[[quoteright:225:[[Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Bread_and_Circuses_3673.png]]]]
[[caption-width-right:225:[[LampshadeHanging They aren't usually this honest about it...]]]]

->Already long ago, from when we sold our vote to no man, the People have abdicated our duties; for the People who once upon a time handed out military command, high civil office, legions -- everything, now restrains itself and anxiously hopes for just two things: bread and circuses.
-->-- '''Creator/{{Juvenal}}''', ''Satire 10.7781''

[[{{Dystopia}} Evil governments]] are allowed to be evil because they appeal to the needs and desires of the general populace.

The workers all get paid, everyone has enough to eat, and TheTrainsRunOnTime. And it's not a LotusEaterMachine or an especially efficient PropagandaMachine; the stuff is real. As a consequence, as long as the people are contented, who's going to care about petty things like restrictions of basic freedom, environmental destruction, WMD research, or random abductions...

... right?

The trope name (Latin: ''Panem et Circenses'') comes from Roman poet Juvenal's metaphor for people voluntarily (or democratically) giving up civic responsibility for a reasonably stable status quo (the 'circus' in question being an arena for spectator sports like races and GladiatorGames). When the people are well-fed and having fun, they will be too contented or lazy to protest against those in charge (they may even start to thank, adore, and praise those in charge), turning them into GullibleLemmings and ApatheticCitizens who will leave the Powers That Be free to do as they please. These societies tend to be run by {{Totalitarian Utilitarian}}s and/or {{Corrupt Corporate Executive}}s, but bread and circuses can exist in whatever form of government, even in democracies and "utopias."

It's not like the leaders are running a LotusEaterMachine or simply [[PropagandaMachine covering up the destitute]], either. For examples to qualify, both the food and the fun have to be real. Where they come from or what they cover up will be the thing TheHero sets out to expose.

This situation also sets up conflict for a hero who sees the evil of those in power, because as far as the neighbors are concerned, the hero is simply a rebel or a troublemaker out to ruin their (relatively) happy life -- or worse, submerge them in fire and brimstone. Too much focus on the contentment of the people may also lessen audience sympathy for the hero; sometimes, this is even the correct thing, because the hero really will [[InferredHolocaust cause more trouble]] [[NiceJobBreakingItHero than he fixes]].

There are three primary reasons for this conflict:
* '''Those in charge pacify the people by making sure they are comfortable'''.
** The villains at the top realize the dangers of a ZeroPercentApprovalRating and attempt to "buy over" the people in the most effective way possible: by improving their quality of life. The LowestCommonDenominator is willing to cling to this promise at all cost.
* '''The government ensures a stable, if not always comfortable, status quo'''.
** Simply put, there is peace in a sense and there is enough food to keep everyone alive. [[AnarchyIsChaos If the government is toppled, mayhem will ensue]] and nobody wants that, even if things may eventually become better -- and [[FullCircleRevolution there's no guarantee that they actually will.]]
* '''BetterTheDevilYouKnow than the Devil you don't'''.
** Sure, the people in charge are bad enough, but look at all the others lurking out there -- at home and abroad -- waiting for the chance to take over -- or worse, [[TheRevolutionWillNotBeCivilized stage a civil war]] over [[MeetTheNewBoss who gets to grab the reins]] of the EvilPowerVacuum, with attendant cross-fire. NO THANKS.

If TheHero is forming LaResistance or fighting in it, he regards the first as manipulation, and the second and third as simply wrong. If, on the other hand, he is not trying to bring down the government and this issue comes up, often enough he offers these reasons himself. Indeed, this trope may slide indetectibly into ReasonableAuthorityFigure, as the repressive measures are deployed against real threats -- particularly if HobbesWasRight.

Another conflict that may ensue from Bread and Circuses is the blurring of the distinctions between {{Dystopia}} and {{Utopia}}. After all, one author's utopian SugarBowl is another author's dystopian Bread and Circuses CrapsaccharineWorld.

The nastier, more blatantly dystopian sorts provide BloodSport and GladiatorGames - or, God forbid, PublicExecution, for the amusement, while the general population, of course, ''knows'' this, but doesn't care. After all, either [[MoralMyopia the savages who participate in such things probably can't appreciate true civilization anyway]] or [[UsefulNotes/VictimBlaming they probably deserved it for ''some'' reason, one way or another]]. A more benevolent ruler might arrange TheTournament and even participate in it.

This trope is always present in a CrapsaccharineWorld. Can overlap with StrawmanNewsMedia and NetworkDecay.

This is related to the Marxist concept of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominant_ideology Dominant Ideology]], whereby the lower classes are kept in place by disseminating the idea that that's their "natural" lot in life and there's no sense fighting it.



%% The Trope namer is the only exception to No Real Life Examples Please. %%
* The TropeNamer was AncientRome, where the poor would receive free wheat and have gladiatorial shows staged for them to keep them happy. Although it's often said that "the Emperor" handed out the bread (or wheat) to placate his subjects, the practice predates the foundation of the Empire by ''centuries'' and the food was rarely if ever actually handed out by the Emperor in person. (The emperor, however, ''did'' incur the cost of the entertainment, or at least his treasury did -- and since the state funds and the Emperor's personal expenses both came out of said treasury, the distinction is essentially academic.) Depicted in ''Film/{{Gladiator}}'' (see above).
** It's worth noting that it [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphitheatre_of_Pompeii occasionnally]] backfired, sometimes [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nika_riots spectacularly]].

