->''"I much prefer history, true or feigned, with its varied applicability to the thought and experience of readers. I think that many confuse 'applicability' with 'allegory'; but one resides in the freedom of the reader, and the other resides in the purposed domination of the author."''
-->-- '''Creator/JRRTolkien'''

When it comes to writing thematic stories, there are essentially two methods to go about it: {{allegory}} or applicability. Which method you use will depend on how obvious you want your theme to be.

In an allegory it's the author who supports only one interpretation of the work as canon. Creator/JRRTolkien himself hated formal allegory because the reader was forced to see nothing but the author's point of view on what they considered the theme. In answer to the many allegorical readings of the ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings'' -- which he eventually got tired of getting letters about -- he stated the book was not an allegory, but had ''applicability'' -- the story simply happened to be comparable and applicable to many RealLife issues.

Applicability encourages the reader to interpret what the theme of any given work is. Sometimes a reader's interpretation of the meaning of the story is very different from authorial intent. {{Anvilicious}} works with high applicability can see alternate interpretations on part of the audience. Put another way, applicable works support multiple interpretations, only some of which are those that the author specifically intended. Applicability can give a fictional work different interpretations even on different readings, and is one reason AlternateCharacterInterpretation and WildMassGuessing are such active topics in fandoms.

Compare LowestCommonDenominator. Contrast with TheWalrusWasPaul, where the audience tries to find meaning in a work when in fact the work isn't ''supposed'' to have a hidden meaning -- the author's just messing with them.

Often leads to PeripheryDemographic, MisaimedFandom, {{Shipping}}, BrokenBase, and/or InternetBackdraft. This is the root of many an EpilepticTree. See also EveryoneIsJesusInPurgatory, WhatDoYouMeanItsNotPolitical, ValuesResonance.
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!!Examples:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Anime and Manga ]]

* In ''Anime/RevolutionaryGirlUtena'', there are a lot of feminist themes revolving around the character of Anthy, but due to the fact that she is dark-skinned, westerners (particularly Americans) may see racial themes there as well.
* In ''Manga/FullMetalAlchemist'', the Amestrian [[FinalSolution war of genocide]] against the Ishbalan minority is so widely applicable that nobody can seem to agree on which real-life conflict it's supposed to be referencing. Is it [[ANaziByAnyOtherName Nazis]] vs. Jews? [[TheWarOnTerror The West vs. the Islamic world]]? [[WordOfGod Arakawa]] herself said that the Ishbalans were partly inspired by the Ainu, an indigenous ethnic group who suffered persecution and cultural genocide in Japan.
* ''Anime/PuellaMagiMadokaMagica'' has been object of academic analysis, like in this essay: ''[[http://labsome.rmit.edu.au/files/simongoughthesis.pdf Remember Madoka: Trangressing the Magical Girl]]''.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Comic Books ]]

* ''Comicbook/{{Watchmen}}''. Seriously, go to [[Headscratchers/{{Watchmen}} the Headscratchers page for it]], and you'll see people who see Rorschach as the only heroic character, people who see Rorschach as the ''least'' sympathetic of all the characters, people who argue over exactly how long [[spoiler:Ozymandias's]] peace will last (and whether or not he was justified), people disgusted by Dr Manhattan's revelation over [[spoiler:the Comedian and Sally Jupiter getting together after he attempted to rape her]], [[LongList and]] people who see that moment as a CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming. Alan Moore has officially stated that he was very much aiming for this, and compared his vision for the book to a diamond with many different facets, where any reader can look through any of the facets that they choose and still get a completely consistent and coherent view of the story and all the events in it.
* Anti-mutant prejudice in ''ComicBook/{{X-Men}}'' can stand in for a metaphor for any number of RealLife prejudices. Fans have tended to take this very literally and argue about what the "originally meaning" and how it has changed. WordOfGod has confirmed, upon occasion, that individual writers have used it for a specific metaphorical purpose (GrantMorrison has said that he used his run to comment to the {{Demonization}} of young people. Not even this squares completely with his comics, but it makes a lot more sense if you [[DracoInLeatherPants sympathize way too much with Quentin Quire]]). But that does not mean that every writer has used it as a metaphor, or has used it for the same one every time.
** That it has been so readily used as allegory for such diverging issues as racial tensions, LGBT, McCarthyism, the Cold War, and generational conflict is proof enough of this.
*** Interestingly, the movie series takes it at face-value: normal [[ApocalypseHow humans are terrified of going extinct]], and the prospect of actually siring the species that will replace us is unthinkable, thus the fear and hatred. The series is less concerned with modern social issues and more an action-clad treatise on how society will react once {{Transhumanism}} becomes a reality.

