Arnie has just beaten off a murderous attack by Bob. Plot over, Bob goes to jail, roll credits, right?

Wrong. Maybe Arnie was bigger, or stronger, or could conceivably have run away. Either way, someone in a position of authority feels that Arnie was in the wrong inflicting whatever damage he did to Bob. Bob, on the other hand, is a poor victim. Cue [[RuleOfDrama drama]].

This often involves DoubleStandardAbuseFemaleOnMale; sometimes, it's due to SelectiveEnforcement. Compare [[CantGetAwayWithNuthin Can't Get Away With Nuthin']], WoundedGazelleGambit, WrongfulAccusationInsurance. An attacker may even play a DeliberateInjuryGambit to invoke this trope. A history of such cases InUniverse may explain occurrences of OnceIsNotEnough. If the attacker uses words instead of violence, it's MadeOutToBeAJerkass.

As with everything else law-related, expect the writers to interpret self-defense laws [[HollywoodLaw creatively]]. Whether this is TruthInTelevision varies heavily depending on circumstance: self defense laws usually give a person the benefit of the doubt when defending themselves or others against attempted murder, rape, or assault with a deadly weapon. However there are many circumstances in which this presumption goes away, and you can be put in prison for attempted murder for firing a ''warning shot'' at an attacker.[[note]]Discharging a firearm at someone is ''always'' considered use of deadly force, even if you don't intend to hit them... and not intending to hit them is considered evidence you didn't actually fear for your life.[[/note]]

Compare ArrestedForHeroism. See also the SlidingScaleOfUnavoidableVersusUnforgivable.

[[noreallife]]Administrivia/NoRealLifeExamplesPlease This '''does''' happen in Real Life, especially in European countries which follow the Romano-German jurisprudence. Let's leave it here.


[[folder:Comic Books]]
* This is the entire conflict between the ''ComicBook/XMen'' and their nemesis, ComicBook/{{Magneto}}. The X-Men wholeheartedly believe in this ideal, as taught by their leader, Professor Xavier. Magneto, on the other hand, believes that the only way to battle oppression is to rise up and conquer humans. Various points of media will show either as being "right", DependingOnTheWriter.
* Explicit in ''ComicBook/JudgeDredd'', where vigilante justice is a more heavily enforced crime than burglary and drug dealing. Yes, this includes "lethally resisting someone trying to kill you", or "breaking and entering private properly while trying to escape," but only if you're caught. Hilariously {{lampshaded}} when Rob Schneider's character in the first movie is told he didn't have to hijack the food-bot, he could have gone out the window.
-->'''Fergee''': From twenty stories!? That would be suicide!
-->'''Dredd''': Maybe. [[DeadpanSnarker But it's]] [[LawfulNeutral legal]].

* In ''Film/ConAir'', the (sympathetic) main character is put in prison for accidentally killing someone in defense of his pregnant wife, because A) one of the ''three'' scumbags who was trying to assault him [[HideTheEvidence got rid of the knife]] his late buddy pulled, B) his idiot lawyer advised him to plead guilty, C) the HangingJudge on the case says that as an inactive soldier with expert combat training, he should have been more careful since his assailants were unarmed -- even though there were three of them.
** This one is especially bad since it relies hugely on HollywoodLaw. It's quite unlikely he'd even be prosecuted (his wife witnessed the entire thing), and he would have a very good chance at trial if they did, so it's unlikely his lawyer would advise a guilty plea. Additionally, it was shown to be a federal case despite no indication the deaths occurred in a federal jurisdiction.
* An especially jarring plot point from ''Film/TheButterflyEffect'' has Evan get sent to jail when he accidentally kills Tommy in self-defense. Mind you, everyone knows Tommy is a violent psycho and there were a dozen witnesses to testify that Tommy was trying to kill Evan.
** To be fair, Evan did keep hitting Tommy after he was incapacitated.
* In ''Film/EscapeFromAlcatraz'', English is a veteran inmate in Alcatraz prison in 1960. He tells Frank Morris his story of how he wound up in there. He was harassed by two men, who tried to attack him with knives. English killed them both. The reason why he got two 99-year sentences, back-to-back? [[DeliberateValuesDissonance The two men were white, and he was black]].
* Similarly in ''Film/TheDirtyDozen'', African-American soldier Robert Jeffersen was sentenced to death by a military tribunal for killing two white racists who were trying to castrate him.
* In ''Film/OneHundredFeet'', Marnie is sent to jail for two years, and is on house arrest for another year, after killing her police officer husband with the knife he came after her with.