[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* Kira's rule in ''Manga/DeathNote'' could possibly count. Sure, Light's methods are questionable, but war has stopped, petty crime is mostly nonexistent, and for everyday, law abiding citizens, life is much safer.
** Alternatively, [[UnreliableExpositor all the news is good because everyone is scared of dying.]] It's telling that of Light's two opponents in the 2nd half of the series, one is working with the mob and there is no indication they're a dying breed.
* ''Manga/OnePiece''
** The World Government is a perfect example of the second type, with a little bit of the first and third thrown in as well. They're a corrupt, evil force, but they manage to keep the world in [[IncrediblyLamePun one piece]]; not to mention that the common man sees the World Government as benevolent protectors, and pirates as savage thieves.
** Oda is pretty good about maintaining GrayAndGreyMorality for the most part. While the Nobles we've been shown ''are'' a corrupt and decadent bunch, the existence of more... ''noble'' individuals has not been outright denied. The Marines -- especially those of higher rank -- as a whole are relatively decent officers who stick to MyCountryRightOrWrong, with nastier ones being {{Punch Clock Villain}}s, and there have been quite a number of monsters among the Pirates, who are supposed to be the 'good' guys.
** Wealth and Corrida Colliseum is essentially the way Doflamingo is ruling his Dressrosa Kingdom, having turned that once simple people into an egotistical bunch. [[spoiler:They also completly ignore that their country generate immense incomes slave labour and arms trafficking, while dissidents are simply made into puppets and erased from other people's memories.]] As someone says, Dressrosa under Doflamingo's rule divides the people into submissive winners and rebellious losers, which isn't too far from how the World Government works.
* ''Anime/ErgoProxy'' has the remnants of humanity living in what is essentially a bubble, and there is a prominent advertisement and voice which encourages them to shop.
* As of the Edolas arc of ''Manga/FairyTail'' we have a city for this. While most of the parallel world is quite literally crumbling, the king has taken all the magic used by the rest of the world that keep things going in order to make the capital city into a magical wonderland/amusement park. That magic was created by him from [[PoweredByAForsakenChild absorbing the essence of people from the normal world]].
* The modus operandi within ''Anime/PuellaMagiMadokaMagica'' and its spinoffs. We have Kyubey, a ManipulativeBastard with curious intents, and his so-called "workers", or the Puella Magi[=/=]MagicalGirl. On one hand, the girls can get anything they want with a simple wish. In return, they have to fight [[EldritchAbomination Witches]]. On the other hand, this fighting [[spoiler:puts them in danger of them [[OurMonstersAreDifferent becoming Witches]] they feared and their personality [[SanitySlippage having a drastic retake on reality]].]] Most of the anime revolves around ''why'' Madoka wants to become a MagicalGirl, so characters involved with the FaustianRebellion trope take this trope perfectly straight. [[spoiler:To hammer home just how essential the system is, the finale only fixes it by ''rewriting reality'' courtesy of a OneInAMillionChance.]]
* In ''Anime/SamuraiSeven'', once he makes himself emperor, Ukiyo gives out free rations of rice to the peasants in the capital as part of his scheme to become an all-powerful VillainWithGoodPublicity. The way it works is that he tells the peasants in the provinces that he's on their side and helps them defend against the bandits, so they like him; at the same time, he sends the bandits to crush the peasants and take their rice, so they like him; that rice is then given out to people in the capital, who like him too.
* The Earth Sphere, and, probably, Venus and Jupiter (of which we just know too little) are basically this in ''Manga/{{Gunnm}}''. Populations of the Orbital habitats, Moon cities, and probably even [[MarketBasedTitle Salem/Typhares]] are certainly well-off, functionally immortal and generally content, happily ignoring the fact that it comes from ruthless exploitation of downtrodden populations of Earth and Mars (and their own underclass, whose existence is generally hushed), involuntary MindControl and general fascistic attitude of LADDER council, as far as they are fed and still get the [[TournamentArc Z.O.T.T.]] [[BloodSport and motorball]] to watch. [[BigBad Aga]] [[EvilChancellor Mbadi]] certainly has no trobles into [[TheManBehindTheMan getting anyone he wishes]] elected as a [[UnwittingPawn Ladder Chairman]].
* Earthlings in ''Anime/CaptainHarlock'' are so caught up in this that even politicians watch horse-races while on the job.
* The situation in [[spoiler: the Synchro Dimension]] in ''Anime/YuGiOhArcV''. 1% of the population (the Tops) control 99% of the wealth, while everyone else (the Commons) live in squalor. The Commons are kept down through a combination of the [[StateSec Sector Security]] and the promise of the Friendship Cup, where the winner can become a Top. Images of the latest winner, [[spoiler: [[Anime/YuGiOh5Ds Jack Atlas]]]], are plastered all over the the slums. The Tops are desensitized to the plight of the Commons in part by police chases being shown live on TV.
* In ''Anime/PsychoPass'': The Sibyl System uses holograms, virtual worlds, psychiatric medications, high-paying jobs, {{UsefulNotes/Kawaisa}} Drones, and anything so that the masses' Psycho-Passes would be reduced. If that does not work, then they would use either rehabilitation (which seems to be pretty comfortable as the rehabilitated were allowed to keep their cherished possessions in life) or enforcement.

* Doctor Doom generally runs Latveria quite well, and the people know it. How well [[DependingOnTheAuthor varies from story to story]], but many portray his continued use of this trope as more like treating his subjects like pets than actual humans.
* ComicBook/LexLuthor of ''Franchise/{{Superman}}'' fame is known to do a great deal for the city Metropolis and the country in general. Of course, he is trying to covertly rule the planet and attempts to kill the world's greatest hero out of sheer pettiness every weekend, but everyone's gotta have a hobby.
* The [[{{Megacorp}} Plex]] from ''Comicbook/AmericanFlagg'' maintains control through a diet of drugs, sex and violence, the last of which happens to be televised.
* ''ComicBook/TheTransformersLastStandOfTheWreckers'': Overlord is what happens when a PersonOfMassDestruction doesn't get his fix of this. [[AxCrazy It's]] [[DangerousDeserter not]] [[BloodSport pretty]]. [[spoiler:It's all a ploy that he hopes will goad Megatron into [[BloodKnight fighting him]].]]
* One of the many issues with the dystopian future seen in ''ComicBook/SixGunGorilla'' is that the government and corporations have people hooked on VR rigs where they can watch [[DeathSeeker suicidal people]]'s experiences in the civil war going on in the Blister. At the start of issue 4, an angry mob even disperses the moment they hear that Blue-3425 is broadcasting again. [[spoiler:It backfires when the people get so caught up in Blue's "story" that they're all watching when Blue [[EngineeredPublicConfession blows the whistle]] on [[WarForFunAndProfit their scheme to keep the war going]].]]
* ''ComicBook/TheTriganEmpire'' was a FantasyCounterpartCulture for Ancient Rome, so naturally had this trope. The hero [[OurFounder Trigo]] is overthrown by his niece. [[GodSaveUsFromTheQueen She's not very popular]], so puts on this trope to keep the people happy. Unfortunately to pay for the expense she cuts military spending and removes the forces guarding the frontier, so barbarian tribes end up taking the Empire. Unlike the real-life Rome, our hero takes it back.
* ''ComicBook/SonicTheHedgehog'' has Breezie use the line "Panem et circenses" verbatim to explain why she's running a fighting tournament with a Chaos Emerald as the prize.