[[/folder]]

[[folder:Films -- Animated]]
* Invoked by co-director Phil Lord for ''WesternAnimation/TheLEGOMovie''. "My dream is to have terrible undergraduate term papers written about the movie."
* ''Disney/{{Frozen}}'' contains the song "Let it go," which is about the joy and relief of no longer hiding a secret about yourself. This is open to interpretations including, but not limited to, coming out of the closet.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* ''Film/{{Prometheus}}'' was ''designed'' for WildMassGuessing. One moment of IdiotBall could mean an hour of theorizing behind why it is so.
* Anything by Creator/DavidLynch.
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[[folder: Literature ]]

* Creator/JRRTolkien kind of coined the word, as seen in the quote at the top. He always denied his Middle-earth works to be an allegory of anything, but said that because they were just so archetypical and universal (literally a lost mythology), their stories and themes could be compared and ''applied'' to many real-life/historical/fictional stories and issues. It's one of the reasons why ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings'' is so difficult to pigeonhole and figure out what the theme is -- he didn't put [[{{Anvilicious}} any obvious one]] in. This explains why people from a wide spectrum of viewpoints tend to read the same book and yet get widely different interpretations of the theme of the book. This lack of an obvious theme also makes it hard for some readers to get into the books because they expect the books [[{{Anvilicious}} to clearly show what theme it is]].
** In later editions of the book, Tolkien specifically goes into detail about the incorrect notion of his book being an allegory of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, which was probably a comparison he was tired of. He argued that if his book were based on UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, Saruman would've gone into Mordor during the chaos and found out the knowledge needed to make his own Ring of Power. The War of Ring would end up being a war with EvilVersusEvil with Hobbits being destroyed in the process.
*** It even goes a bit further, as he stated in the foreword of the book, most of the things people tie to WWII were written before the war even started. Meaning that either he's was a prophet or (more likely) people are projecting their own ideas in the works.
** The …owyn subplot can remind western readers of the story of UsefulNotes/JoanOfArc. To Chinese readers …owyn's story can easily be seen as a version of the story of Hua Mulan.
** In a letter, a fan asked Tolkien if the flying steeds of the NazgŻl (large naked, leather-winged birdlike monsters ) were pterodactyls. His reply was that if that's what the reader ''thought they were'', it could be a valid interpretation of the text.
** The infamous debate about the Balrog's wings is the result of this. The text itself about the balrog was vague (it can be interpreted to mean the Balrog ''had'' wings, or it can be interpreted to mean the Balrog's shadow ''made it look like it had wings''). but it has been fiercely debated whether or not the Balrog has wings.
** On the cast commentary for the ''Lord of the Rings'' movies, Sir Creator/IanMcKellen makes tacit reference to the "innocent physical affection" displayed by Sam towards Frodo in the book and the rather famous [[HoYay modern interpretation]] of it. Bean and Wood also comment on a specific scene, mentioning a fan who wrote in to thank them for including a nod to this rather than avoiding it.
* Miguel de Cervantes originally wrote ''Literature/DonQuixote'' as a spoof of KnightErrant tales, but its hero was interpreted as idealism personified for many readers. Annoyed, Cervantes wrote a sequel to hammer home the point [[MisaimedFandom the readers apparently missed]]. Much to his shock, the second half of was considered more brilliant and well received. Different ages have tended to read different things into the novel. When first published, it was usually interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution it was popular in part due to its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting -- not comic at all. In the 19th century it was seen as a social commentary, and the Russian's interpretation of Literature/DonQuixote has shadows of the MessiahCreep, but no one could easily tell "whose side Cervantes was on."
** Literary critic Harold Bloom's wrote in his article,[[http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/dec/13/classics.miguelcervantes ''The Knight in the Mirror'':]] ''"The aesthetic wonder is ... when we stand back from the huge book and ponder its shape and endless range of meaning. No critic's account of Cervantes's masterpiece agrees with, or even resembles, any other critic's impressions. Don Quixote is a mirror held up not to nature, but to the reader. How can this bashed and mocked knight errant be, as he is, a universal paradigm?"'' That means that every reader will interpret Literature/DonQuixote on his own way, and all of those interpretations will be valid. It also means that none of them could be valid, because every readerís impression ''of himself is reflected by the novel''.
** This was parodied by Creator/JorgeLuisBorges in "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote." The story is about a man who attempts to write a novel ''identical'' to Literature/DonQuixote, from a modern perspective.
