Spy Agencies in Real Life are largely dull bureaucracies that exist to gather vast amounts of minute detail, then sort through it for anything interesting. Ian Fleming and the UsefulNotes/ColdWar as a whole changed all that by creating a vast horde of glamorous secret agents devoted to fighting for Queen and Country (or whatever leadership of whatever nation).

CloakAndDagger groups are those that have no real relationship to existing organizations but exist to conduct this kind of clandestine fun. When portrayed in a negative light, they are often filled with variations on the BadBoss who considers their agents disposable: YouHaveFailedMe and YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness may even be the entire point of the plot for the main character(s).

See FictionalCounterpart for examples of how many groups attempt to skirt around real world Geopolitics. See also SpyFiction. A SubTrope of GovernmentAgencyOfFiction.

Not to be confused with the Creator/MarvelComics characters Comicbook/CloakAndDagger.



[[folder:{{Anime}} & {{Manga}}]]
* The Black Organization in ''Manga/DetectiveConan'' seemed to have this going on, but subverted by some of its members decided to continue having relationships and friendships. [[spoiler:Akemi and Shiho (because they are sisters), Rena and Shuichi, Vermouth and "Ano Kata."]] Others perceive fellow members as tools (Gin).
* The eponymous AbsurdlyPowerfulStudentCouncil of ''Anime/BestStudentCouncil'' is so powerful that it has its own intelligence unit, Covert Squad.
* Of course, England from ''Manga/AxisPowersHetalia'' would be the best spy for the allies.

* ''ComicBook/{{Checkmate}}'' in the DC Universe is part of the greater Department of Metahuman Affairs and has a chess motif.
** ''Motif'' is perhaps not as apt a phrase as ''weird cheesy obsession''. For example, there are ''two'' heads of the agency, the Black King and the White King (not as racist as it sounds ... the White King was for a while, and may still be, Mr. Terrific, who is black). Depending on the writer/time period, this is explained as either a division into ops/intel, or normal/superpowered. (I guess you need a superpowered team to fight superpowered baddies, and you need a normal team to keep an eye on the supers because you're ''paranoid''.)
** Opposing the good guys in this are H.I.V.E and Kobra.
* ''ComicBook/{{SHIELD}}'' is a fictional agency employed by the United Nations (and formerly, the US government) to fight terrorists.
** Also, [[RecycledInSPACE S.W.O.R.D.]] and, briefly, [[Comicbook/DarkReign H.A.M.M.E.R.]], ComicBook/{{Norman Osborn}}'s replacement for S.H.I.E.L.D.
** Britain has [=MI13=], which essentially handles supernatural and superhuman affairs in Great Britain.
*** Opposing the good guys in this is Hydra, Leviathan, Department X/the Red Room, the Secret Empire, AIM, the Sons of the Serpent, and the Hand.
* The Global Peace Agency was one of these for ComicBook/{{OMAC}}. Sort of, it's... complicated.

* ''Film/JamesBond'':
** The SPECTRE organization had a short run in the Ian Fleming novels and was Bond's full-time archenemy in the movies for a while. Effectively, it is the first known example of a Rogue Intelligence agency devoted to its own profit.
** The organization Quantum has filled it and SMERSH's role for the Daniel Craig Bond movies.
** The real-life MI6 is not known to have a "00 Section" made up of specially appointed assassins. In the films not only is it a major part of the organization, it's big enough to have its own section in MI6's headquarters and its own logo (as per ''Film/TheWorldIsNotEnough'').
* ''Film/StarTrekIntoDarkness'': [[spoiler:Section 31, the Federation's clandestine black-ops group, which was first revealed in the TV series ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine''.]].
* ''Film/TrueLies'' had "The Omega Sector" which seemed to be directly inspired by SHIELD up to the point of having Charlton Heston appear in an eye-patch.