* By the conclusion of Act II of the ''[[FanFic/TheEquestriaChronicles Legends of Equestria]]'' continuity, this is the sort of state that Princess Celestia has set up, using the Pegasi's weather control to ensure an uninterrupted food supply, and using [[spoiler:her cutie mark spell]] to ensure everyone lives the life that will make them most happy. This allows her to get away with consolidating all authority to govern into her office, and setting up an extensive police and intelligence network.
* Implied from a throwaway line from some alien in ''Fanfic/CalvinAndHobbesTheSeries'', though the citizens are apparently aware of it and inexplicably comply.
--> "I heard that the dictator was planning to give us all free merchandise for our moderate behavior!"
* [[ManipulativeBastard Mercury]] of the ''Literature/InheritanceCycle'' fanfic [[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/9998018/1/Phoenix-fire Phoenix-fire]] openly admits to doing the first one, and even [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] how much he can get away with simply because he keeps them fed and entertained, while cultivating a glimmer of hope for their kids' future. It helps that he is also a [[MagnificentBastard Magnificent Bastard]] that [[spoiler:controls and manipulates the actions of [[LaResistance La Résistance]] pretty much from the get-go]], so that even their [[spoiler:''victories'']] are all [[spoiler:[[AllAccordingToPlan part of]] [[ThanatosGambit the plan]].]]
* This trope is actually referenced as the sole reason the Demon Empire is so powerful in ''FanFic/SonicXDarkChaos'', despite its corruption and despotism. As long as worlds follow Demon law and (publicly) worship Maledict, they are showered with wealth and riches from across the universe. Even slaves are kept pacified through this trope, and this trope is explicitly referenced as the primary deterrent against slave rebellions.
** In a similar vein to ''Warhammer 40000'', the grim darkness of the setting is mostly large scale and there are worlds that are untouched by war, Sonic's planet among them.

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* ''Film/OsmosisJones'', has Mayor Phlegmming, who, being up for re-election, mostly spends his time buying the loyalty of the citizens of Frank through this trope. Since Frank is an actual living person and his methods mostly revolve around having Frank eat junk food, this has some negative consequences. The citizens are aware of the issue and worried about Frank's health (i.e. their future), but aren't willing to make the kind of sacrifices that living a healthy lifestyle would require. This comes to a head when he secretly uses the voice override to stop Frank from seeing a doctor about an illness, instead deciding to just take a cold pill and plan to go to his chicken-wing FanConvention as planned. (Cue cheers from the Love Handle District.)
* ''WesternAnimation/WallE'' plays with this: the people on the ''Axiom'' have been living in luxury for so long, they've actually gotten bored with it. At the same time, generations of complacency, consumerism, and being pampered by robots has almost completely removed the will and knowledge needed for them to fix things, at least until WALL-E himself shows up and [[SpannerInTheWorks accidentally disrupts the status quo]].
* In ''WesternAnimation/TheLEGOMovie'', everything in Bricksburg runs on this. It's most obvious when Emmet seems disturbed by President Business offhandedly mentioning people who oppose him "being put to sleep", then laughs at a clip of [[ShowWithinAShow "Where Are My Pants?"]] and forgets what the President was talking about.

[[folder:Films -- Live Action]]
* Non-totalitarian example: ''Film/BatmanReturns'' has [[CorruptCorporateExecutive influential, crooked plutocrat]] Max Shreck tossing Christmas presents to a Gotham City crowd during a tree-lighting ceremony. (As two other characters soon discover, Shreck is secretly planning to siphon electrical power from the city and sell it back to consumers.)
* This was quite literally depicted in ''Film/{{Gladiator}}'' when spectating commoners at a gladiator match are given loaves of bread. (TruthInTelevision: Roman citizens were given free bread at the Colosseum.) Senator Gracchus goes so far as to comment on how clever this strategy is:
-->'''Senator Gracchus:''' I think [Emperor Commodus] knows what Rome is; Rome is the mob. Conjure magic for them and they'll be distracted. Take away their freedom, and still they'll roar. The beating heart of Rome is not the marble of the Senate, it's the sand of the Colosseum. He'll bring them death...and they will love him for it.
* In the film ''Film/PansLabyrinth'', the Spanish fascist government of Franco is shown issuing bread rations to the starving peasants who remain loyal to the regime. It should be noted this was pretty much dead on accurate; to help deal with the fairly popular Republicans, and to a lesser extent the communists, Franco's government used food rations as a way to gain public support.
** The main purpose of the rationing was to ensure that every family got exactly as much food as they needed, and not one bit more, so that they couldn't covertly provide aid to the partisans. This is explicitly mentioned in the movie.
* In Peter Watkin's ''Privilege'', set in the "near future", the British government uses a Pop star's immense popularity to keep their youth "happy, off the streets... and out of politics."
* In ''Film/{{Rollerball}}'', the giant corporations ruling the world of the future distract the masses with the violent spectator sport "rollerball." Although, it turns out this trope is actually only a side benefit. The ''real'' purpose of the game is to demonstrate the futility of individualism.
* As in the short story it's based on, the society of ''Film/TheRunningMan'' revolves around the population being kept docile and distracted through lots of gaudy, violent entertainment, including the titular show.
* It's implied that various incarnations of The Game Grids in the ''{{Film/Tron}}'' universe are both good ways to dispose of malware, malcontents, and other troublemakers as well as give the citizen Programs some entertainment. Played straighter in the films and ''WesternAnimation/TronUprising'', but treated with more complexity in the ''Betrayal'' comic, ''VideoGame/TronEvolution'', and ''VideoGame/TronTwoPointOh''. In the former two, Flynn banned lethal matches, making them harmless fun. (Clu, naturally, reinstated the lethal part) In ''VideoGame/TronTwoPointOh'', Jet is sent there as an alternative death sentence, but he's treated relatively well, even by the guards. Mercury, the Game Grid champion, is considered a star athlete, not a condemned crook.