* In ''Literature/HarryPotterAndTheOrderOfThePhoenix'', Harry risks breaking TheMasquerade by using magic to protect his cousin and himself against Dementors, and is put on trial for this. In this case, the government in question is waging a propaganda war against Harry, and is twisting the law in order to punish him as much as possible and make him look like a delinquent. When the defense proves Harry was in a situation where the options were breaking TheMasquerade or having his soul ripped out of his body, the Ministry spun the story to make it sound like he got off on a technicality. [[spoiler: And then it turns out that one of their particularly nasty members is secretly responsible for the attack in the first place, precisely to provoke him into using magic so they could prosecute him for it.]]
* In ''Literature/{{Hoot}}'', Roy punches Dana in the face while being choked and is subsequently punished.
* ''Literature/HonorHarrington'' takes some flak with her political opponents for shooting a man when she knew his gun was empty, [[spoiler:because he had emptied it in her general direction when her back was turned, in direct violation of the rules of the duel the two were engaged in. Under those rules, the supervisor was required to kill the offending party (which he was just about to do when she beat him to the punch), so her opponent would have died anyway.]]
* ''Literature/TheDresdenFiles'': Harry Dresden almost got executed for killing his EvilMentor (who had tried to mind control and then kill him), because the White Council believes that killing using magic automatically warrants death-only somebody being willing to sponsor him saved him. And he still spent the next couple of years being repeatedly accused of BlackMagic. The problem? [[JerkassHasAPoint Hundreds of years of experience has taught them that breaking the Laws of Magic]], no matter how supposedly necessary or well-intentioned, usually [[DrunkOnTheDarkSide sets people off on a dark path]]. [[spoiler: And they have yet to be proven wrong. Yes, even with ''Harry''.]]
* ''Literature/ThePrideOfParahumans'': The Ceres Directorate doesn't even recognize the right to self defense, Vesta does but the law there is practically feudal. The protagonists were Cerean until they splattered a wanna-be pirate who was attacking them, it didn't help that he was related to an executive, so they moved to Vesta.

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* Season two of ''Series/{{Dexter}}'' has his girlfriend's abusive ex-husband force his way into her house. Her children are sleeping nearby, and she's afraid of what will happen to them if she puts up a fight, so she lures him into her bedroom, and smacks him down with the Emergency Bat she keeps under her bed. Next thing you know, the ex-husband is filing assault charges against her, and she's in danger of losing her kids. Fortunately, her current boyfriend just ''happens'' to be a SerialKillerKiller...
* In the ''Series/StarTrekEnterprise'' episode "North Star", killing a human, even in self-defense, is a hanging crime for a Skagerran.
* ''Series/SpaceAboveAndBeyond'': Cooper is beaten and nearly hung in an alleyway [[FantasticRacism because he was]] an ArtificialHuman. When he throws himself on a police car begging for help, they arrest him and shoo his attackers off. The judge sentences him to a stint in the Marine Corps, which turns out to be a huge improvement compared to his previous lot in life as a homeless person, even with an interstellar war raging.

* Music/BobMarley "I Shot The Sheriff" from ''Music/{{Burnin}}'' (but he did not shoot the deputy).

