->"''Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit.''" [[note]]Greece the captive took her savage captor captive.[[/note]]
-->-- '''Horace''' describing Rome's mass copypasta of almost everything Greek.

A sister trope to {{Mayincatec}}, {{Spexico}}, FarEast and {{Scotireland}}, a tendency for writers to overlap the Greek and Roman civilizations and confuse aspects of the two Classical civilizations, ''e.g.'' Roman numerals in an otherwise Greek setting, Greek gods in Rome, and vice versa, ''et cetera''.
No relation to {{Oxbridge}}; that one is a commonly accepted overlap.

Though due in part to research failure, the Romans themselves are not blameless; they were heavily influenced by the Greeks (Classical Greeks from their GloryDays, that is; contemporary modern Greeks were regarded more as petty {{Butt Monkey}}s). One of the most blatant examples is Myth/ClassicalMythology. Other examples can be found in politics, science, the hyper-realistic statues, ''et cetera''.

Some Roman authors had a habit of inserting Greek quotations into their works. At the time, Greece was seen as the source of culture, philosophy, science and learning in general, and Greek was seen as a symbol of cultivation and intelligence (and no doubt the Romans also thought it was downright awesome) hence why science, mathematics, philosophy and the like have a massively bad tendency to do this, reinforcing the idea that [[SmartPeopleKnowLatin intellectuals, scientists, mathematicians and such know both Latin and Greek]]. Romans of the late Republic and early Imperial era tended to use quite a lot of Greek in their speech (to the point where the letters Y and Z, not ordinarily used in Latin, had to be appended to the alphabet due to their frequent use in Greek loanwords), and Caesar is said to have quoted a Greek play in Greek when crossing the Rubicon.

The Romans would also continue placing plays in Athens or other Greek cities, to avoid slandering the state, but leave everything else Roman-like. The epics of Creator/{{Homer}} inspired the Literature/TheAeneid of Virgil (even though it was actually an attempt to connect Rome's distant past with Greece's enemies, by making Romans the descendants of Trojans), and authors such as Seneca the Younger wrote using Greek styles. The Roman Emperor UsefulNotes/{{Nero}} visited Greece in 66 AD, and performed at the Ancient Olympic Games, despite the rules against non-Greek participation. Also, due to massive Greek colonization (mainly before the rise of Rome), part of southern Italy was known as ''Magna Græcia'' (''Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás'') -- "Great Greece."

While Latin was the official language in Rome, Greek was the ''Lingua Franca'' of the Eastern Roman Empire[[note]]In the western half of the Empire, the ''lingua franca'' really was (Vulgar) Latin, which, in those countries that were not conquered by Germans or Arabs (and even [[UsefulNotes/{{France}} some]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Spain}} that]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Portugal}} were]]) became the Romance languages and Latin was the language of the military and administration everywhere.[[/note]] The vast majority of the [[Literature/TheBible New Testament]] was originally in Greek as a result, as it was written for a diverse audience living in the Eastern Roman empire. This is also why when the Roman Empire was formally split into its western and eastern halves, the Eastern Roman Empire (what would later come to be known to historians as the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire) had Greek as its official language from 7th century onwards.

It would probably be valuable to note, at this point, that "Ancient Greece" is itself a lesser example of CulturalBlending; see AncientGreece.

When AncientGrome meets language, you get CanisLatinicus.

Has nothing to do with [[OurGnomesAreWeirder Gnomes]] from ancient civilizations, or with the King of the Earth Elementals in the [[Literature/TheElricSaga Elric of Melnibone]] universe.


[[folder: Anime and Manga ]]
* ''VisualNovel/FateStayNight'' uses the Greek names for its ancient Greek characters (this is the usual convention in Japanese), but if the Roman name is more common, every translation, fanmade or official, is likely to change it to that (e.g. the original uses Herakles but the subs say Hercules).
** The actual visual novel's translation, however, [[ShownTheirWork consistently gets it right.]]