* Aldous Huxley's ''Literature/BraveNewWorld'' gives us an interesting example of a dystopia that manages to be surprisingly nice. As long as you're upper-caste (Alpha and Beta, at least), life is orgies and drink and drugs and parties; the lower-caste (Delta and Epsilon) are conditioned to be content both with their workload and with their life in general (and their free time is also orgies, drinks, drugs, and parties). It's never quite made clear what the Gammas are, but as you can see, it doesn't make very much difference. Even dissidents are treated relatively humanely; they are given a sincere-sounding apology that the conditioning meant to ensure their happiness with their lot in life didn't take, and the choice between joining the ruling caste (since no one that mindlessly happy could rule) or an exile colony of other dissidents.
* ''Literature/PrisonersOfPower'' by the Creator/StrugatskyBrothers combines all three on one level or another.
* [[Literature/{{Discworld}} The Patrician]] runs Ankh-Morpork well, so most of his people don't question all the shady activities involved in the running. [[spoiler:Except the mimes.]] [[VetinariJobSecurity So far he's been reinstated after every deposition.]] Although he has been described as Machiavellian, unlike the page quote, he does not fortify himself through being loved (in fact, most either dislike or are indifferent to him), but by being ''necessary'', and better than any alternative.
** In ''Discworld/InterestingTimes'', some middle-class revolutionaries try to overthrow the Agathean Empire in the name of the workers. Rincewind asks them if they've checked what the workers would prefer to happen. (They haven't.)
** In ''Discworld/{{Mort}}'', an evil Duke is plotting to murder a royal family to become king. A quick glimpse into a possible future reveals that he actually would have ruled ''extremely'' well.
* Inverted in ''[[Literature/NineteenEightyFour 1984]]'', where the public is kept in check by poverty instead of luxury. This serves two purposes; firstly, that the lower classes will theoretically be kept too stupid to rebel, and secondly, since luxury is relative, it's much cheaper to keep the upper classes well off by the society's standards. The government also runs a lottery, which effectively serves this exact purpose. Played straight in that the government produces trashy entertainment to keep the working class in check, including a rigged lottery, poorly-made pornography, and a selection of trashy tabloids which print nothing but crime, sports, and horoscopes.
* Bartimaeus mentions this in ''Literature/TheBartimaeusTrilogy'' about the magician governments.
* In ''Literature/LockwoodAndCo'' another series from the author of the Bartimaeus books, Creator/JonathanStroud, this is used almost word-to-word by the head of one of the major ghost-hunting agencies while explaining the rationale for throwing a huge festival in the middle of one of the worst ghost crises ever.
* ''Literature/LogansRun''.
* This trope is more or less how the Imperial Order stays together in the ''Literature/SwordOfTruth'' series, complete with BloodSport.
* Phyllis Eisenstein's ''In the Red Lord's Reach'' was very much the third case. The Red Lord kept up crack military troops to protect people from the (largely propaganda based) enemies champing at the gates, while claiming single individuals to horrifically, sadistically torture to death.
* Averted in Hector Bywater's ''Literature/TheGreatPacificWar''. It looks like prime Bread And Circuses territory, but instead, to quell the revolts, instead of lulling the populace into luxury, the politicans distract them with jingoist speeches against America's interference in Chinese land that should be rightfully subject to Japan.
* The Studio in ''Literature/TheActsOfCaine'' is a company that funds the most extreme live action role playing games ever by sending highly trained "Actors" over to an alternate universe populated with creatures like dragons and elves, making them have Adventures, and selling the recorded memories. In Overworld (the alternate universe in question), they are known to the locals as Aktiri, a kind of human-resembling demon that brings wanton slaughter, and Earth is known by some Overworld religions as the True Hell. This is because the actors do all the stuff fantasy heroes do - [[DesignatedHero looting tombs, murdering people, exacting genocide on unpopular species, starting wars, etc.]] [[BloodSport The Adventures]] sold by the Studio are [[HumansAreTheRealMonsters the best-selling entertainment in human history]] and keep people from questioning a global feudal government that operates on a ruthless corporate caste system and keeps nine out of ten people in near wage slavery. [[CrapsackWorld It's one of those stories.]]
* How the old Republic of Haven became the ''[[PeoplesRepublicOfTyranny People's]]'' Republic of Haven in the ''Literature/HonorHarrington'' stories. The Republic guaranteed its population a "Basic Living Stipend" and most of them went onto the Dole, causing a collapse in the Haven economy, which they tried to fix by conquering their neighbours, and looting their economies, and putting their people on the Dole, which meant they had to conquer more of their neighbours...
* Creator/RayBradbury's ''Literature/{{Fahrenheit 451}}''. Most people ''like'' the mindless entertainment.
** It is in fact explicitly mentioned that there was no totalitarian regime imposing the censorship for control purposes. Instead, it was the people themselves who slowly began to demand from the government the destruction of literature.
* The government of the country of [[MeaningfulName Panem]] (from "panem et circenses", see above) in ''Literature/TheHungerGames'' keeps the people appeased (or at least those in the Capitol) with the titular DeadlyGame where youths from the subjugated "districts" are forced to kill each other until [[ThereCanOnlyBeOne only one is left]]. The games are meant to distract the Capitol's citizens from the suffering of the districts (who provide their resources), who in turn are ForcedToWatch them as a display of the Capitol's power. In ''Mockingjay'', the third book, a character directly quotes the phrase. And just to throw a little of Type 3, [[spoiler:the final half of ''Mockingjay'' reveals that, if victorious, District 13 would have also implemented games of their own, using children from the Capitol. Fortunately this never came to fruition after Katniss assassinates President Coin -- as Katniss herself narrates at the epilogue, 20 years later, the Hunger Games have since been treated as a shame, and all its arenas have been destroyed, replaced with memorials to the fallen youths]].
* In L. Jagi Lamplighter's ''[[Literature/ProsperosDaughter Prospero In Hell]]'', Ulysses [[DemocracyIsBad objects to democracy]] because it's bound to lead to this.
* In ''{{Literature/Malevil}}'', the BigBad Fulbert averts this at his own peril. The people of La Roque are on strict rations, DeniedFoodAsPunishment, and they're bored from a lack of entertainment or even semi-productive ''work''. The villagers of La Roque do nothing but suffer his abuse, hide inside trying to avoid his ire, and grumble about him. He would be overthrown in a heartbeat if he didn't hoard all the food and weapons in a fortified manor early on.
* In ''Literature/{{Matched}}'', everyone in the towns of the Society are satisfied with the lack of choice they have in their lives. and are unaware that there is a war going on in the outskirts of the country.
* In ''Literature/ASongOfIceAndFire'', Daenerys Targaryen says to Ser Jorah Mormont that her brother Viserys told her that the smallfolk make dragon banners in secret and pray that he will one day return to the throne. Mormont responds that the smallfolk pray for rain, healthy children and a summer that never ends, and they don't care about the game of thrones, so long as they are left alone ([[CrapsackWorld and they never are]]).
** Played straighter in Westeros.
--->'''Pycelle''': It gives the young a chance at glory and the common folk a respite from their woes.
--->'''Littlefinger''': And puts coin in many a pocket.
* In Stephen King's ''Literature/TheRunningMan'' society is portrayed as being intensely fixated on live television for entertainment, which deludes themselves towards the ever looming environmental crisis. Even when Ben Richards attempts to warn the public about it they censor him on air. Alongside this citizens are encouraged to report Richards if they see him in person to get a large sum of money.
* The Telosian people in ''Day Of Reckoning'', part of ''Literature/JediApprentice'', protested the high taxes being levied to protect and restore the sacred places on the world. A local corporation had the taxes nixed and instead set up something called Katharsis, in which people compete in various ways in specially made arenas, fighting or racing or going through obstacle courses. Competitors get injured or maimed every day, and sometimes criminals are executed in the arena. The population - and tourists - gleefully bet on competitors and enter into grand prize lotteries; most of the money went to the corporation and to restoring the sacred parks, but a winning spectator could become very wealthy. [[spoiler: Turns out [[BigBad Xanatos]] is running the whole thing and is [[VillainWithGoodPublicity adored for it]]. While people are distracted by Katharsis, he's having their sacred places strip mined with the very money they're betting with. All of the competitions are staged, with competitors throwing whatever they did, and people who win big are prechosen.]]
* In ''Literature/ThoseThatWake'''s sequel, New York is like this, changed from the straight-up dystopia of the first book. People live for excess, technology, and quick pleasure, which the government is happy to provide.
* In ''Literature/SteelHeart'', the titular [[DifferentlyPoweredIndividual Epic]] rules Chicago (now Newcago) with a fist of steel. Ordinary non-powered citizens go about their days in muted terror, just trying to scrape by. A character points out that although Newcago isn't a great place to live by any means, it at least provides a rare example of stability in a [[DividedStatesOfAmerica country broken apart]] by constant fighting between Epics. Only a very small resistance group tries to fight the Epics. Most other people just try to keep their heads down and go about their business.
* According to Creator/KarlMarx, this is how capitalist economies work. He famously defined the ideology of a given society as stemming from the base (capital) and the super-structure (owners of capital) built on top of it, with the ideology ensuring that StatusQuoIsGod. This ideology can include anything and everything from appeals to religion, imagined past glory, military adventurism, racist hostility to immigrants and others stealing your jobs and women and when all else fails, ConspicuousConsumption, all of which to ensure that [[WeAreStrugglingTogether the working class are divided from uniting for their common interests]].
* In ''Literature/{{Victoria}}'', the decaying future America in the years before the collapse is portrayed this way. As long as the food stamps continue to flow and TV keeps running, the ApatheticCitizens remain somnolent. When the government runs out of borrowed money to pay for the show, however, chaos ensues.