* ''Literature/TheWonderfulWizardOfOz'' is a case of confusing applicability with allegory. The connection between ''The Wonderful Wizard of Oz'' and the then-contemporary American political landscape was not even raised until 1963, when summer school teacher Henry Littlefield, while trying to teach the 1896 Presidential election and the turn-of-the-century Populist movement to bored history students, stumbled upon the idea of using the characters and events of ''The Wizard of Oz'' as metaphors to teach the concepts. He and his students made a number of connections - the Scarecrow represented the farmers, the Tin Woodman the factory workers, the Wizard was President UsefulNotes/GroverCleveland or Republican presidential candidate UsefulNotes/WilliamMcKinley, the Cowardly Lion was Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, the silver shoes were the silver standard, the yellow brick road the gold standard, and so on - and Littlefield eventually wrote an article, "The Wizard of Oz: A Parable on Populism," which was published in the magazine American Quarterly in 1964. You can read this article [[http://www.amphigory.com/oz.htm here]]. Unfortunately, this was eventually taken as Baum wrote his book as an allegory of the political landscape at the turn of the century despite the fact Littlefield believed Baum had no political agenda when he wrote the book.
* Umberto Eco is a major pioneer in this technique. ''Literature/TheNameOfTheRose'' itself is about this; the detective character is constantly trying to interpret the clues in their proper contexts. There are so many ways to read the book that like the symbolic rose, the conflicting interpretations make it practically meaningless. All the interpretations any reader gets are all valid. The same holds true for ''Literature/FoucaultsPendulum''. In one of his essays, Eco wrote that even giving a work of fiction a name is to determine the reader's interpretation of it too much.
* [[http://www.salon.com/books/feature/1999/12/06/borges/index.html This essay]], which argues that Argentinian author Creator/JorgeLuisBorges's biggest influence was the internet, which was invented four years after he died.
* ''Literature/FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'' has a huge number of different interpretations as to what Creator/HunterSThompson was trying to say with it, whether it's supposed to be a comedy, whether it's supposed to be serious, political, or just an exaggeration of things Thompson actually did. The reality is that they are ''all'' right, as the whole point of Gonzo journalism is to allow the reader to be put in the same frame of mind as the author, whatever the author was thinking at the time, which in the case of Thompson, a man who was politically astute, had a great sense of humor, and was known for being over the top, you get a book much like him: something equal parts genius, lunatic, and poet.
* [[http://www.cracked.com/article_18787_6-books-everyone-including-your-english-teacher-got-wrong.html This article]] from Website/{{Cracked}} lists several books whose main theme was interpreted in a completely different manner than expected.
* Several books have been written on the subject of ''Literature/HarryPotter'' symbolism, to the point where there is now a greater body of work devoted to explaining ''Harry Potter'' than there is ''Harry Potter'' to explain. Whether Harry goes on a Grail Quest, sacrifices himself as a Christ figure, purifies his soul with alchemy, or re-enacts a mythological journey to the Underworld, there's probably a book explaining it somewhere.
* So... [[UpToEleven is there anything]] ''Literature/MobyDick'' ''doesn't'' represent? We at least know the [[Creator/DaveBarry whale is the Republic of Ireland.]]
* GuyGavrielKay commented that from South Korea to Poland to Quebec people have been praising him for basing the plot of ''{{Literature/Tigana}}'' on their national history. For reference, he based it on Renaissance-era Italy. His writing philosophy is that history-inspired fantasy, among other things, lets a story have more of a universal appeal than mundane historical fiction would.
* Creator/RoaldDahl's ''Literature/CharlieAndTheChocolateFactory'' has enough of this going on that Lucy Mangan's MilestoneCelebration retrospective ''Inside Charlie's Chocolate Factory'' devotes two sidebars to examining the Marxist and Freudian interpretations (albeit with tongue planted firmly in cheek!).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* ''Series/TheBigBangTheory'' is a show that runs with nerd stereotypes but does so in such a way that they don't all fall into the exact same character mold. As a result a lot of people are able to find themselves in the characters despite being on the extreme end of "smart people." Sheldon's rampant ScheduleFanatic and SuperOCD behavior lead A LOT of people to assume he has UsefulNotes/AspergerSyndrome. Leonard is timid and a pushover while trying to stay a NiceGuy. Howard is a CasanovaWannabe who has a hard time understanding why women aren't falling for [[ExtravertedNerd his excitable energy]]. Raj is painfully shy around women to the point [[ShrinkingViolet he can't even speak in their presence]]. And Penny, the only non-nerd/non-genius of the cast, is easily overwhelmed by the nerd topics and science talk and often ends up the odd man out. It's covering this wide spectrum of personalities that lead many reviewers to speculate this is the reason behind the show's success.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Music ]]