[[folder: Comic Books ]]
* Marvel's ''ComicBook/IncredibleHercules'': Two different explanations have been provided in the comics for the use of his Roman name when everything else is drawn from the Greek myths. The first was that Herakles is his real name and Hercules is his "superhero" name, since that name is more familiar to Americans. This was later retconned into his having changed his name to distance himself from his stepmother Hera (since Herakles means "Glory of Hera").
** The Greek god of death is named Pluto in the Franchise/MarvelUniverse, rather than Hades, presumably because the name "Hades" was already given to Mephisto's realm (which is clearly FireAndBrimstoneHell) at a time when the word "Hell" couldn't be used too freely in Creator/MarvelComics.
* [[Franchise/TheDCU DC's]] Amazons: The Golden Age Amazons as created by William Marston had a ton of Roman stuff, including the gods going by their Roman names (Mars, Venus, and Minerva most prominently; hence "Merciful Minerva!"). The Post-Crisis rebooted version stripped out all the Roman stuff (Mars becoming Ares, for example), except for [[WonderWoman Diana's]] Latin name, which was justified as her being named after a female pilot named Diana who crashed on Themyscira in the 20th century. This has also been lampshaded on several occasions, such as when a bunch of Neo-Nazis invade Themyscira and comment that some of the statues look vaguely Roman.
** This is alluded to in the New 52's Earth 2 comics, where the Roman pantheon and myths are real instead of the Greek.
* InUniverse example also from DC, ''[[ComicBook/TheBatmanAdventures Batman: Gotham Adventures]]'' #34 features a storyline in which Maxie Zeus kidnaps a team of Hollywood set designers; inspired by an obvious ''Film/{{Gladiator}}'' Expy film they made, his goal is to have them rebuild Rome.
---> '''Crew Chief:''' [[LampshadeHanging Okay, but why Rome? Aren't you, y'know... a Greek god? I mean, if you were a Roman god, wouldn't you be called Maxie Jupiter?]]
---> ''[[DeathGlare Maxie glares directly at him]]''
---> '''Crew Chief:''' You know what? I'm an idiot. I'm an idiot who doesn't deserve to be in your mighty and, uh, infallible presence so [[ShuttingUpNow I'm going to leave now]].

[[folder: Film ]]
* ''Film/TheMatrix'': The Oracle has a reference to the Oracle of Delphi (Greek) over her door, but it's written in Latin.
* Lampshaded by the protagonist of the Soviet film ''The Pokrovsky Gates'': "My name is Konstantin, which is Classical for "steadfast".
* ''Film/{{Clash of the Titans|2010}}'' shows Greek soldiers in Roman armour and wielding gladiuses.

[[folder: Folklore and Mythology ]]
* A lot of [[Myth/ClassicalMythology mythological Greek characters]] that Rome borrowed are known either by one or the other, even when set the "other" culture. Many of their Roman names are now {{Forgotten Trope}}s. Despite the ''planets of our solar system'' being named after them. Or perhaps because of it; through a OneMarioLimit effect, "Jupiter" and "Mars" have too great a tendency to call the planets to mind for a modern hearer.
** Hercules: Best known by his Latin name, despite being a Greek hero. His Greek name was Herakles, which is sometimes [[SpellMyNameWithAnS written as Heracles in English]], both in works of fiction featuring him such as the ''VideoGame/GloryOfHeracles'' VideoGame series and reference materials related to Greek mythology. If you want to be especially correct, it would be written as Ἡρακλῆς, because it's hard to please everyone when using romanization.
*** Even if the author does the research this can become a TranslationConvention; there are a lot more people who recognize the name "Hercules" than "Heracles," and we don't want to confuse the audience, now do we?
** Zeus: Rarely, if ever, called Jupiter, or Jove.
*** Except in the somewhat archaic phrase "By Jove".
** Athena: Her Roman name is Minerva.
** Ajax is the Latin name for the Greek name Aias. This gets very confusing in ''Literature/TheIliad'' because translators have various ways of referring to the two Aiantes... Ajaces... two people named Ajax.
** Try reading a book of Greek myths that uses only the Roman names? (Greek names were only used in the Greek-to-Roman ''name chart''.)
* Similarly, all the [[Myth/EgyptianMythology Egyptian gods]] are usually called by the Ancient Greek versions of their names, not the actual Egyptian. For instance, the far more popular Greek translation of "Anubis", compared to the original Egyptian name "Anupev".
** There is a very good reason for this. The Egyptian systems of writing (hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic) were rather complex and peculiar--imagine a mishmash of the Japanese writing system (with symbols both for words and for sounds) with Arabic or Hebrew (where when writing with symbols for sounds, you drop vowels right and left) and you have a good approximation. As a result, the Egyptians themselves eventually adopted a variant of the Greek alphabet to write their language (called Coptic in the late stages and today) and forgot how the ancient system worked. Language change was also a factor; Coptic, already quite different from the Egyptian spoken in the days of the native Pharaohs, became very heavily influenced by Greek and adopted certain Hellenized pronunciations, further obscuring the original pronunciations. Finally, the Greeks' massive collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] meant that until hieroglyphics were decoded in the 19th century, there was more written on Egypt and its myths in Greek than in any other language. To make a long story short, Greek names are used for Ancient Egyptian myths (as well as places) because for the longest time we didn't know what the original Egyptian names even were.