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* In ''Series/DoctorWho'''s ''Vengeance on Varos'', Varos has a populace in a bread-and-circuses mode. The poor governor, a ReasonableAuthorityFigure, is trying to make them endure sacrifices that are absolutely necessary to get the prices they must have, and they don't want to. The situation is so bad that when we see him sentencing to death an innocent and heroic man, to amuse the populace a little longer, we sympathize with him. And at the end, when the governor has succeeded and is announcing it, the people are shown as dazed and uncomprehending and even frightened at the prospect.
* The fifth episode of ''Series/HellOnWheels'' is also titled "Bread and Circuses" as this trope is both invoked as the main plot, and then the Latin is quoted and it is discussed.
* An episode of ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'' is actually '''titled''' "Bread and Circuses." Unsurprisingly, it took place on a PlanetOfHats whose hat was being AncientRome.
* ''Series/GameOfThrones'':
** No feudal house practices and demonstrates its effectiveness better than the Tyrells. Their home, the Reach, is a fertile region in Westeros famous for being the center of chivalry and romance. This fertility allows them a lot of food and money to throw around on extravagances for their people to keep them happy and satisfied. Margaery Tyrell, prospective and future Queen, wins the hearts and minds of her subjects by personally bringing food to war orphans. Her grandmother Olenna Tyrell outright tells Tyrion and Tywin Lannister that people need distractions like a royal wedding in the middle of wartime to turn their attention from the problems of starvation and poor governance.
** This is also one of the arguments in favour of Daenerys reopening the fighting pits, which is fitting for an {{Expy}} of Roman GladiatorGames. She reluctantly does so.
* In the ''[[Recap/BlackMirrorFifteenMillionMerits 15 Million Merits]]'' episode of ''Series/BlackMirror'', the people are distracted from their dreary existence by an array of reality shows, including an American Idol knockoff dubbed "Hot Shots" that's the focus of much of the plot. In fact, citizens must watch commercials for these programs or they are fined monetarily.
* In ''Series/Supergirl2015'', Kara said that the reason why Daxam was considered a pleasure planet was that the citizens were kept fat and happy so that the aristocracy could get away with various injustices, slavery and racism being a few.