* The Music/{{Eagles}}'s song "Hotel California" has several interpretations due to the way the lyrics were written. Don Henley called it "our interpretation of the high life in Los Angeles" and later reiterated "it's basically a song about the dark underbelly of the American dream and about excess in America, which is something we knew a lot about." Still it's interpreted as an allegory of cocaine addiction, Satanism, or a mental hospital.
* During Music/TheBeatles era, Music/PaulMcCartney wrote a song in support of the American CivilRightsMovement. He changed it from "Black Girl" to "Black Bird" in the spirit of this trope -- in his words, "so you could apply it to your own problems."
* Music/{{U2}}'s music is known for its wide range of interpretations, be it religious or secular, universal or personal, literary or pop-cultural.
* Music/ImagineDragons has produced several songs that encouraged multiple theories about their meanings. To quote the frontman:
-->'''Dan Reynolds:''' I always like to leave art and music open to interpretation.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Theatre ]]

* ''Theatre/TheCrucible'' by Arthur Miller. At the time it was staged during the witch hunts of [[TheFifties the 1950s]], Miller strenuously denied ''The Crucible'' was written as an allegory concerning the activities of Senator Joseph [=McCarthy=], who became notorious for his excessive zeal in rooting out Communist sympathizers. When the play, ''Theatre/TheCrucible'', was staged in China in the early 1980s, people had just recovered from the turmoil of the "CulturalRevolution" (1966-76). During that time, {{Mao|Zedong}} had a policy of stamping out all that he deemed old and useless, like Taoism. In the play, they found the similarities between the events of the Cultural Revolution and ''The Crucible''. This explained why the play received such a warm welcome at that time. The play was certainly a reaction to and commentary on the activities of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, but Miller deals with it as a series of broad, timeless themes, rather than as a direct allegory for any particular series of events. Very little can be read as directly symbolic of any contemporary events; rather, the content is archetypal in nature.
* Creator/WilliamShakespeare is a wonderful case for this. All of his plays have been subject to multiple interpretations throughout history and even argued over today on ThisVeryWiki. There's so little in the way of clear stage directions, or of the Bard's own writings, to be sure of what he thought of anything. For examples:
** Does Theatre/{{Hamlet}} [[ItsNotYouItsMyEnemies really love Ophelia at all]] or [[AllLoveIsUnrequited does he just barely tolerate her]] -- and what's the deal with Hamlet himself? Why can't he get his act together -- [[CrouchingMoronHiddenBadass or his is act]] ''[[ObfuscatingStupidity always]]'' together?
** [[Theatre/TheTamingOfTheShrew Should a man break an unruly wife like a horse, or is it a]] StealthParody that leaves the two main characters ready to live as real partners?
** [[Theatre/TheMerchantOfVenice And]] ''[[AlternateCharacterInterpretation what about Shylock?]]''
** Is ''Theatre/TitusAndronicus'' supposed to be his darkest, most disturbing work, or is it a DeadBabyComedy that mocks over the top morbidity in theater?
** Shakespeare's works also lend themselves to ''adding'' allegories to make for an interesting adaptation. The Creator/IanMcKellen [[Film/RichardIII 1995 film version]] of ''Theatre/RichardIII'' reinterprets the play as a [[ANaziByAnyOtherName Nazi]] allegory, ''Theatre/WestSideStory'' uses the plot of ''Theatre/RomeoAndJuliet'' to address racially-driven gang violence in UsefulNotes/NewYorkCity, and many modern versions of ''Theatre/{{Othello}}'' put more focus Othello's status as a racial minority in a MalignedMixedMarriage.
* Creator/BertoltBrecht, every single play, explicitly so. Especially the songs. To illustrate: the song "Music/PirateJenny" from ''Theatre/TheThreepennyOpera'' has been used as a sociopolitical allegory by Nina Simone, Music/BobDylan, Creator/AlanMoore, [[Film/{{Dogville}} Lars von Trier]], [[Webcomic/CatAndGirl Dorothy Gambell]] and something called "Anarchy Comics". And Brecht would have probably approved of ''all'' of the above. Maybe not for their individual message, but for the fact that he inspired later authors to think for themselves and appropriate his texts in their own social contexts, which is exactly what he wrote them for. He also applied this to all literature ''before'' him, though, stealing poems and plays left and right because he considered ''everything'' applicable and "common commodity". After being found out, he casually said he couldn't be bothered to spend time thinking about intellectual property when he had art to do, and besides, he expected (and wanted) people to do the same with ''his'' work.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Video Games ]]

