaos. Also each person claiming the Presidency is backed by parts of the military. Again this is narrowed to the two above plus Texas by Season 2, the latter of whom will tip the balance to whoever can recruit them.
** [[spoiler: By the end of Season 2, Jake and Hawkins have exposed the Cheyenne government's conspiracy and treason, causing Texas to rejoin the United States under the legitimate government. It is then flat out said by Chavez and Jake that a Second American Civil War is about to begin. And sure enough, the six-issue comic sequel series starts with the war's beginning]].
* ''Series/{{Revolution}}'':
** [[http://www.revolution-show.com/map-of-revolution-monroe-republic/ This map]] (first shown in [[Recap/RevolutionS1E5SoulTrain episode 5]]) shows how the United States (and to a lesser extent Canada and Mexico) have been broken up. For those who can't read the map. Note that since some of these nations extend into Canada and/or Mexico this trope is combined with ExpandedStatesOfAmerica:
** The Monroe Republic: New England, the Mid-Atlantic and Great Lakes areas as well as the Canadian Maritime Provinces and Quebec south of the St. Lawrence River
** The Georgia Federation: The Southeast. Apparently the major rival to the Monroe Republic, and possibly allying with the Plains Nation to eliminate it
** Texas: Texas, with what appears to be parts at least of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana, as well as a sizable chunk of Mexico
** The Plains Nation: the Midwest from Minnesota to Montana
** Wasteland: Utah and the Rockies
** The California Commonwealth: The West Coast including a sizable chunk of British Columbia and all of Baja California. Considered to be "heathens" by at least one high-level Monroe Militia officer (Neville)
* ''Series/{{Sliders}}'': Used this premise at ''least'' once for its alternate universe settings, resulting in a gunslinging, modern Republic of Texas.
* In one episode of ''Series/KeyWest'' the residents of Key West decide to secede from the Union forming the Conch Republic, reflecting a similar "Conch Republic" set up in real life (see Real Life, below).
* ''Series/TheLastShip'': In Season 3, it's shown that in an attempt to bring stability to [[AfterTheEnd post-plague]] America whilst the federal government is rebuilt almost from scratch, President Michener has had the 48 contiguous states divided into five semi-autonomous territories (Northeast, South, Midwest, Southwest, Northwest) controlled by local leaders who report to the new capital district surrounding St. Louis. This is somewhat of a downplayed example, as it's meant to be a temporary measure until a new Congress can be elected... Or at least, that's the plan, until [[spoiler: the regional leaders stage [[TheCoup a coup]], killing Michener and deposing Vice-President Oliver, in order to dissolve the Union and formally turn their territories into their own fiefdoms, with the treacherous White House Chief of Staff trying to get St. Louis as her own city-state as her price for planning the coup]]. Things get a little more complicated from there, as [[spoiler: the Northwest leader [[HeelRealization gets cold feet]] and is [[RedemptionEqualsDeath killed for it]], leading to the Southwest leader absorbing his territory, only for [[TwentyFifthAmendment President]] Oliver and the ''Nathan James'' crew to lead a counter-coup and arrest him, turning the whole West Coast into TheRemnant of the actual US.]] These complications are resolved by the end of the season, as [[spoiler: the other conspirators are captured or killed, allowing Oliver to regain total control of the country]].
** It's also worth mentioning that aside from an implication that Hawaii is under Naval control, there's no mention of the status of either it or Alaska.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* The [[PunkPunk Cattle Punk]] TabletopRPG ''Aces and Eights'' takes place in an AlternateUniverse, where the Divided States of America include the U.S., the Confederate States of America, Deseret, and a Tribal confederacy.
* Steve Jackson's Tabletop RPG ''TabletopGame/CarWars'' features something like this in an AfterTheEnd of easy oil scenario. Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma fall away to become a spirited republic called "the Free Oil States" (convenient for the Austin-based Jackson), a theocracy, and a corporate plutocracy. Utah tries breaking away as well. Quebec makes a run for it from Canada, too.
* In ''TabletopGame/CastleFalkenstein'', America consists of the United States of America (from the east coast to the Mississippi), the Republic of Texas, the Bear Flag Empire of California (ruled by Emperor Norton!), the Twenty Nations Confederation and the Unorganized Territories.
* ''TabletopGame/CrimsonSkies'' takes place in an AlternateUniverse where the United States broke up in the early 30s due to the Great Depression.
* R. Talsorian Games' ''TabletopGame/{{Cyberpunk}}''. Five of the original fifty states have broken off and become Free States: Alaska, Nevada, California, the Republic of Texas and Utah. California has further split up into Northern and Southern California.
* ''Otherverse America'', a TabletopGame/D20Modern campaign setting, plays with the trope. America is still one country, but civil authority has partly collapsed due to the Abortion War, and both the "Choicers" (a covenant of believers in various pagan faiths united by pro-choice views) and the Lifers (predominantly fundamentalist Christian antiabortionists) have forced the government to allow them to govern themselves as "pseudonations." Choicers and Lifers are citizens and voters in America, but also citizens of their own communities, and various groups within the two movements are fighting terrorist wars against each other.
* The TabletopRPG ''TabletopGame/{{Deadlands}}: Weird West'', set in the 1800s in America, the discovery of ghostrock has fostered the continued division of the Union and the Confederate States. The various states' focus on managing their own territories has kept them from expanding into areas of what would otherwise become U.S. territory. Four nations pop up instead: Mormon-run Deseret, the native Coyote Confederation, the theocratic Free and Holy City of Angels in California, and Sioux territories.
* ''Diana: Warrior Princess'' and ''Elvis: The Legendary Journeys'' have this. But that's because their 31st century writers are about as accurate as 21st century writers of ''Series/XenaWarriorPrincess'' and ''Series/HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys''.
* The Tabletop RPG ''TabletopGame/DogsInTheVineyard'' never specifically mentions any real-world locations or dates, but it takes place in an area similar to the pre-Civil War American west, in the lands of the Faith (analogous to the Mormon nation of Deseret). The Terrestrial Authority of the East is analogous to the US government and the east coast states. Though in this setting, the lands of the Faith are technically still part of the Terrestrial Authority, they give little regard to it.