[[folder: Literature ]]
* The usual (and somewhat unfortunate) convention in English is to Latinize and not to translitterate Greek names. This does lead into very unfortunate mistranslations and mispronunciations. For ecample, "Cynoscephalae" (ΚυνόςΚεφαλαί) is neigh [[TheUnpronounceable unpronounceable]] for an average English reader, but translitteration, Kinoskefali, ("dogs' heads") renders it immediately readable.
* In the Creator/MaryRenault trilogy about him, the UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat is referred to as "Alexander" (his Roman name), even though the rest of the characters are called by their Greek names rather than their Roman ones e.g. Cassander becomes Kassandros, etc. WordOfGod justified this on the basis that the reader was more familiar with the Roman name, and it helped differentiate Alexander the Great from the two other prominent Alexanders in the novels (who go by "Alexandros").
** Occasionally she used a flat English translation, e.g. "Oxhead" for "Bucephalos" (Alexander's horse), whose name meant, well, "ox-head".
* Ditto many ancient Greek texts. Among scholars of the ancient world, it's more common to hear about "Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Literature/TheRepublic''" than "Plato's Politeía," and more common to hear about "Creator/{{Aristotle}}'s De Anima" than "Aristotle's Perì Psūchês."
** It's also more common to hear about Plato than Platon and Aristotle than Aristoteles.
** "Republic" is a separate issue: it's a word in English, not Latin. It derives from, and sounds a lot like the Latin "Res Publica," two words that idiomatically mean "state" or "commonwealth," but it's really more like calling it Aristotle's Literature/{{Poetics}} rather than Περὶ ποιητικῆς or its Roman alphabet equivalent. "De Anima" is a more straight example, since the words are actual untranslated Latin.
* ''Series/StarTrekNewFrontier'' by Creator/PeterDavid lampshades this by saying that the superpowered Beings used to be ''both'' Greek and Roman gods... as well as Norse, Hindu, Egyptian... and Santa Claus.
** Somewhere, the 4th-century bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor, is throwing up his hands and saying "I don't know, you tell me."
* The sequel to ''Literature/PercyJacksonAndTheOlympians'', ''Literature/TheHeroesOfOlympus'', shoots this trope to hell by making ''very'' clear distinctions between Greek and Roman mythology.
** It even subverts the usual convention of having Ancient Greeks as a united front against foreign intrusions, which was actually a characteristic of the Ancient Romans. In the series, it's explained that most Greek demigods don't get to live for quite long after their graduation from Camp Half-Blood, as their solitary nature makes them easy prey for monsters (reflecting the individual city-states of Greece that cooperated mostly under a TeethClenchedTeamwork in the time of war). In contrast, the Romans, [[ThePowerOfFriendship valuing teamwork and cooperation]], are more well-established and has many of their demigods living to their old age; it's the reason why the Roman Empire managed to conquer so large an area in the time of disjointed barbarians, after all.
** Riordan sometimes takes liberties with this trope, though. Pluto, for example, isn't the Roman counterpart of Hades or even a Roman god at all. He's an obscure Greek god of the riches and the Greek counterpart of Dis Pater, the Roman god of the riches; the original Roman underworld god was named Orcus. When the Greek influence poured in, Dis Pater and Orcus were equated with Pluto and Hades, respectively, but all four were somehow eventually crammed up so that only Hades and whatever god of the remaining three that the author liked the most remained, hence the confusion. Funnily enough, Orcus is actually mentioned to be a separate god in ''The Blood of Olympus'' with his domain of the underworld, though he's probably just another "[[FantasticRacism D-list god]]" like Khione.
* The Egyptian sister series of above, ''Literature/TheKaneChronicles'', however, plays this straight by mostly using the Hellenized spelling of the Egyptian gods instead of the actual (well, approximated, but it's the closest thing we got) Egyptian spellings. "Horus", "Isis", "Osiris, "Anubis", "Nephthys", and "Apophis", for example, would be called "Haru", "Iset, "Ausir", "Anupev", "Nebthet", and "Apep", respectively, in Egyptian. There are exceptions, though, such as "Set" and "Ptah", which are the same in both languages.
* In ''Literature/TheHungerGames'' series, the given names for the Capitol residents are mostly in Latin, reflecting the Capitol as a futuristic Ancient Rome. However, there are five characters who have Greek first names: Effie (short for Euphemia), Atala (possibly short for Atalanta), Castor and Pollux (the mythological twin sons of Zeus), and Cressida (from [[Theatre/TroilusAndCressida the Shakespeare's play]] based on the Trojan War).
* Aleksandr Zarevin's ''Lonely Gods of the Universe'' reveals that the Greek and Roman gods were, in fact, inspired by HumanAliens from the planet Oll. The Ollans didn't have any special powers (except immortality and red hair) with the exception of Hera's prototype, who learned advanced hypnosis from [[{{Atlantis}} Atlantean]] priests (to the point where she can literally stop someone's heart with a look). There was also Mars Ares, a security guard who brought his gun with him and taught the Atlanteans hand-to-hand combat and military tactics. When Atlantis sunk following a comet strike in the Mediterranean, the survivors fled to the mainland, including what would become Greece and Rome.
* ''Literature/OneNationUnderJupiter'': Much of Nova Roma's religion, particularly the emphasis on myth, is more Greek than Roman. Justified as Maxentius' campaign of piety changed traditional Roman paganism to be more substantial.