* In Music/TheProtomen's "Act II", Dr. Wily rebuilds the city into a place where the peoples' every need is tended to by robots, and they're safe from the mechanical 'monster' that roams the outskirts of the city. The people seem to feel that this is a small price to pay for the constant propaganda blaring throughout the metropolis, and the implication of certain freedoms being withheld. In fact, Joe seems to be the only one who realizes something is wrong with the whole setup, and when he tries to escape, crowds of people on the street beg him not to 'turn his back on the city'.
* The song "Panem et Circenses" by Music/{{Ihsahn}} deals with this phenomenon.
* Hinted at in Music/OingoBoingo's "Nothing to Fear":
--> If they don't turn you into a junkie or a zombie on the street\\
If they don't turn you into a yo-cat or a grinning Jesus freak\\
If they don't take away your brains or turn your body inside-out\\
'''If they don't take away your passion with a color TV set'''\\
Then they'll take away your heart and soul...
* "[[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin The Circus]]" by Project Pitchfork:
--> We consume, we consume, we go to work and then we sleep\\
We buy and then we eat, when we oppose they shut us up\\
Make it stop, make it stop before the clowns will eat themselves\\
We gotta leave the circus cause we want to see the world
* "WorkingClassHero" by Music/JohnLennon:
--> Keep you doped with religion and sex and TV\\
And you think you're so clever and classless and free\\
But you're still fucking peasants as far as I can see
* "Luna Park" by Music/PetShopBoys subverts this trope; the people are aware that the titular amusement park [[note]] a metaphor for the United States, according to WordOfGod [[/note]] is merely a distraction, but they would rather indulge in it than confront the horrors of the world outside:
--> And when we're feeling scared, we're happy\\
With circuses and bread, we're happy\\
The whirling fair machines are all we need
** The trope is also name-dropped in "The Sound of the Atom Splitting."

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* This is some of the Dreaming Dark's M.O. in ''TabletopGame/{{Eberron}}'' -- peace through kidnapping potential rebels and happy propaganda-filled dreams for everyone!
* In ''TabletopGame/DarkSun'', all of the Sorcerer-Kings run the risk of a ZeroPercentApprovalRating, since they're overt wizards in a setting where all wizards are hated and their magic kills the environment. They distract their subjects with lavish gladiatorial games, which are so popular that the people keep running them after one Sorcerer-King is overthrown.
* The Imperium from ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'' may be violent, discriminatory, oppressive and full of incompetent governors, but nearly every other option manages to be even worse.
** Interestingly it's mentioned in the novels that Forgeworlds got sparetime locations for the menials and despite being the lowest level in the working force they are considered free men (whatever that means in the Imperium...), the same with your average imperial world, you will find pubs, casinos, TV channels with not too dogmatic series, and food cheap enough to allow the most modest person to survive the day.
** And don't even start talking of the Ultramarines domains, it seems they are so happy their positive emotions can be seen as a bright constellation in the warp.
** There are as many ways to rule worlds in the Imperium as there are worlds themselves, so some are well-governed almost-utopia's while others are the GrimDark that we've come to associate with ''40K''.
*** The Grimdark-ness of the Imperium is largely on a galactic scale. It's outright stated that many planets are not too dissimilar to our own. Only Hive Worlds and Forge Worlds really feel the oppression, and feral worlds (due to their feudal system) However while individual worlds might experience times of prosperity and happiness, the Imperium as a whole is very pragmatic. However all it takes is one heresy to ruin all that...
** It's speculated that this is how the Ethereals keep the various Tau Castes in line, by enforcing their own status quo of "good times" upon the others. All Tau know that if the Ethereals were to go extinct, their entire empire can devolve into civil war, as that's exactly what happened before the Ethereals came. Recent evidence suggest that the Ethereals might be controlling them through pheromones or latent psychic abilities however, so they might not be the saviours they appear to be.
** Dark Eldar society in Commorragh. Since they use agony and pain to rejuvenate themselves, gladiatorial matches manage to be both bread ''and'' circuses at the same time. In fact, it's probably the only thing keeping the poor non-pirating Dark Eldars alive.
* [[TabletopGame/{{Paranoia}} Alpha Complex]] may be a CrapsackWorld, but at least everyone pretty much always has (crappy) food and entertainment.
* The ''TabletopGame/{{Champions}}'' universe has MultiversalConqueror Istvatha V'han, who being both AffablyEvil and lacking her rivals' ability to assimilate other dimensions into her own, uses this method to consolidate her rule. It's proven quite effective-she isn't called the Empress of a Billion Dimensions for nothing (although that number's actually an exaggeration-it's more like a hundred million).

* ''ComicBook/BeastWarsUprising:'' The story begins with the Builders (the corrupt remnants of both Autobot and Decepticons) forcing Maximals and Predacons to fight in gladiatorial combat. The matches are designed to keep both factions angry toward one another, and just to make things worse, winners can be dragged back into a "Cull", wherein they're killed off to save on what little no-existent energy there is. And just to make things worse, every match is rigged.