* The ''TabletopGame/{{GURPS}} [[AlternateHistory Infinite Worlds]]'' meta-setting includes no less than six "Dixies" and one "Gallatin", where the States didn't really Unite in the first place. And that's not counting parallel timelines where the American Revolution failed, where Native Americans held on to their lands, or where other colonial powers managed to establish lasting colonies. Of course, many of the more divergent timelines like Ezcalli, Roma Aeterna or Midgard never had anything remotely similar to the United States.
* The ''Kazei 5'' sourcebook for 6th edition TabletopGame/HeroSystem takes Canada, the United States, and Mexico and chops/blends them into Alta California, Cascadia, Deseret, Nunavut, Republic of Quebec, Republic of Texas, United North America and the United States of America.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Rifts}}'' has rebuilt portions of the US and Canada into an alliance called the Coalition States. The rest of the continent is made up of independent cities and towns separated by wilderness.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Shadowrun}}'''s back history includes the secession and/or annexation of parts of the US (and other nations) as corporations and mystic elements cause social upheaval. The map in the back of the Fourth Edition book splits what used to be the United States into eight separate nations, with three more in what was Canada. Mexico has absorbed much of the Southwest into the new nation of Aztlan. Probably the most entertaining: California spent so long debating over whether or not to secede that the UCAS (United Canadian-American States) finally got sick of it and ''threw California out of the country'', creating the California Free State.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Twilight 2000}}'' features a nuclear war occurring in the late '90s. The US government has been divided into "Milgov" and "Civgov" factions, but they really only control small areas of the country. The rest is in anarchy.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The backstory of a Midway fighting game called ''[[VideoGame/BioFreaks Bio F.R.E.A.K.S.]]'' in a nutshell. America is divided by an event called the "[[CorporateWarfare Techno-Industrial Civil Wars]]" and all the states are turned over to the control of {{Mega Corp}}s who use violence to increase their standing. The gameplay itself is the solution cooked up by the fragmented government to mediate these gargantuan corporations in order to avoid a second Techno-Industrial Civil War.
* ''VideoGame/XCOMTerrorFromTheDeep'' is set far enough into the [=21st=] century that the U.S.' dominance has already declined. After the events of the original ''[[VideoGame/XCOMUFODefense X-COM]]'', everything [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack west of the Mississippi has been eaten away by Mexico.]] Meanwhile, [[ChinaTakesOverTheWorld the Chinese century is upon us]], as Asia and Europe have formed their own super-blocs. It's also interesting to note that Africa and Egypt are both [[PrivatelyOwnedSociety privately-owned]] in the future. Many of these countries signed pacts with the invaders in the first Alien War, so it makes sense that nationalism is currently on the wane. It's a big headache for Rand & [=McNally=], but the new borders don't substantially affect the player or their mission.
* In the BackStory for ''VideoGame/DeusEx'', parts of the United States declared their independence when the federal government ignored them due to half of California sinking in the ocean. The NSF at this time was the Northwestern Secession Forces. The U.S. got them back, but the war allowed [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack Mexico to take back parts of the Southwest]] when they aligned with Russia. In some sense, the US still is in a Civil War, with many of its citizens in open revolt by being part of the [=NSF=]. At any rate, some dialogue said by JC hints that the United States may be due for a third round of all-out war.
* ''VideoGame/DeusExHumanRevolution'' seems to be setting up the said civil wars for ''Deus Ex''. Radio broadcasts and newspapers will mention secession sentiment in states that will soon be part of the Northwest War. A conversation overheard between [=NPCs=] in the Sarif Industries lobby after the Milwaukee Junction mission imply that this ''has already happened'', when one of them [[http://deusex.tumblr.com/post/18382748557/in-the-sarif-industries-lobby-after-the-milwaukee mentions]] the [[NoodleIncident Texas Secession.]]
* In the strategy game ''VideoGame/ShatteredUnion'', the United States breaks into seven factions: the New England Alliance, the traditionalist Confederacy, the freedom-loving Republic of Texas, the Great Plains Federation, the environmentalist Pacifica, the California Commonwealth, and the [[ZeroPercentApprovalRating grievously unpopular]] European Union Occupation zone in and around the ruins of DC. Hawaii goes off on its own (rejoining after America is reunited), and [[RussiaCalledTheyWantAlaskaBack Alaska gets invaded by the Russians.]]
* The leader of the Believers faction in ''VideoGame/SidMeiersAlphaCentauri'' is specified as coming from the "Christian States of America." She is identified in the background material as born in Athens, Georgia. It seems to be a mixture of Deep South and Christian Fundamentalists. These "Christian States" obviously do not reach far north, for the Pirates' leader, Ulrik Svensgaard, comes from Gloucester, MA, which is listed as being in the United States. And the background material actually gives Miriam's country of origin as the USA.\\
The backstories of the game mention that nations were constantly rising and falling during the last days of Earth, meaning that the CSA, and the USA coexisted, or the USA became the CSA, or something wild. Bottom line, [[CrapsackWorld Earth wasn't]] [[JustBeforeTheEnd in the best]] shape.
* ''VideoGame/{{Fracture}}'' has America's East Coast joining with Europe to form the cybernetics-using Atlantic Alliance, while the West Coast joins with Asia in the genetics-focused Republic of Pacifica.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Fallout}}'' games have the US split into thirteen commonwealths before the Great (nuclear) War, which is ''not'' this trope (the commonwealths replaced the states as the level under the federal government), but has some slight influence on the post-War American polities. The United States also annexes Canada shortly before the [[WorldWarIII Third World War]]. Roughly a century after the nukes fly, the US is broken into independent city-states--such as The Hub, Junktown, Necropolis, the Boneyard (within which is Adytum), and Shady Sands. VideoGame/{{Fallout 2}} Introduces San Francisco (within which is Shi Town), Vault City, Broken Hills, and … [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin well, New Reno]]--and small nations such as the New California Republic, with the wilderness in between dominated by raider clans and native-styled tribes. Other major players include the Brotherhood of Steel, descendants of an army unit that rejected their illegal and unethical orders that emerged after the war, and the Enclave, the fascist remnants of the éminence grise of the federal government and military industrial complex, which regards itself as a legitimate authority despite being in hiding almost the entire time.
* ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 3}}'' and ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 4}}'' also introduce the Institute in the Commonwealth (Massachusetts) which makes RidiculouslyHumanRobots, The Pitt (UsefulNotes/{{Pittsburgh}}) which is the local industrial powerhouse and Ronto (Rumoured to be Toronto) which seems to be significant military power.
* ''VideoGame/FalloutNewVegas'': The New California Republic has incorporated most of California and good portions of Baja California, Nevada, and Oregon, and has now set its sights on New Vegas, now ruled by a technocrat. They also contest Hoover Dam with The Legion, a group of Roman Empire wannabes in Arizona led by a WellIntentionedExtremist. Honest Hearts expands on the InNameOnly New Canaan giving more backstory, as well as several characters that escaped.
* Most Creator/ParadoxInteractive games include ahistorical "revolter nations" in case you badly mismanage your empire or get conquered. In ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalis'' these include Quebec and Louisiana, and ''VideoGame/HeartsOfIron'' includes California, Texas and a reinstated Confederacy. Their ideology is technically dependent on what ideology an eventual occupier who wishes to partition the USA has, but the Confederacy ministers are all fascist, the Texas ministers are all paternal autocrat, and the California ministers are all social democrat. Other nations can be similarly divided (like Russia, China and large sections of the British Empire)
** in Hearts of Iron's game mod [[VideoGame/KaiserreichLegacyOfTheWeltkrieg Kaiserreich]], set in an alternate history where the Central Powers won the First World War, the United States will probably split up via civil war into the neo-Confederate American Union State, the [[BombThrowingAnarchists anarcho-syndicalist Combined Syndicates of America]] (centred around the Great Lakes manufacturing region), the [[Main/OppressiveStatesOfAmerica military junta-controlled federal government]] under [[UsefulNotes/DouglasMacArthur Douglas [=MacArthur=]]] (occupying the Midwest and mid-Atlantic) and the democratic Pacific States of America (California, Oregon and Washington). Hawaii also splits off as its own nation, and may later re-join the PSA, or whoever wins the war.
* ''VideoGame/VictoriaAnEmpireUnderTheSun'' not only includes the Confederacy but also the nations of Texas and California, as well as nations for the Cherokee, the Sioux, Mormon Deseret, a possible New England secession and the Manhattan Commune (of course, given the period covered, several of these nations are historical). Canada gets in on it to, as it has both a Quebec and a Metis Confederation. The sequel adds even more, including even the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Rebellion Holy Kingdom]] in China with a patch. Why yes, Paradox ''does'' [[ShownTheirWork do a lot of research]].
* ''VideoGame/{{Supreme Ruler 2020}}'' normally begins with a relatively realistic view of what the world might look like in 2020. Alternatively, you can start in a world where total economic collapse has led to many countries drastically changing, including the US states all being independent countries.
* ''VideoGame/{{Homefront}}'' makes mention of the individual states squaring off amidst the chaos, Illinois threatening Texas with military action after border guards killed several migrating Chicagoans and such. That and the country literally being divided when the GKR occupies the Western half of the country and poisons the Mississippi with radioactive waste.
* This was the motive of the titular "Sons of Liberty" in ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid2SonsOfLiberty''. Solidus Snake, disgusted with the U.S.'s plans for an unprecedented censorship of oncoming data on the internet (using an A.I. to immediately filter, alter, and discard any inconvenient truths), planned to cut Manhattan loose from the mainland with an EMP bomb. The dormant island, now run by Solidus and his confederates, would be patrolled by a stolen fleet of Metal Gears, effectively turning it into a free republic. Things didn't quite pan out as such... Solidus hoped to be 'inaugurated' on the steps of Federal Hall just like UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington two centuries to the very day, but he was assassinated on the steps instead.
* ''VideoGame/SaintsRowTheThird'': [[spoiler:[[AlternateEnding One of the two endings]] has [[PlayerCharacter the Boss]] declaring Steelport an independent city-state after driving out the government's STAG forces.]]
* In one ''VideoGame/RailroadTycoon 3'' add-on scenario, the location is a USA where the revolution never happened, with various territories such as New England, Roosevelt (Pacific Northwest), Dixie, and the Texahoma Republic.
* ''VideoGame/CrimsonSkies'' is set in an alternative universe where the USA has dissolved into several independent nations.
* In ''VideoGame/AfterTheEndACrusaderKingsIIMod'', the United States is nothing more than a memory by the start of the game, with most of its former constituents having developed their own local identities into unique national cultures.
* ''VideGame/{{Piratez}}'' take place several hundred years in the future, and the former USA are divided into several large countries. [[Main/CrapsackWorld None of them a nice place to live.]]
* ''VideoGame/TheReckoning'' is set in USA in 2019 after a ZombieApocalypse, and consists in a war between US Army remnants, Confederacy nostalgists, Neo-Nazis, Rednecks, {{Church Militant}}s, and various bands of raiders. This being ''VideoGame/MountAndBlade: Warband'', the player can either join one of them or create his own independant faction.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* In ''Webcomic/{{SSDD}}'', the "Tower Of Babel" storyline starts with an [[http://www.poisonedminds.com/d/20060202.html animated map]] of the states and their progressive division. California, Oregon and Washington are under the [[MegaCorp Maytec Consortium's]] control. New Texas has all of the southeast except Florida, which is independent. And the northeast states from New England to Wisconsin joined the Collective of Anarchist States (which also controls England and parts of Europe and the Middle East).