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The [=iOS=] ChooseYourOwnAdventure called ''Heroes Rise'' has the PlayerCharacter's parents be famous superheroes who were attacked by an assassin while accepting their award in public. While attempting to subdue her, they accidentally kill her. The judge sentences them both to life in prison with no possibility of parole and doesn't even grant them visitation rights. Oh, and all their money is given to [[spoiler:the assassin's daughter]]. It's made clear that this was a political move on the judge's part, as he was running for mayor at the time. However, it's not clear why a murder trial wasn't a trial by jury and why the jury didn't side with the city's favorite superheroes instead of an assassin who was ''trying to kill them''. There should've been an appeal to a higher court (i.e. where said judge couldn't do anything). On the other hand, the ending implies that [[spoiler:the judge-turned-mayor may have had other reasons to put away the player's parents]].
* In the ''VideoGame/GrandTheftAuto'' games:
** 'VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoSanAndreas'': The gangs can use you for target practice and the police isn't the least interested, but then you kill just one of those Ballas vermin and the police are all over you. In that specific case there's at least the justification that the Los Santos police unit that deals the most with the gangs, CRASH, are corrupt as hell and working directly with the Ballas.
** 'VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoIII'': You get the same reaction for attacking the drug-trafficking {{the Triads|AndTheTongs}} in Liberty City.
** The ''only'' break you get is that, in ''[[VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoViceCity Vice City]]'' and the [[VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoLibertyCityStories two]] ''[[VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoViceCityStories Stories]]'' games, you can occasionally see a single policeman chasing a random pedestrian and get $50 bucks as a "good citizen" bonus for punching said pedestrian in the face (specifically punching them - use an actual weapon and the cop will go after you instead).
*** GTA Online is worse about it. Police are smarter in a single player sense, in that they will go out of their way to attack ''any'' aggressor they come across, from an armed player going crazy to a pedestrian that ran over a cop trying to get away, however, they will ''always'' target any player who makes an aggressive action in their sight. This comes to a head when you're defending yourself against an aggressive player who has killed you multiple times, where the cops, who are most likely there because of your death, and they start attacking you because you shot back.
* In the ''[[Videogame/{{X}} X-Universe]]'' series, Police and Border Control ships only react aggressively to ships considered hostile to them - such as [[AIIsACrapshoot Xenon]] or {{Space Pirate}}s. If the player is attacked by a ship not considered hostile to the police (such as a neutral race you've angered), the police will not react. But fire back at the attacker, and the cops will get angry. Destroy the attacker and you'll lose reputation with the sector owner. Thankfully, the police are usually [[EasilyForgiven pretty forgiving]] and [[PoliceAreUseless ineffectual even if angered]].
* In ''Videogame/TheElderScrollsVSkyrim'', if you're a member of The Dark Brotherhood (a cult of assassins) and on assignment, you can confront your mark and threaten them, which sometimes prompts them to attack you in defense. If any guards are around, they will attack this person who's obviously the instigator, and won't trouble you if you fight back. It's all a matter of who attacks first.
* There's a subversion in ''VisualNovel/DanganRonpa'': [[spoiler:The first culprit killed someone who tried to kill him first, making it a crime of self-defense...except as a classmate points out, the first culprit actually had another option; when the would-be murderer locked herself in the shower, the actual murderer could have simply ''left the room'' and escaped. Instead, he went out of his way to retrieve his toolbox from his room, then go back to his victim's room just to break down the shower door and stab her.]] The manga version is played straighter: [[spoiler:he went into the shower without any weapons in an ill-thought-out attempt to calm her down, then accidentally stabbed her as they struggled over the knife, but before he can explain this Monokuma says that it doesn't matter whether it was self-defense or not]].
* This is only to be expected throughout the ''Franchise/AceAttorney'' series, given [[KangarooCourt the state of the court system]]. It doesn't matter how desperate or how much in danger the defendant might have been, if it looks like they were responsible at ''all'' for the death of the victim, they'll be sent to prison.
** For example, Case 1-4 has [[spoiler:Edgeworth nearly found guilty for the killing of his father, even though he had no idea the gun would have gone off (he didn't know the safety had come off), he was oxygen deprived when he acted, he was ''nine years old'' at the time, and he hadn't even shot the gun (he threw it at Yanni Yogi, to stop him from attacking his father).]] Granted, [[spoiler:the prosecution had reasons to push for Edgeworth to get the maximum penalty]], but the Judge seems just as inclined to agree that he deserves to be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
** In ''Turnabout Ablaze'' [[spoiler:Ambassador Alba]] tries to avert this by claiming self-defense [[spoiler:though it was mainly to eliminate witnesses of his counterfeiting operation]] in his country's embassy in order to conceal a greater crime. Thanks to his influence in his country's government, he most likely would have gotten off with a light sentence, if it weren't for those meddling prosecutors.
* In ''VideoGame/SenranKagura'', this ends up being a huge part of Homura's backstory. When she was in eighth grade, she was attacked by her tutor, who turned out to be an evil shinobi sent to kill her. She almost killed him, partly out of self-defense and partly due to his [[EtTuBrute betraying her trust]]. This locks her out of the path towards becoming a good shinobi due to the fact that committing a crime before admission to a shinobi school is automatic disqualification. Her parents abandoned her because of that.