* The titular organization of Creator/TimPowers' ''Literature/{{Declare}}'', in which an agent's catechism includes the question, "Would you fight magic with magic?"
* The Bureau, the 'deniable' British intelligence service of the ''Literature/{{Quiller}}'' series by [[Creator/EllestonTrevor Adam Hall]].
* ''Literature/{{Kim}}'' is more realistic, but the "dagger" part shows, especially around Mahbub Ali. He's still annoyed to no end when someone tries to kill him and it's ''not'' [[ItsPersonal personal]].
* In the later Literature/HonorHarrington books, [[ThoseTwoGuys Victor Cachat and Anton Zilwicki]] fill this role, ostensibly on behalf of the Kingdom of Torch. This is somewhat complicated by the fact that officially, Victor Cachat is an agent of the Republic of Haven, and Anton Zilwicki is an agent of the Star Kingdom of Manticore, two nations which are actually at war with each other [[spoiler: Until ''Mission of Honor'']]. They tend to team up to go after their nations' [[EnemyMine mutual enemies]], primarily the Mesan Alignment. Their respective governments rarely ''sanction'' these efforts, and at worst are occasionally frustrated to learn they have no idea just what their agents are up to, but they are [[AscendedFanon more than happy to reap the benefits]].
* Literature/TheCulture series novel ''Literature/TheHydrogenSonata'' is a cloak and dagger espionage thriller fought by SufficientlyAdvancedAlien [[DeusEstMachina AI starships]] over a secret left behind by even more [[SufficientlyAdvancedAlien Sufficiently Advanced Aliens]].
* Literature/TheNexusSeries: Imagine a cold war based around mind-hacking instead of nukes and you're halfway there.
* The titular ''Literature/RedRoom'' organization is a branch of an AncientConspiracy devoted to covering up the supernatural. Unlike most such groups, they act like a glamorous movie espionage organization with advanced magically-enhanced technology. [[spoiler: This is implied to help divert agents from thinking too hard about the immoral nature of their work.]]

* ''Series/{{Airwolf}}'' had The Firm, although it was an obvious stand-in for the {{CIA}}.
* ''Series/{{Alias}}'' had SD-6 and an ever increasing number of strange terrorist organizations arrayed against it.
* Control from ''Series/GetSmart'' is an example as is its opponent ''Kaos.''
* ''Series/LaFemmeNikita'' was characterized around an organization known as Section One.
* ''Series/TheManFromUncle'' is another example.
* Section 31, the Tal-Shiar and the Obsidian Order are the cloak and dagger organizations of the Federation, Romulans and Cardassian. One episode of ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'', however, shows Bashir and Garak (The first is British, the second is an actual spy) stuck in a James Bond style holo-program. When Bashir says that he is under cover as a rich playboy, Garak says that he joined the wrong intelligence agency. Mostly played straight otherwise, though Section 31 serves more to raise the question of whether it is okay to betray your principles in order to preserve it than anything else. Starfleet Intelligence (the actual, openly admitted intelligence agency of the Federation) slides into this on the few occasions they get involved with the captains' missions.
* The Good Guy agencies on ''{{Series/Chuck}}'' are nominally the CIA and the NSA, though they bear little resemblance to their real-world counterparts. The Bad Guy organizations, Fulcrum and the Ring, seem largely made up of rogue espionage agents.
* The Canadian series ''Series/{{Adderly}}'' never did make quite clear whether "ISI", International Security and Intelligence, was a US, Canadian, or bifederal agency.
* In the 2010 ''{{Series/Nikita}}'', the government agency Nikita used to work for is called Division.
* The organization of burned spies in ''Series/BurnNotice''.
* The Agency filled this role for ''Series/ScarecrowAndMrsKing''.

* ''TabletopGame/ForgottenRealms'', due to [[GambitPileup the nature of this setting]], has a lot of secret and semi-secret organizations ranging from information brokers to assaassin guilds to HeroSecretService groups. The most important ones made it into a {{sourcebook}} quite appropriately named ''[[http://index.rpg.net/display-entry.phtml?mainid=8492 Cloak & Dagger.]]''
--> '''Ed Greenwood''': [[http://www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dnd/fr/20010314b But]] there's another sort of secret society that we ''can't'' spotlight in the rules [...] : We ruin its secrecy by talking about it. These small, local, lowdown [[CorruptCorporateExecutive cabals of crooked merchants]] are a vital, ongoing, many-layered (as in "You shouldn't have just one at a time") part of the "home" TabletopGame/ForgottenRealms campaign, and in many, many lively, long-running D&D campaigns set in any world. They're just the thing for [[{{Frameup}} framing]] or hiring [=PCs=] and [[UnwittingPawn plunging them]] throat-deep into unexpected and usually unwanted adventure.
* The ''Eberron'' setting has some of its own. Breland in particular has a couple of them, and then there's the former Karrnathi one, the Emerald Claw ("former" refers to its status as an official government agency; the group itself is still ... I'd say "alive", but "not dead" might be more accurate, given the nature of some of its members). The Breland groups are basically Bond types; the Emerald Claw is more like SPECTRE with real spectres.
* TabletopGame/DeltaGreen had the titular agency as the Renegade branch of the US government that had broken away to fight the Old Ones. Still working for the USA was Majestic-12. Opposing them included the [[ThoseWackyNazis Karotechia]]and numerous other fictional spy agencies.
* The Old World of Darkness had ''Project: Twilight'' which was a supplement detailing real-life government agencies reactions to the supernatural. However, they included the SAD which was a well-funded "X-Files" in the FBI and several secret societies in the NSA.
** The Technocracy is one HUGE example of this.
* The d20 based game ''Spycraft'' existed for no other purpose than CloakAndDagger advernturing.
* ''TabletopGame/AnimaBeyondFantasy'' has, most notably, the Emperor's Hand and Les Jager -described by [[WordOfGod the author]] as a cross between the RealLife Gestapo and SS-.