* ''[[http://www.bigheadpress.com/roswell Roswell, Texas]]'' takes places in an alternate timeline where the Republic of Texas won at the Alamo and remained independent, and also controls Oklahoma, Arkansas and New Mexico. California is also an independent nation, run by President For Life, Creator/WaltDisney. (It takes place in an alternate 1948.) The space in between them is referred to as "the Deseret Corridor" indicating it's run by the Mormons.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* In ''Literature/DecadesOfDarkness'', New England secedes after the early death of president UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson at the most inopportune moment, and manages to stay independent.
* Rather inevitable in the SequelSeries to Literature/FearLoathingAndGumboOnTheCampaignTrailSeventyTwo. Though as of 1985 [[spoiler: California has seceded (or is trying to secede) from the Union. [[OppressiveStatesOfAmerica It's not hard to guess why]]. When Rumsfeld tries to force Pete [=McCloskey=] out of his office, and then impeaches the Supreme Court for ruling against him, California officially declares itself to be a Republic. Idaho, Hawaii, and Florida also follow suit]].
** The country becomes even more divided after [[spoiler: the Christian Values Party takes control and re-brands the country the Christian States of America]]. By 1990, [[spoiler: Texas and Alaska declare independence, Oregon merges with California to form the Pacific Free Republic, Washington votes to join Canada, the Libertarian-dominated Mountain and Midwest states become "Bozeman enclaves" home to resistance movements, and the secessionist northeastern states continue to call themselves the [[VestigialEmpire United States of America]], lead by Richard Nixon]].
* ''[[http://www.theonion.com The Onion]]'' article, [[http://www.theonion.com/content/news/texas_constructs_u_s_border_wall Texas Constructs U.S. Border Wall To Keep Out Unwanted Americans]].
* The [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesusland_map map]] that circulated after the 2004 elections, labeling the blue states and Canada as the "United States of Canada" and the red states as "[[{{Eagleland}} Jesusland]]," and [[MemeticMutation all its variations]].
* In ''[[http://ib.frath.net/w/index.php Ill Bethisad]]'', the USA never formed as such, but a loose confederation exists in its place.
* [[http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/North_America_(1983:_Doomsday) This post-World War III map]] from ''1983: Doomsday'' on the Alternate History Wikia.
* ''Website/AtlasOfMedievalAmerica'' imagines a world where human civilisation is blasted back to TheMiddleAges overnight, and what the USA (which had no medieval period to revert to) would become by the 26th Century. The site remains unfinished to this day, but some of the resulting countries are named. The United States of America is an oligarchic VestigialEmpire centered in Baltimore that controls isolated enclaves and the major shipping lanes along the East Coast extending into Canada, the Great Plains are inhabited by a loose confederation of nomadic tribes, the Confederate States (including an independent Georgia and the "Red River Territory") have reverted to plantation slavery but not along racial lines as [[InTheFutureHumansWillBeOneRace everyone in the South is biracial]] by that point, California splits into the northern "Republic" and the Scientologist-controlled southern "Free Zone", the "Territory of Iowa" is a military dictatorship controlling all land between the Missouri and Wabash rivers, the "State of Deseret" is a Mormon theocracy controlling Wyoming and parts of Utah and Ohio, Washington DC became a city-state under the control of the American Non-Denominational Church similar to the Holy See, and it also mentions several warlords in the East and hydraulic empires clustered around rivers in the Western desert.
* ''OrionsArm'' had California and Cascadia (which added the Yukon, Northwest Territory, and Alaska) secede from the U.S. in the late 22nd century. Both of which were regional superpowers with multiple colonies in the Asteroid Belt and outer solar system until the Nanodisaster.
* [[http://www.slate.com/blogs/quora/2012/11/27/civil_war_who_would_come_out_on_top_if_the_united_states_all_declared_war.html?wpisrc=obnetwork This article asks which state]] would come out on top if they all fought each other.
* ''Roleplay/CaptoIugulum'': The United States after the Scottist regime collapses spectacularly. Jacksonia [California] and Florida ([[NonIndicativeName actually in Texas]]) break away as independent republics, and stay independent. Most of the American South gets taken by revolting [[DirtyCommunists proletarist blacks]] and eventually becomes the United Proletarist Republics of America. The rest gets split among a rump United States, other republics in New England and in the Great Lakes region, and numerous warlord states in the West. All of the latter gets reunited under a "Second Union" within a few years, and the United States remains a secondary power, albeit much reduced in strength.
* ''Literature/TheFalconCannotHear'' sees a whole lot of this once the [[AlternateHistory Second American Civil War]] kicks off:
** A military government lead by Army Chief of Staff Douglas [=MacArthur=], nicknamed the Khakis, which controls Washington D.C., the Rockies, and the overseas possessions. [[spoiler:After [=MacArthur=] dies during a hurricane, the Whites seize D.C., the Japanese occupy the Pacific territories, a Filipino corps stationed in Alaska begins a revolt against the Khakis there, and several Generals and Admirals become independent warlords, with Admiral Ernest King leading a rump loyalist faction out of the Alaskan Panhandle. Most of the warlords eventually align themselves with the Red Oak Pact as the war draws to a close.]]
** The American Soviet Republic, lead by Communist Party General-Secretary Earl Browder, which controls a stretch of land from their capital at Chicago to New York City. [[spoiler:The east coast Soviets, feeling that Browder is too authoritarian, eventually split and form the American Workers Collective, forming an anti-fascist Popular Front with the Blues. The ASR proper joins the Popular Front after a coup, but turns against it once the Whites are all but defeated. Their defeat to the Red Oak Pact/Popular Front marks the end of the Second Civil War.]]
** The Whites, lead by Huey Long, are a collection of conservative and fascist groups composed of an official government and military under Long, and several paramilitary groups (ranging from the KKK and openly fascist groups to Businessmen's Associations, essentially armed Hoover Republicans) with strong influence over local governments. They control the South, Texas, parts of the Southwest, and eastern New England, with their capital in Montgomery, Alabama. [[spoiler:They seize Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia after the Khakis' leadership is decapitated, but a failed coup by a group of generals fearing the growth of fascist influence causes the fascists to effectively take over. New England defects to the Continental Congress as a result, and between that, the ASR joining the Popular Front, and the fascists' dysfunctional leadership, the Whites fall apart and are soon overrun.]]