[[folder: Live-Action TV ]]
* ''Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'' has Greek Gods, Roman Gods, Egyptian Gods and a few more. The only god that isn't included is the Christian/Jewish/Islamic God due to Joss not liking him. This trope could be justified, seeing as all these various gods seem to exist.
* ''Series/BattlestarGalactica2003'' has Greek and Roman themes side by side.
** Not to mention there are several gods who are referred to with both Roman and Greek names (Jupiter/Zeus, Mars/Ares). It's probably a cultural/linguistic thing.
*** Interestingly, while the Tauron language is revealed on ''Series/{{Caprica}}'' to be Ancient Greek (or more likely [[TranslationConvention represented by Ancient Greek]]), the Taurons consistently refer to their chief/patron god as "Mars" rather than Ares. Of course, the Greek Ares was a tremendous [[BloodKnight bloodthirsty]] [[JerkassGods dick]] who was the closest thing the Greeks had to an [[GodOfEvil evil god]] ([[EverybodyHatesHades Hades]] [[DarkIsNotEvil actually being quite a decent fellow]]), while Mars (fittingly for the conquering Romans) was [[AlternateCharacterInterpretation rather more positive]].
*** In the case of the Taurons this is probably not an accident. As the soldiers of the early Roman Republic were mostly farmers who served military duty as well, there is an obvious parallel to the Taurons, who place great reverence in the soil in which they grow their food, yet are also {{Proud Warrior Race Guy}}s.
* ''Series/WhoseLineIsItAnyway?'' had a show where they were playing the game "Questions Only?" set in ancient Rome. Josie Lawrence asks Creator/StephenFry whether he's going to the Parthenon tonight. He asks Clive Anderson to please tell her the Parthenon is in Athens. Which results in Josie feeling 2 feet tall.
** [[Series/{{QI}} They say of the Acropolis, where the Parthenon is...]]
** (For the record, the similarly-named ''Pantheon'' is in Rome.)
* In ''Series/MythBusters'', "Episode 153 - Arrow Machine Gun", Adam mistakes a Roman helmet for a Greek Spartan helmet and a Greek hoplite as a Roman legionary.
* In ''Series/HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys'', the title character is called by his Roman name, but all the gods except Cupid have Greek names.
** The Russian translation corrects this by calling him and the show Herakles (although, dropping the "es"), which is more known in Russia than Hercules, which most people there think is a brand of oatmeal. Cupid probably remained, likely due to Eros not sounding very family friendly.
* ''Series/XenaWarriorPrincess'': One episode was devoted to ''Theatre/{{Bacchae}}'', and thus featured Bacchus in a major role. As opposed to, say, Dionysus.
** Dionysus also exists in the setting as a completely different character.
** And let's not forget Xena's enmity with Julius Ceasar (although that ''may'' have more to do with AnachronismStew, seeing as she met up with the biblical Abraham a few seasons earlier).
* An episode of ''Series/SabrinaTheTeenageWitch'' saw Sabrina borrowing ice skates from Mercury who was on the phone to Minerva and later on, Zeus shows up. Insert facepalm.
** Also a book written from the show featured the Pid family arriving in Westbridge from Greece. The son Quentin is actually Cupid while his parents are Martin (Mars) and Veronica (Venus). And then for some reason Q. Pid said that Valentine's Day cards with Cupid on them are actually reproductions of his baby pictures.
* In the ''Series/StargateSG1'' episode "Cor-ai", the Byrsa people from the planet Cartago[[note]]BilingualBonus: "Carthage" in Latin[[/note]] speak a mixture of Latin and Greek. For instance their name for the stargate is "circacona", from Latin "circ" and Greek "kako", translating to "circle of woes". [[LampshadeHanging This confuses Daniel somewhat.]]
* This was the motif of the short-lived game show ''Series/CaesarsChallenge'', sensibly since it was filmed on-location at the Caesars Palace hotel and casino in Las Vegas.
* In the ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'' episode [[Recap/SupernaturalS01E04PhantomTraveller "Phantom Traveler" (S01, Ep04)]], "Christo" is said to be Latin for "God". It is actually Greek for "The Anointed One" (as in the title "Christ"). Moreover, it should be "Christus" or "Christe".