* In a strip of ''Webcomic/OzyAndMillie'', their regular JerkJock bully, Jeremy, [[ keeps pushing Millie into a pool of mud]], [[ knocking her over every time she tries to get up]]. Finally, she snaps and socks him in the face... at which point [[ a teacher immediately spots her]], and hauls her into the principal's office for starting a fight. (The injustice inherent in the school system is a frequently visited theme). What makes this even worse, the same teacher, upon being questioned by Millie's mom, pretty much admitted [[ she saw the whole thing]] and only punished Millie because [[TheLopsidedArmOfTheLaw it was easier than dealing with the REAL bully.]] Quoth Millie's mom: "Did it hurt having your soul extracted?"
* ''Webcomic/GirlGenius'' made a running gag early in its run about everyone being mad at Gil for killing doctor Beetle (by [[PlayingTennisWithTheBoss batting his own bomb back at him]]), and Gil defending himself by saying, "He threw a bomb at me!"
* In ''{{Webcomic/Muertitos}}'', the school has a zero tolerance policy. After a girl bully attacks him, Honeo is suspended because instead of lying limp, he flailed around and ''could'' have hit someone, but the bully got off scot free because [[ScrewTheRulesIHaveMoney her dad is rich]] and regularly makes donations to the school. You can see the strip [[ here]].
* In ''Webcomic/LeftoverSoup'' Jamie was mugged and shot but he grabbed the guy's gun and pistol-whipped him with it then called the police. But because the mugger was technically a minor (albeit a lot larger than the scrawny Jamie) the police took his side when he pressed charges for assault, and the only fingerprints on the (stolen) gun were Jamie's, and the press painted it as a hate crime because the supposedly beaten 17-year old was black. Jamie only got off because his accuser OD'd on PCP and killed himself.
** And it's later revealed that the mugger had stolen the ID showing him as a minor, to use as a cover identity. And he later murdered the original owner (the 17-year old) and planted the PCP to cover his tracks. Jamie is not happy to know that the police let this guy walk.
* In ''Webcomic/{{Selkie}}'' the title character is assaulted at school and suspended for fighting when she kicked the bully in self defense. The bully, on the other hand, wasn't punished, due to the school's principal being entirely cowed by the bully's parents.
* In the arc "Milk" of ''Webcomic/{{SSDD}}'' a junkie tries to rob a store while Norman is there. Norm beats the crap out of the would-be thief, then gets arrested while walking back home. However thanks to the AmoralAttorney his mysterious employer hired and a clever suggestion by one of the cops to keep him out of trouble on Guy Fawkes he gets sentenced to 70 hours community service with The Bonfire Association.