** The Provisional Government, also called the Blues, lead by John L. Lewis. A coalition of liberals and democratic socialists, they control the upper Midwest, upstate New York, western New England, and the West Coast, with their capital in St. Paul, Minnesota. [[spoiler:They form an alliance with the Continental Congress known as the Red Oak Pact, and later one with the AWC called the Popular Front. With Canadian backing, the Red Oak Pact/Popular Front defeats the Whites and then the ASR, winning the civil war.]]
** The Continental Congress, also called the Greens, lead by Milo Reno. Composed of Midwestern farmers who don't like any of the other factions, they control the Great Plains from Montana to Oklahoma. [[spoiler:They align themselves with the Blues in the Red Oak Pact, and count themselves among the winners.]]
** And several other independent groups:
*** William Langer, Governor of North Dakota, has declared secession from the Union. [[spoiler:He's eventually brought to heel by Canada.]]
*** Sumner Sewell, Governor of Maine. While not declaring secession, he cooperates closely with Canada and aligns himself with whichever (American) group gives him the most independence. [[spoiler:He eventually sides with the Continental Congress, with White New England surrendering to him after they defect to the Red Oak Pact. Post-war, Maine (which now controls most of New England east of the Connecticut River) enjoys a great deal of autonomy within the Third Republic.]]
*** The B.R.O.W.N. (Banner Revolutionary Organisation of Willing Negroes), a guerrilla group operating in White territory. [[spoiler:This causes the Whites to begin putting blacks in concentration camps where over a million of them die of disease and starvation. As the Whites fall apart, they align with the Red Oak Pact/Popular Front, and after the war, the former states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia are merged into the autonomous black state of New Africa.]]
*** Henry Ford, who controls Detroit as his own personal fiefdom using army troops and mercenaries. [[spoiler:He's eventually defeated by the Blues.]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* Parodied in an episode of ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'' in which a map is shown of a heavily balkanized United States, including the state of Pennsylvania having split into the "Penn Republic" and "Sylvania." UsefulNotes/WashingtonDC is, however, the capital of Earth.
* Parodied in comically small-scale in ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' episode "E. Peterbus Unum", in which Peter secedes from the United States (ItMakesSenseInContext), creating the nation of Petoria--consisting of his house and yard. Peter annexes Joe's backyard pool and rechristens it "Joe-hio", provoking American sanctions. A much larger-scaled version happens in an AlternateTimeline from "Back to the Pilot", where Brian's efforts to the prevent 9/11 attacks causes the formation of a second Confederacy. All in the name of [[TakeThat bashing]] [[UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush Bush]] once again.

[[folder:Real Life]]
!!In General
* There are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_active_separatist_movements_in_North_America#United_States quite a few]] active organizations arguing for peaceful secession. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the main complaints cited are high taxes and an overbearing Federal government.
* This idea seems much less likely than fiction writers would have it. There are many cultural, economic, and military factors to discourage such a split, and all but the fringiest of U.S. regional and factional interests seem agreed to pursue their interests through the shared democratic process. Historically, though, scenarios like this ''often'' seem impossible … right up to the second they become inevitable.
* The legalities involved in state secession can go several ways. On one hand, as all thirteen of the original colonies predate the United States by definition, since it was these states which ratified the Constitution and brought the federal government into existence. Under the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_theory Compact Theory]] of government, any U.S. state can lawfully secede from the Union if the state legislature decides to do so. On the other hand, the Civil War made it clear that on the topic of secession, MightMakesRight, and the US Supreme Court additionally ruled in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_v._White Texas v. White]] that unilateral secession is illegal [[note]]*: The idea being that the US was originally founded under the Articles of Confederation which specified that the states would stand in "perpetual union," and that the Constitution specifies that it was written "to form a more perfect union." The court ruled that a union that was even "more perfect" than "perpetual" could not, logically, be broken unilaterally.[[/note]]. Additionally, the Confederate Constitution made it clear that the Confederacy wouldn't look too kindly on states attempting to secede from ''it'' (Georgia came close to trying).
* Even the naming conventions in the United States hint at a looser union than actually exists. The subdivisions of the US are called "states", a term which normally applies to an independent or quasi-independent entity. The name of the country, the "United States of America" is a phrase describing the political union rather than the name of a State per se. These are all a result of the original "United States" being thought of as a loose coalition of the former colonies with the states being the primary powers and the federal government being much less relevant.
* Something that can throw foreign visitors is that the individual state governments have a lot more authority and jurisdiction over their affairs than in most places. Prostitution is illegal in most states, but Nevada has some (tightly regulated) brothels and legalized escort services. Marijuana? By Federal Law, it's a Class 1 (''highly'' illegal) substance. But there are several states (Washington and Colorado as the vanguards) where marijuana is sold in licensed retail shops. Another case was where a lesbian couple were legally married in one state, but moved to another, and couldn't get a divorce because that state didn't acknowledge the marriage. This patchwork of state laws creates plenty of business and headaches for the federal court system, which sometimes has to decide which state's law trumps the other.
* The United States has already fought one [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar Civil War]], which resulted in four years of fighting and at least 700,000 deaths. This is still a sore subject in many places. Special mention should go to [[DeepSouth the South]], where a few people still think the Confederacy should have won, and even those who don't still proudly fly its flag and will attempt to whitewash it of any wrongdoing. Note that some Southerners still use the terms "The Late Unpleasantness" and "The War of Northern Aggression," both examples of different names used to refer to the Civil War.
* An interesting historical footnote: When Congress started debating the Kansas–Nebraska Act (or maybe it was the Missouri Compromise), some northern senators threatened to secede from the Union in protest against the way the debate was going. If they had actually done it, the ''North'' would have been the people rebelling against the Union.