* ''VideoGame/CityOfHeroes'' has the Malta Group, a international coalition of intelligence agents formed during the Cold War to [[UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar get around their government's unwillingness to conscript superheroes into the intelligence community]].
* [[Franchise/MetalGear FOXHOUND]], anyone?
* [[VideoGame/TeamFortress2 Reliable Excavation Demolition, meet Builders League United.]] Possibly a subversion in that neither group has any real idea what they're fighting for or why they would need a small, color-coded briefcase from the opposing company.
** The name is referenced by the Spy class weapon "Cloak and Dagger"
** The Spy's official class role, as given in the original 2006 gameplay trailer, is "Uncloak and Dagger".
* The agents of ''Franchise/{{Halo}}''[='s=] Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) undertake all sorts of morally shady activities, some of which are kept secret even from UNSC High Command. ONI is also the organization responsible for [[SuperSoldiers creating]] TheHero, Master Chief.
** And ONI is named after a Real Life agency with much more mundane objectives.
* The VCI from ''VideoGame/AlphaProtocol'' seem to work mostly by [[StuffBlowingUp blowing things up]]. The G22 are a wee bit more discreet, but still do more ass-kicking than data-milling. The eponymous organization exists to carry out missions that the United States doesn't want to be officially involved with.
** While G22 and Alpha Protocol have no excuse, the VCI is actually a mercenary organization, not an espionage organization.
* ''VideoGame/DeusEx'' had UNATCO serves as this at the start of the game. [[spoiler:They're actually puppets of TheConspiracy, leading you to defect halfway in.]]
* ''VideoGame/SplinterCell''s and Third Echelon in general serve this role. While technically they're strictly in human intelligence, Fisher nonetheless aggressively pursues information and has, at least once per game, been called on to assassinate a specific person.
* ''Franchise/TheElderScrolls''
** [[UnevenHybrid Bretons]] tend to be extremely talented in pursuits of espionage. Breton [[DoubleAgent double agents]], [[MurderInc assassins]], and [[TheMole spies]] have turned the tide of wars throughout recorded history. It was in fact a Breton assassin who killed the Colovian Petty King Cuchulain leading to the ascension of Cuchulain's General as his replacement. That General's name? ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom Tiber]] [[GodEmperor Septim]]''.
** Mephala is a [[OurGodsAreDifferent Daedric Prince]] whose sphere is "obscured to mortals", but who is associated with [[ManipulativeBastard manipulation, lies, sex, and secrets]]. Given all that is within her sphere, she could be considered the patron deity of spies and assassins. The [[OurElvesAreBetter Dunmer]] consider her as this directly, as she is the patron of the [[MurderInc Morag Tong]].
* In VideoGame/Fallout4 the Railroad adopts this persona, especially the agent known only as “Deacon”. They use dead drops, safe houses, secret signs to provide information about areas, store weapon and supply caches for operatives all over, like to speak covertly and even use a sign and countersign to identify one another, even have their own equivalent of Q to make weapon and clothing mods and generally know a lot about the goings on in the Commonwealth. Ultimately subverted, as they aren’t an intelligence agency, they are actually a people smuggling operation looking to liberate all enslaved synths. Their adversary, the Institute actually has an even better intelligence gathering apparatus due to a long list of paid informants and synth doppelgänger double agents.

* ''Webcomic/SecretAgentMen'' spoofs this type of organization, even calling its two separate sections "Cloak" (for overt, glamourous work) and "Dagger" (covert dangerous work, like special ops).