[[folder: Music ]]
* Taken to an extreme in Music/IgorStravinsky's cantata ''Oedipus Rex'', which is entirely sung in Latin (not counting a small amount of spoken narration) though based on an ancient Greek play and still set in ancient Thebes.
** The name "Oedipus Rex" is itself a bit Groman, since Rex is a Latin word. The original Greek was "Tyrannos."

[[folder: Theatre ]]
* Creator/WilliamShakespeare's ''Theatre/TimonOfAthens'': This was because not much was known about ancient Greece at the time.
** Also very prevalent in Shakespeare's "Pericles, Prince of Tyre", which takes place in various locations in Greece, but uses only the Roman names for deities; those mentioned during the course of the play include Diana, Priapus and Juno.
* ''Thespis'', the [[LostEpisode now lost]] operetta by Creator/GilbertAndSullivan, takes place on Mount Olympus but uses the Roman names for the gods. Made stranger by [[WordOfGod Gilbert's claim]] that "[[AnachronismStew The time is the present day, the place is Ancient Greece]]"
* The Harburg musical ''The Happiest Girl in the World'' is loosely adapted from ''Theatre/{{Lysistrata}}'' by Creator/{{Aristophanes}} and set in ancient Athens, but uses the Roman names for the gods.
* The Music/ColePorter musical ''Out of This World'' brings the Greek gods down from Mount Olympus into twentieth-century Greece, but gives them their Roman names.
* In ''Theatre/TheFrogs'', Hades is regularly called and responds to the name "Pluto", which is rather odd considering how the musical is otherwise consistent with using Greek names, including avoiding the common Hercules/Herakles mistake. Since the Underworld is called Hades, it's possible this was done on purpose, to avoid confusion.