* ''VideoGame/TheLegendOfZeldaMajorasMask''. Is the game an adventure or a mystery? The one that you take into it (or out of it) will directly have an effect how much you enjoy the experience.
* ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBros'', especially ''Brawl''.
** It's either a fighting game which stars as many Creator/{{Nintendo}} characters as possible (and a few 3rd-party guests), or it's one of the most interactive and wacky cartoons of all time.
** Alternatively, it's the story of a boy growing up and having to put his toys away.
* Nintendo called ''VideoGame/MetroidPrime'' a first-person adventure to specifically break up the "Is it a first person shooter, or an adventure game done in first person?" arguments that surrounded its launch. The exact same thing was done with ''VideoGame/{{Geist}}'', another game that can be interpreted as a First Person Shooter or an adventure game done in first person.
* [[spoiler:Naoto]] in ''VideoGame/{{Persona 4}}'' is intended to be seen as someone struggling [[spoiler:in a male dominated work environment]], but many Western fans see [[spoiler:her]] to be a {{Transsexual}}.
* [[spoiler:Chihiro Fujisaki]] from ''VisualNovel/DanganRonpa'' tends to be seen by Western fans as {{transsexual}}, but [[spoiler:his backstory is intended to address the issues of bullying and strict enforcement of gender roles in Japan, since Chihiro was ruthlessly bullied for his frail and unmanly physique and crossdresses to avoid the ridicule]].
* ''VideoGame/YumeNikki'' is a game built around this. Is it an [[AmbiguousSituation ambiguous]] character study? An {{allegory}} for Japan's [[{{Hikikomori}} social problems]]? A simple WideOpenSandbox [[MST3KMantra that isn't supposed to be analyzed deeply]]? [[WordOfGod Kikiyama's official website]] suggests [[spoiler:the latter]], but its lack of plot and [[RuleOfSymbolism abundant symbolism]] [[DeathOfTheAuthor makes fans think otherwise]].

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Western Animation ]]

* ''WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender'' much like ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings'', has many historical inspirations without ever falling into a straight allegory of any particular event.
* ''WesternAnimation/AdventureTime'' has loads of this. Many of the plots and characters are ambiguous enough that multiple interpretations can be made. Bubblegum and Marceline's relationship can be viewed as two former lovers who had a nasty break up or as two friends who had a falling out. "All The Little People" can be viewed as an affectionate jab at {{Shipping}}, a parody of the creative process, or a metaphor for puberty all at the same time. A lot of things about the show just depend on the viewers personal interpretation.

[[/folder]]

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