* In ''Roleplay/TheGamersAlliance'', there are several groups spying on other groups. SAVAGE, Maar Sul's elite military corps, has the Covert Operations Department, the [[TheAlliance Grand Alliance]] has the Blades of Vigilance who are heavily involved in spying on the factions which oppose the Alliance, the [[LegionOfDoom Crimson Coalition]] has the Mullencamp spy network which monitors the Coalition territory and any non-Coalition faction it can gain access to, the [[TheMagocracy Magicracy of Alent]] has [[InternalAffairs Shadowstrike]] which keeps tabs on Alentian criminals but is also involved in internal affairs within the Anti Mage Police. Then there are also underworld organizations which use cloak and dagger methods, most notably the [[ArmyOfThievesAndWhores Union Workers]], the [[AncientConspiracy Order of the Black Rose]] and the [[TheTriadsAndTheTongs Dwarven Triad]].
* Each of ''Roleplay/OpenBlue'''s major nations has one of these.
* In the ''Roleplay/GlobalGuardiansPBEMUniverse'', this is the function of [[AncientConspiracy Tarot's]] Wands Division. One CIA analyst compared the Wands to "the KGB in the good old days of Communism... except the Wands have supervillains."

[[folder: WesternAnimation]]
* In ''WesternAnimation/BatmanTheBraveAndTheBold'', the Global Peace Agency was basically SHIELD.
* In ''WesternAnimation/{{Archer}}'', ISIS is a freelance spy agency that does contracted work for the government. Their rival organization is ODIN, who does the same for the KGB.

* SMERSH (Smyert Shpionam {Смерть шпионам}, "Death to Spies")was a Real Life agency. It was a subsection of the then-NKVD during UsefulNotes/WorldWarTwo, whose existence was devoted to halting espionage within the USSR. The organization was disbanded -- officially, that is -- shortly after the end of the war, but Ian Fleming appropriated it and used is as what amounts to a terrorist organization funded by the KGB.
* Real Life spy agencies often have little in common with their depictions in media, in small part because of ignorance but also because real life spy-work is rarely so glamorous. Some fun facts that have been ignored by the media are:
** The real-life portfolio of the U.S. National Security Agency is signals intelligence and cryptanalysis (codebreaking). That hasn't stopped screenwriters and others from depicting "NSA agents" engaging in espionage fieldwork which in reality would be handled by personnel of the CIA, FBI, or various military intelligence agencies.
*** Examples: "Jinx" Johnson (Creator/HalleBerry) in ''Film/DieAnotherDay'', Xander "Triple-X" Cage (Creator/VinDiesel) in ''xXx'', and John Casey (Creator/AdamBaldwin) on ''{{Series/Chuck}}''; none of whom seem to be information analysts as their primary role (Cage and Casey are specifically recruited as adaptive enforcers, while Jinx is a straight-out assassin of similar stature to Film/JamesBond).
** The KGB in real life are often called "Dzherzhinsky Square", after the street where the headquarters are located (which in turn is named after the first head of its predecessor, the Cheka). (Lubyanka is a prison). They are also generally depicted as having the same power and nightmarish disregard for life as the real life NKVD, their predecessor in the Stalin era.
** [=MI6=] is actually an agency called SIS, with James Bond as the most JustForFun/{{egregious}} producer of this inaccuracy. It hasn't been called that since UsefulNotes/WorldWarTwo, well before Ian Fleming served. The agency now has to use the title in its recruitment advert. Still, no apparent hard feelings as SIS has allowed its real-life headquarters building to be featured in the Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig films as the home of MI6 and its 00 Section.
** Contrary to popular belief, Canada ''does'' have its own intelligence agency, called C-SIS (Canadian Special Intelligence Service). As with most Canadian agencies, it doesn't get much publicity[[note]]Except ''bad'' publicity, like leaving an unsecured laptop full of classified information in a phone booth in Toronto, an incident that either had Canadians shaking their heads at the bad portrayal of their intelligence service, or saying "We have an intelligence service?"[[/note]]. The girl at the end of ''Film/QuantumOfSolace'' is the only one that comes to mind.
*** A Season 4 episode of Stargate Atlantis went to great lengths to point out how "stupid" a name C-SIS was for an intelligence agency ("That's the best you could do?"), but this is also completely in check with the rest of the tongue-in-cheek Canadian bashing on the show (most of the cast and crew is Canadian, and the entire franchise is filmed in Vancouver).