* The non-fiction book ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Nations_of_North_America The Nine Nations of North America]]'' by Joel Garreau is about how this continent is divided geo-culturally into "New England", "Dixie", "The Bread Basket" etc. There are also anomalies (Manhattan, Washington DC, Hawaii and Alaska) that are their own subcultures.
** Expanded upon in ''[[http://www.colinwoodard.com/americannations American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America]]'' by Colin Woodard, which divides the US and Canada into about a dozen regional subcultures based on who happened to settle where first.
* In 1998, Russian professor [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_Panarin Igor Panarin]] gave a 55% chance that the United States would break up by 2010. It gained a lot of media attention around the time of the 2008 financial crisis, though unless every news outlet in the world has been lying to us all for the past several years, his prediction has not come to pass. One of Panarin's conclusions was that a US breakup would be bad for Russia insofar as much of its trade is dependent on the US. He advocated trying to steer such a break-up more along peaceful lines like Czechoslovakia rather than what happened in Yugoslavia in the early 90's.
* In the 2002 edition of the Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations, the author defines a stateless nation as a group that self identifies as a distinctive group, displaying outward trappings of a national identity (especially, but not always, a flag) and the formation of political pressure groups for great autonomy. It has within the United States: New Englanders, Texans, Southerners, Californians, Mormons, at least five American Indian nations, Alaskans and Cajuns.
* The infamous [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesusland_map Jesusland Map,]] which shows how the U.S. tends to split in half in terms of political candidates. With the exception of a few "swing states," it's a pretty decent guide to political leanings in the U.S.
* [[http://cdn.rsvlts.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/USNeverWasBig.png This map]] shows how the USA would look if all proposed state partitions in US history were successful.
* After the 2012 elections, petitions were sent out to the "We The People" government website asking to leave the Union. At least one for each state was eventually sent.
* It is important to note that many of the founding fathers were federalists and that the constitution incorporates several federalist ideals. One of federalism main goals is to try to avert this trope by making all states have significant power in terms of representation.
* Primarily as a thought experiment, some commentators have proposed balkanising the US to address issues with the Senate and the Electoral College. In the Senate, small states like Montana or Wyoming have equal representation as Texas and California, giving those states a disproportionate amount of power; and, while the Electoral College does reflect the will of the people the majority of the time, on four occasions (most recently in the 2016 Presidential Election, where Donald Trump won the electoral college despite losing the popular vote) they have differed, meaning the candidate with the most votes does not necessarily always win the Presidency.
** One method is to [[http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2014/10/if_every_u_s_state_had_the_same_population_what_would_the_map_of_america.html redraw the state borders]] so that the USA consists of fifty states of roughly equal population, this means that each pair of senators will represent the same number of people, and the electoral votes of each state will be roughly the same, so the Electoral College will better reflect the nationwide popular vote.
** Another proposal is to [[http://www.motherjones.com/politics/1998/01/75-stars split all larger states]] into smaller ones of 4-5 million people, again making the Senate and Electoral College more representative as each of the new states sends their own senators and casts their own electoral ballots.
* While America's territories frequently saw their borders redrawn before statehood, only twice has a state been carved out from another state.
** The first was Maine, which was originally an exclave of Massachusetts whose residents had long grumbled in favor of secession due to their physical separation from the rest of the state. The UsefulNotes/WarOf1812 only intensified these separatist feelings, as Mainers saw Massachusetts as unconcerned with the British on their doorstep. Maine was granted statehood in 1820 as part of the Missouri Compromise, with Missouri entering the union as a slave state to compensate for the addition of a new free state in the northern US.
** The second was West Virginia. As in Maine ''vis a vis'' Massachusetts, many people in the mountainous western part of Virginia had long been disillusioned with the dominance of the state by the eastern lowland planters. As such, when Virginia declared for the Confederacy, the western counties took the opportunity to [[RebelliousRebel counter-secede]] and rejoined the Union, and the state retained its independence after the war. Similar pro-Union sentiments existed throughout Appalachia; Kentucky remained in the Union despite being a slave state (a few pro-Confederates organized a secessionist government in the western part of the state, but never got far), while eastern Tennessee was a hotbed of partisan violence against the Confederacy.
!!The South
* Oregon journalist Chuck Thompson has written a book titled ''[[http://www.amazon.com/Better-Off-Without-Manifesto-Secession/dp/1451616651 Better Off Without 'Em: A Northern Manifesto for Southern Secession]]'', whose central thesis is that the South[[note]]which he defines as all states of the former Confederacy except Texas, plus West Virginia and Kentucky[[/note]] stands alone as its own cultural nation among the geographical regions of the current United States and should be allowed to peacefully secede to allow the rest of America to move forward.
* These days, UsefulNotes/{{Florida}}'s status as a Southern state exists mainly through the GrandfatherClause. Only the northern third of the state is still considered part of the South, while central and southern Florida are considered culturally 'Yankee'. As a result, many citizens in both the northern and southern parts of the state have proposed secession from the other half. In the north, there have been many attempts dating to before the Civil War to get the Panhandle to split off and join neighboring Alabama. (Curiously, there ''was'' a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Florida#Short-lived_Republic Republic of West Florida]] for a brief period in 1810, but most of its territory is now part of southern Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.) To the south, meanwhile, serious suggestion was made by the mayor of South Miami in 2014 to [[http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2014/10/23/south_florida_as_51st_state_the_city_of_south_miami_votes_to_break_away.html split the state in two]] due to frustration with the state government's perceived lack of action on GlobalWarming (a major concern in low-lying UsefulNotes/{{Miami}}).\\\
North and South Florida have long had a great deal of separation and antipathy. In the 19th century, southern Florida had been mostly empty and seen as economically useless, with the main economic activity being cattle, sugar, and shipping; between economic differences with northern Florida (which was invested heavily in plantation agriculture, particularly cotton) and the lack of easy travel, the southern half of Florida was essentially a separate entity from the north. This gap only grew (albeit in mutated form) when industrialization arrived, with large numbers of Northerners moving in for the sunny, frost-free weather, as railroads and air conditioning enabled resorts, retirement communities, and large-scale farming of citrus, winter fruit, and vegetables that could now be easily shipped north without fear of spoilage.