[[folder: Video Games ]]
* In ''VideoGame/GodOfWar III'', the Spartan protagonist faces off most of the gods, heroes and beasts of Greek mythology...[[MyFriendsAndZoidberg and Hercules]] (rather than, say, Herakles).
** Considering that Hercules's voice actor is Kevin Sorbo, is more like an ActorAllusion to ''Series/HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys''.
*** WordOfGod claims this was because the Roman name is better known (thus why the name "Hercules" shows up in move names in the previous two games made long before Sorbo was cast).
** Also, the standart mooks Kratos fights along the series are the Undead Leggionaires (and their variants). Leggionaires were Roman soldiers, not Greek. The actual basic Greek soldiers were the hoplites (which only appear in the Ghost of Sparta game).
* ''VideoGame/CityOfHeroes'' allows characters to explore the zone of Cimerora through time travel. It's largely Roman, but there are a few details that are Greek.
* A few stages of the NES game ''Day Dreamin' Davey'' are all revolved around ancient Greece (especially Mt. Olympus), but the game's walkthough and WebVideo/TheAngryVideoGameNerd mislabel each of these stages as "Ancient Rome" (though we have to admit, one upgraded bow has the name of the Roman god Mars, rather than the Greek god Ares).
* ''VideoGame/AlteredBeast'' has Zeus ordering the protagonist to rescue his daughter Athena, in a landscape resembling Greek temples... and yet the protagonist is described as a Centurion, a rank of the Roman Legion.
* ''Videogame/EightRealms'' lumps together Greek and Roman elements into one civilization for the Classical age.
* The realm of Septimus in ''VideoGame/{{Hexen}} II'' features the names of Greek gods, yet the writing on the signs is in Latin and the numbers are Roman.
* ''VideoGame/{{Smite}}'' generally seems to avert this, as the Greek and Roman gods are split in two separate pantheons, with the Roman Pantheon including those deities that were primarily or exclusively worshipped by the Romans. In the lore for the Roman gods, the Roman names will be used (such as Hercules referring Hera, Aphrodite, Ares and Zeus as Juno, Venus, Mars and Jupiter respectively). So it would seem that they think both Pantheons are different... until Hercules' visual update, where he gained a direct taunt referring ''Zeus'' as his ''father''. And also, it's confirmed in Cupid's lore that the Greek and Roman gods are the same gods, and that they were just known by different names by the Romans and Greeks. This trope eventually sees a more justified rule when they included the Roman Earth Mother, Terra. She's said to mate with Ouranos, the Greek name for the sky god, although this might have been to prevent [[UranusIsShowing dirty jokes]]).
* The tournament ranking boards in Olympus Coliseum in (at least some of) the ''Franchise/KingdomHearts'' games have Roman numerals, despite it being the world based on ''{{Disney/Hercules}}''. But then, as noted below, the film got that wrong in the first place, so at least they're consistent.
* The eponymous {{Fighting Spirit}}s of ''VideoGame/{{Persona 3}}'' are mainly based off Greek mythology, containing figures such as Orpheus, Hermes, and Pollux and Castor, yet the Persona of one party member is Juno, a Roman goddess and equivalent of the Greek figure Hera. Considering that the game also occasionally uses Christian mythology and even real people as the basis of some Personas, however, it's possibly intentional.
** Happens in ''VideoGame/{{Persona 2}}'' as well, moreso in ''Innocent Sin.'' We are given Maia, Artemis, Hades, Apollo, Hermes, Chronos, and Vesta, and yet Tatsuya's starting Persona is Vulcanus (Hephaestus) and ''both'' of Lisa's Personas are Eros (Cupid) and Venus (Aphrodite).
* ''Gods of Rome'', a mobile game, oftentimes seems more based in Greek mythology than Roman. Of the God characters, only Vulcan goes by his Roman name. The majority of Roman characters are the Champion class (consisting mostly of notable opponents or Rome) and a few Demigods. The rest seem to go by their Greek names.
* The [[BrowserGame browser game]] ''Feudalism'' and its sequel have the Great Trade Republic, whose Byzantine-inspired cities are named for ones from ancient Greece and Rome.
* One of the first sets of rare cards released in VideoGame/PuzzleAndDragons were the "Greco-Roman Gods" ("Western Gods" in Japanese) Minerva, Neptune, Ceres, Venus, and...Hades. The sequel set of Ares, Hermes, Artemis, Apollo ("Apollon" in Japanese), and Persephone were at least consistently Greek. There's also (multiple versions of) Zeus, Hera, and Athena (who is completely different from Minerva).
* Videogame/Wizard101 and Videogame/Pirate101 both have this in the realm of Aquila.

[[folder: Webcomics ]]
* ''Webcomic/TheNonAdventuresOfWonderella''. On March 17, 2012, Justin Pierce uploaded the comic [[http://i.imgur.com/KVhe6.png "Win, Lose, or DRACHMA."]] Shortly afterwards, he realized that Greek jokes made no sense in a comic about the Roman city of Pompeii. So, two days later, he replaced it with an edited version of the comic, retitled [[http://nonadventures.com/2012/03/17/pompeii-as-you-go/ "POMPEII as You Go."]]
-->'''Justin Pierce:''' Generally speaking, most online comics get by with no editorial management, but in this case I made a couple of Greek jokes regarding Pompeii, a Roman city nowhere near Greece. I will leave the comic unchanged for the weekend as a shameful reminder to do better fact-checking, then replace it on Monday with a version that addresses my Carmen Sandiego dilemma.
* [[http://www.sheldoncomics.com/archive/151125.html This strip from]] ''[[Webcomic/{{Sheldon}} Sheldon.]]''