[[folder:Video Games]]
* Providing enough bread and circuses for your underlings to keep them from rioting is a staple of ''VideoGame/{{Civilization}}'' series. Sometimes it involves construction of a literal Colosseum.
* In ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphonia'', the heroes have trouble getting help in towns that have made deals with the oppressive Desians -- things may be bad, but at least nobody they know gets taken to the Human Ranches.
* ''VideoGame/CommandAndConquerTiberiumWars'' background reveals that the Brotherhood of Nod have become the last hint of civilization and order in the devastated Yellow Zones of Earth, for the people living there (about 80% of the human population) they are seen as the good guys, those who bring infrastructure, food, medicine, security and hope to the masses, also, [[VillainWithGoodPublicity they look really cool]].
* In ''VideoGame/{{Mother 3}}'', the Pig Masks do keep some semblance of peace and order in Tazmily. [[spoiler:They were the ones who made it necessary in the first place.]]
* Later chapters of ''VideoGame/HalfLife2'' reveal that this had, at least partially, happened. A random quote from idling {{NPC}}s sitting around: "Y'know, I kind of miss the Breen show. [[Webcomic/{{Concerned}} Remember that time he had the jugglers on]]?"
* It is heavily implied that the [[MegaCorp Shinra Company]] in ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyVII'' used a "Bread and Circuses"-style policy while President Shinra was in charge (barring the occasional bloody cover-up of the monster breeding program). Then his [[KlingonPromotion son takes over]] and decides to use fear and superior technology instead.
* The [[AllThereInTheManual backstory]] for ''VideoGame/{{Oni}}'' explains that upper- and middle-class life under the World Coalition Government is like this.
* The player can use this trope in ''VideoGame/CyberNations'': building slave labor camps hurts your nation's happiness rating, but you can cancel out that effect by building stadiums and police stations. You can also build intelligence agencies to lessen the happiness penalty that comes with having a high tax rate (this also allows your nation to recruit more secret agents).
* Tolbi in ''VideoGame/GoldenSun''. Sure, Emperor Babi has kidnapped a holy child to force her hometown to build him a lighthouse, and wants to [[ImmortalityImmorality live forever,]] but he also provides an Annual Gladiatorial festival, and the Tolbians are some of the richest people in the world, and support their Emperor to the fullest.
** Tolbi is essentially Rome.
* In the ''VideoGame/{{Caesar}}'' games, you play as a Roman governor and one of your most basic duties is to provide food for your citizens. Entertainment is also required for housing to evolve beyond the most basic levels. A combination of unemployment, hunger, and lack of entertainment can result in riots.
* The ''VideoGame/HeartsOfIron'' series features a CommandAndConquerEconomy for all countries, with different kinds of production controlled via sliders. This comes under the "Consumer Goods" slider - satisfy or exceed demand, and your Dissent rating goes down. Fail to meet demand, and before long you might be facing open revolt or (in the case of some countries) open civil war. Even an extremist dictatorship like UsefulNotes/NaziGermany can have a HundredPercentAdorationRating if production is managed well.
* Following this principle will avert many a tantrum spiral in ''VideoGame/DwarfFortress''. The most basic step is to never let them run out of booze. Giving them nicely furnished rooms, legendary dining rooms with high quality meals to match everyone's preferences, beautiful architecture to walk to their jobs through, will keep them in fantastic moods while their family and pets die in front of them.
* ''VideoGame/DeadRising2'' takes place in the midst of a zombie apocalypse, yet the American population is pacified with a game show based around killing zombies called ''Terror Is Reality'' and zombification inhibitor called Zombrex. [[spoiler: The latter half of the story, plus the story of ''Case West'', reveal that the manufacturers of Zombrex are spreading the zombie apocalypse willfully to keep demand for their medicine up, which results in rising stocks. TK, the host of ''Terror Is Reality'', was in on the conspiracy.]]
* ''VideoGame/RomeTotalWar'' of course, fits the trope as (among other factors) public order depends on the frequency of gladiatorial games and races, and tax rates.
* In ''VideoGame/SecretOfMana'', the protagonists eventually get [[HumanCannonball shot]] into [[TheEmpire Empire lands]]. A GenreSavvy player might be expecting to land in a CrapsackWorld only to find calm mellow music, green pastures, and a mix of ordinary citizens and resistance fighters moving about in a quiet country town. Even the empire soldiers, while strict, appear to be genuinely helpful to the populace. Eventually it's implied that there is peace and happy citizens in all empire towns.
* ''VideoGame/ExitPath'' has an arena where the crowds will cheer if you die and if you don't.
* The Azadi Empire in ''VideoGame/DreamfallTheLongestJourney'' aren't entirely liked by the people they now rule, but most people don't want to speak up specifically ''because'' the Azadi empire supplies them with paying jobs, food, and a roof over their heads.
* In Telltale's Back to the Future adventure game series, Marty's grandfather said that's all Hill Valley's science expo he was in charge of was. This confused Trixie Trotter, who hadn't seen any clowns anywhere.
* ''VideoGame/JadeEmpire'' begins in an apparently peaceful time for the titular Empire, with the horrors of the Long Drought long past thanks to the Emperor. However, this is due to the Emperor [[spoiler:mutilating the Water Dragon and using its still-living body to provide the needed water]].
* In ''VideoGame/CenturionDefenderOfRome'' taxes affect the mood of your people, and the citizens of Rome get rebellious if they don't get frequent GladiatorGames.
* This is what [[spoiler: Lucifer Lansfeld]] is up to in ''VideoGame/StarOceanTillTheEndOfTime''. [[spoiler: The Eternal Sphere is how he keeps the 4D denizens--[[OddJobGods what we know as gods]]--nicely distracted from how unfulfilling their ''very'' circumscribed lives are. [[WhatMeasureIsANonHuman And he couldn't care less if the Eternal Sphere entities attain sapience,]] since their suffering still serves his goals.]]
* Japhet, one of the guardians in ''Videogame/{{OFF}}'', tried to keep all his zone's inhabitants happy with an amusement park, a library and other such things. He failed to take into account just how damn paranoid, and fearful they could be, however, and thus his efforts were rejected. [[spoiler: [[FallenHero He doesn't take this well]] ''[[AxeCrazy in the least]]'']].
* Akin to the ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyVII'' example above, in ''VideoGame/MegaManZX'', Serpent is the head of the Slither Inc., which gives the city the power source and protection from outer harm (namely Mavericks), which gives him [[VillainWithGoodPublicity a good PR]]. Beneath all that, though, [[spoiler: he actually staged all those Maverick outbreaks by his minions, and he's also planning to dig up the ArtifactOfDoom Model W for his personal power.]]
* Keeping your people both happy and well-fed is one of the core gameplay in ''VideoGame/{{Tropico}}''. Granted, that you're running a BananaRepublic, so you have to invoke this trope to [[CrapsaccharineWorld distract your people from your oppressive regime]] and prevents them from rebelling.
** Lampshaded in ''Tropico 5'', when you activate the "Double Ration" edict.
* Vabbi/Elona under the rule of Palawa Joko in ''VideoGame/GuildWars2''. The citizens live in beautiful cities where their every whim is catered to by [[{{Mummy}} Awakened]] servants, so most don't really care that any dissent leads to death, exile, or AFateWorseThanDeath, or that they all are resurrected to serve as eternal, undead slaves after they die. Some of this is also just due to generations of brainwashing into Joko's personality cult.