** On the more tongue-in-cheek end, there's the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conch_Republic Conch Republic]], a secession attempt made by the residents of the Florida Keys (particularly Key West) in 1982. A ton of illegal contraband, particularly drugs, had been trafficked through there, and for logistical reasons the Coast Guard decided to set up a checkpoint on the Florida mainland side of US Route 1 (the only road in or out of the Keys) and check everyone passing through -- including Key residents trying to get to the mainland. The residents basically decided "fine, if you're going to treat us like a foreign country, we may as well become a foreign country!" Key West still uses the Conch Republic as a tourist lure to this day, selling flags and souvenir passports.
* The [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_New_Afrika Republic of New Afrika]] was a proposed country for African-Americans that was to be made from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina, plus black-majority counties in neighboring states. Its proponents also called for reparations from the US government for centuries of slavery. As the group was involved in several violent confrontations, the FBI considered them a seditious group.
* On [[http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2014/10/author-says-south-should-form-new-nation-without-gays-and-hispanics-called-reagan/ October 2014]] Douglas [=MacKinnon=], a former aide and speechwriter for presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, advocated for the secession of southern states into a new nation called "Reagan", a new country that would then be based on "traditional" Christian and conservative values.
!![[EverythingIsBigInTexas Texas]]
* First there was the Texas Revolution--originally not to secede from Mexico, but to balkanize the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas to give the recently immigrated Anglo Texans more control over local politics. Eventually the rhetoric changed to favor complete separation, when it became clear the Mexican Government was not going to compromise. The increasingly anti-slavery stance of the Mexican government also contributed to this shift.
* Ten years later, after the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States (which triggered [[UsefulNotes/MexicanAmericanWar war with Mexico]]), the territory's original borders were minorly balkanized--parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico once belonged to the Republic of Texas.
* While that annexation treaty did not actually allow the state of Texas to secede if it wished, as is sometimes incorrectly implied, it does allow Texas to balkanize itself into up to five separate states if it so wishes.[[note]] Of course, if Texas did decide to partition itself, it might mean 10 Texan senators.[[/note]] The joke is that this will never happen because no one would agree on who gets to keep the Alamo.\\
This one is believed by some to be a common urban legend. Article IV of the Constitution specifies that Congress must consent to any subdivision of an existing state. In addition, there was no "annexation treaty," just a joint resolution, the same as with every other post-Revolutionary state. As noted below, the organic act by which Congress gave assent to Texas' joining the Union gave it the power to divide itself "without further permission of Congress," which would imply that Congress gave consent for a future split as a part of the original admission.\\
However, in the Joint Resolution, Congress did allow a provision for the state to divide itself. During the Republican era of Texas and early in its statehood there was a significant political faction known as the 'divisionists' who argued that the former republic was too large to be governed effectively by a single body. The point was rendered moot with emergence of a Texan national culture.
* Texas then seceded from the USA during the Civil War, though it saw very little action compared to the other Southern states. It did, however, send a relatively large contingent of soldiers for its population size.
* Texas has, even unto the present day, had fringe secessionist movements, which gained some notoriety after Obama's election and in tandem with the rise of the Tea Party movement. Just ''try'' to find an article about Governor Perry that doesn't reference his apparently [[NeverLiveItDown pro-secessionist (or at least sympathetic to secessionists) comments in 2009.]]
* Any time a news article features an OnlyInFlorida type of story that happened in Texas, expect to see a few 'Just leave already!' comments. Curiously enough, per capita [[http://www.cgpgrey.com/blog/can-texas-secede-from-the-union the states whose residents are most supportive of Texan independence]][[note]]This link goes by the Whitehouse.gov petition asking for permission to let Texas leave - the petition asks each signer to give their state of residence[[/note]] (other than Texas itself) are those who generally share political views (Top Five: Louisiana, Oklahoma, Alabama, Alaska, and Arkansas). The ones who'd least want to see Texas leave? [[{{Tsundere}} The reliably Democratic states of New England, New York, New Jersey, Upper Midwest, California, and Hawaii.]]
!!The West
* UsefulNotes/{{Hawaii}} was an independent monarchy before Americans living in Hawaii deposed Queen Liliuokalani in a coup d'état. The United States supported the coup and eventually annexed Hawaii based on trumped-up claims that the Queen's government was oppressing the American immigrants. To this day, the Native Hawaiian community itself is divided over what they want to do about it--some want total independence from the U.S. while others want Hawaii to remain a state but for the Native Hawaiians to have sovereign rights similar to the ones Native Americans have... and there are lots of "in-between" and "none of the above" views mixed in there as well.
* The Alaska Independence Party, which advocates a new referendum that would include the option of Alaska becoming an independent nation, was founded in 1974. It became an officially recognized party in Alaska in 1984, and has maintained that status ever since. In 1990, the AIP even elected a governor, Wally Hickel, but Hickel did not actually support Alaska independence or a new statehood/independence referendum, and he rejoined the Republican Party in 1994. The AIP received some attention in 2008 over allegations that Republican vice-presidential nominee Sarah Palin had once been a member (she never was, but her husband Todd was for a time and she once addressed their convention as governor... but only by video, not in person).
* Cascadia is more of a thought experiment than an actual effort to secede, but this is a cession of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia (and sometimes Northern California as well) from their governments into a separate, socially liberal, environmentalist nation. There's a website for the Cascadian independence party [[http://cascadianow.org/history.html here.]]
* The [[http://www.jeffersonstate.com/ State of Jefferson]] from the 1940s and 1950s, covering the most out-there libertarian Redwoods counties of southern Oregon and northern California. The ball got rolling in October 1941, and continued on through November and early December, culminating in men stopping traffic and handing out proclamations of independence. Those who note what date would come up very soon after this period can guess [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII how the movement got quashed for the time being]].