[[folder: Web Animation]]
* In ''WebAnimation/LuckyDayForever'', there's a Great Lottery in place. The Proles worked for the Whites to get money for said Lottery. If they win, they get to become a White.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* In ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'', Celia [[http://www.giantitp.com/comics/oots0619.html invokes]] the second reason for why Haley shouldn't kill the head of the thieves guild: the SuccessionCrisis would harm people, and give the MOB a chance to get into the city.
** The Empire of Blood also applies this trope. This being ''Order of the Stick'', [[http://www.giantitp.com/comics/oots0741.html it naturally gets lampshaded]]. Now the trope page image.
* In ''Webcomic/GirlGenius'', one of the Baron's soldiers [[http://www.girlgeniusonline.com/comic.php?date=20090116 asks another whether the Baron sent soldiers to a street party]]. He had, in fact, sent barrels of booze. Besides the good will, those drunk on that would make no trouble.
** [[http://www.girlgeniusonline.com/comic.php?date=20090225 Later]], Gil defends him on Bread and Circuses grounds.
* ''Webcomic/DomainTnemrot''. The title stadium is one of these. The people who can afford anything are all entertained with these, or compete with their slaves, and the slaves themselves are generally better off than the horrid scavenging we see at the beginning.
* In ''Webcomic/{{Endstone}}'', [[http://endstone.net/2009/09/15/issue-2-page-14/ how Primrose justifies the slaughter of higher animals]].
* In ''Webcomic/{{Sinfest}}'',
** [[http://www.sinfest.net/archive_page.php?comicID=2882 Satan tells Jesus he was right about bread alone -- it's bread and circuses.]]
** [[http://www.sinfest.net/archive_page.php?comicID=3735 deployed by the devil to ward off restlessness.]]
* In ''Webcomic/ABrokenWinter'' both Ibara and Terasu employ some variant of this trope. Terasu focuses on the bread aspect, making sure everyone is comfortable and provided for, even as they ban base pleasures such alcohol and [[BuryYourGays homosexuality]]. Ibara focuses on the circus aspect, allowing liberal hedonism at the cost of a stable social order. They both achieve their purpose, however.

[[folder: Web Originals]]
* Deconstructed and parodied by [[http://www.theonion.com/articles/48-syrian-civilians-massacred-during-claire-danes,29666/ this]] [[Website/TheOnion Onion]] article describing a massacre of 48 civilians in Syria during the Emmy awards with the headline "48 Syrian Civilians Massacred During Claire Danes' Emmy Award Acceptance Speech"
--> "At press time, government soldiers were throwing the bloodied corpses of the civilians into a large mass grave as Lena Dunham was anxiously waiting to hear if Girls would win the Emmy for Outstanding Comedy Series."
* In the world of ''Literature/AvalonsReign'', the Purger philosophy holds that this is happening. Purgers are a subculture that eschews mind-altering chemicals because they see them as a way for the corporations to keep people pacified. Whether they're correct or just paranoid (or both) is yet to be seen.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}''. The robot planet demonizes humans, produces anti-human movies, and go on (normally) fruitless human hunts to distract them from a lugnut shortage and incompetent Robot Elders leadership.
* Mongul's empire in ''WesternAnimation/JusticeLeague'' drew obvious parallels to the Roman Empire. The Martian Manhunter finds out there's mass unemployment and poverty, but people are kept entertained by the [[BloodSport gladiatorial games]].
* In ''WesternAnimation/SonicUnderground'', the series shows how Robotnik can afford to stay in power. The upper-class aristocrats can either provide his funding, or lose their land and privileges and risk roboticization.
* [[DeconstructedTrope Deconstructed]] in ''WesternAnimation/ThunderCats2011''. The {{Catfolk}}-populated [[TheEmpire empire]] of Thundera has the severity of its decay, UrbanSegregation and FantasticRacism underscored by contrasting [[FantasticGhetto the slums]], and the fates of Thundera's prisoners-of-war with the extravagant entertainments and feasts enjoyed by the upper city's deeply complacent BlueBlood. They enjoy lavish banquets and watching BloodSport GladiatorGames in a [[TheThunderdome giant amphitheatre]], which a fêted general singles out as one of "the little things in life [I] miss the most." while slum-dwelling {{Artful Dodger}}s must pick pockets to buy food, and hungry LizardFolk P.O.W.s, [[MadeASlave enslaved]] for the crime of raiding the expansionist Cats' crops, must contend with the most dangerous implications of medieval StockPunishment. Small wonder the Cats fail to see their fall on the horizon...
* Played for laughs:
** The WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Roman Legion Hare," where Centurion guard Sam goes after Bugs as the token Christian to be thrown to the lions in the Coliseum.
** Creator/HannaBarbera's 1972 cartoon ''TheRomanHolidays'' is a dom-com in the days of Bread and Circuses.