* California's history of independence goes back very far. The area was only settled by the Spaniards in 1769, who remained loyal to the Crown during Mexico's War of Independence. After the war, California was only part of Mexico for fifteen years, during which it rebelled against the Mexican government ''four times'' (twice to maintain a locally-based government, twice for outright independence). It was briefly a sovereign nation until U.S. troops moved in and forcibly made it a territory as part of the UsefulNotes/MexicanAmericanWar. It was mostly a given that it would become a state even before that, though unlike Texas, its limbo was solved much sooner, by the Compromise of 1850.
* In 2013, venture capitalist Tim Draper proposed a "Six Californias" plan that would split the state into six pieces, all splitting along existing county lines.
** The northernmost piece would be called '''Jefferson''' after the historic proposal, and would consist of Butte, Colusa, Del Norte, Glenn, Humboldt, Lake, Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Plumas, Siskiyou, Shasta, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. Its capital would likely be Chico. These counties are mostly rural, and the hypothetical state of Jefferson would have a far lower population density than the other states.
** South of Jefferson would be '''Northern California''', consisting of Amador, El Dorado, Marin, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Sierra, Solano, Sonoma, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Its capital would be the current state capital, Sacramento.
** Most of North California's southern border would be with '''Central California''', the only one of the six proposed states without a Pacific coastline. Comprised of Alpine, Calaveras, Fresno, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare and Tuolumne Counties, with Fresno as its capital, Central California would become the poorest state in the country on a per capita basis.
** Contrasting this, the ''richest'' state in the country per capita if the Six Californias plan passed would be '''Silicon Valley''', just west of Central California. Comprised of Alameda, Contra Costa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, with San Francisco as its state capital, this state houses the wealthy tech giants of the country. It should be noted that Draper hails from this region of California; some cynics have suggested .
** South of Silicon Valley and the western part of Central California is '''West California''', which would be the most populous of the six new states. Comprised of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Los Angeles, and Ventura Counties, its capital would naturally be Los Angeles, [[EaglelandOsmosis which, due to its status as the hub of the American entertainment industry, is what most people think of when they think of California anyway.]] Except for Californians, paradoxically.
** Finally, the counties of Imperial, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego would become '''South California''', with San Diego as its capital. South California would be second to West California in population. [[NonIndicativeName Contrary to what the owners of a certain baseball team would have you believe, this would put Anaheim and Los Angeles in separate]] ''[[NonIndicativeName states]]'', as Anaheim is located in Orange County.
* When Creator/DonaldTrump won the 2016 presidential elections, a number of disgruntled Californians (the state having voted overwhelmingly for UsefulNotes/HillaryRodhamClinton) made noises about California declaring independence. The hashtag #Calexit (by analogy to Brexit) was trending for a couple days after the election, and a group called [[http://www.yescalifornia.org/ Yes California]] is trying to get secession on the ballot in 2019. [[https://thinkpol.ca/2016/11/12/canadians-invite-california-oregon-and-washington-to-join-canada/ Canada]] has also offered to let the west coast join it.
!!The Northeast
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Hampshire_Constitution#Article_10._Right_of_Revolution New Hampshire's state constitution]] would seem to suggest not the right to independence, but in fact the ''duty'' to revolt should the government become overly oppressive.
* Vermont was also an independent nation from 1777 until it joined the Union in 1791. Of course, though Vermont considered itself an independent nation, the rest of the early U.S. just wasn't sure whether it was part of New York or New Hampshire. \\
Much of northern New Hampshire and a goodly chunk of the Lake Champlain valley in New York considered themselves, and were recognized by Vermont, as part of the Republic of Vermont. Part of the deal when Vermont joined the Union was the abandonment of the claim on this "Greater Vermont".\\
The Vermonters then turned to the British for recognition during the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution War of Independence]], but the war started winding down before negotiations really got rolling. Much like Texas, a certain number of Vermonters still cling to the notion that they have the right to secede, and an active secessionist movement there is "committed to the peaceful return of Vermont to its status as an independent republic and more broadly the dissolution of the Union". According to some calculations, Vermont pays more to the Federal government in taxes than it receives back in federal funds.
* New England was the first region to consider secession from the United States, in the form of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hartford_Convention Hartford Convention]] of 1815, which discussed primarily forging a separate peace with Great Britain. Important background: Americans were not unanimously in favor of the UsefulNotes/WarOf1812, despite whatever impressions you may have gotten from your history textbook. While today, textbooks primarily cite the British practice of stopping American merchant ships they suspected were bound for France (who they were at war with at the time) and seizing goods or even kidnapping American sailors, many, especially New England, saw the war as a naked attempt to appropriate the land of Native Americans, many of whom were allied with Britain. New England even traded with Canada and Britain throughout the war in defiance of federal laws, which is the main reason they were spared the bulk of the fighting despite being the only area to border a British territory.
* UsefulNotes/NewYorkCity Mayor Fernando Wood proposed that his city secede from the union during the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar Civil War]] and form a [[TruceZone free-trade zone]] which would have commerce with everybody. It helped that most working-class New Yorkers [[{{Hatedom}} really despised]] [[UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln President Lincoln]], especially over the issue of conscription.
* Also from New York, there have been so many proposals to split the state between its [[UsefulNotes/NewYorkState upstate]] and [[BigApplesauce downstate]] portions that even most New Yorkers have lost count. The divide is a big one -- outside the state capital of Albany, most of upstate New York resembles either rural New England or the Rust Belt in its culture and politics, as far a cry from what is ''the'' Big City in America as one can imagine.
* In the spirit of jest, in 1998, the eastern half of Annapolis, Maryland declared itself separate and thus, the Maritime Republic of Eastport was founded. It's all done in fun, to foster a friendly rivalry between the east and west half of a town, separated by Spa Creek and celebrated with an annual tug-of-war.
* [[http://www.republicoflakotah.com/ The Republic of Lakotah]] recently seceded from the United States. Currently, this declaration has been in name only.