[[folder: Web Video]]
* An episode of ''WebVideo/EpicRapBattlesOfHistory'' involves a battle between Western (Creator/{{Socrates}}, [[Creator/FriedrichNietzsche Nietzsche]], and Creator/{{Voltaire}}) and Eastern Philosophers ([[Creator/{{Laozi}} Lao Tzu]], Creator/SunTzu, and Creator/{{Confucius}}). When Sun Tzu tells Socrates to apologize to his two students (pointing to Nietzsche and Voltaire), Nietzsche counters that he would not call himself a student of "this plebe", pointing to Socrates. Except "plebs" is a Roman word, referring either to the lower assembly or the lower class in general. Of course, the modern usage of the word implies inferiority, so there could be a double-meaning here.

[[folder: Western Animation ]]
* Disney's ''Disney/{{Hercules}}'': Set in mythological Greece but mentions gladiators and uses Roman numerals and Roman Name. BUT he gets an "alpha-plus" as a grade in the series, so everything works out fine.
** Heck! The character's name is "Hercules" which is his Roman name, his Hellenic name is "Herakles"
** One episode has the founders of Rome calling for gods to sponsor them. They settle on the Greek gods, on the condition that they use the names the Romans picked out for them. They agree, although Hades is vehemently against being called Pluto, a name he wouldn't even [[ShoutOut give his own dog]].
*** Which is in itself an example of not doing the research,[[note]]well, that, or RuleOfFunny,[[/note]] as Pluto was simply a Latinization of the Greek ''Πλούτων'' (''Ploutōn''), the god's actual Roman names being "Dis" or "Orcus."
** In the film, when Pain and Panic are pretending to be children needing Hercules to rescue them, one uses roman numerals by pleading "somebody call IX-I-I" (saying each letter).
** In another episode, [[LampshadeHanging a mailman arrives with a package for Herakles]], and Herc "corrects" him.
** In yet another episode of the animated series, they introduce the god of pleasure and call him Bacchus (Herc wants to throw a "Bacchanale") -- that's the god's Roman name; his Greek name is Dionysus.
*** Bacchus was, again, simply a Romanization of Greek ''Bacchos'' (''Βάκχος''), an alternative name for Dionysos -- who was not even a Greek god to begin with, but was imported from the East, much as Isis was later imported to Rome. The native Roman name for the god of viticulture was ''Pater Liber'', the "Free Father," who was identified with the Greek Bacchus much as ''Iuppiter''=''Deus/Iovis Pater'' ("God/Jove the Father") was identified with Zeus, father of the gods.
** The use of Roman numerals is likely due to most people not recognizing Greek numerals, making θʹ-αʹ-αʹ less understandable than IX-I-I.
* ''WesternAnimation/BatmanTheAnimatedSeries'': At the end of the episode "Fire from Olympus", Maxie Zeus identifies Two-Face as Janus, a Roman god, despite imagining himself to be a modern incarnation of a Greek god and imagining Joker as Hermes and Poison Ivy as Demeter. Even before that when speaking to "Hades" (actually Batman), he asks if Vulcan is troubling him again (Vulcan being the Roman equivalent of Hephaestus). But then, Maxie ''is'' insane, and as alluded to under Comic Books not the sort who'd take well to being told he's wrong.
* An early episode of ''WesternAnimation/{{Arthur}}'' has Francine create a comic depicting the Olympic games... for a school report on Ancient Romans. This, as well as her suggestion that they could be "Roman athletes at the Greek Olympics" causes Brain to ask her, [[LampshadeHanging "Didn't you do]] ''[[LampshadeHanging any]]'' [[LampshadeHanging research?"]]
** Well, the Romans were allowed to compete in the Greek Olympics, but if the report has to be about ancient Rome, that does not help much.
* The 1960s cartoon ''WesternAnimation/TheMightyHercules'' was much the same, using Hercules' Roman name in an otherwise Greek(-ish) setting. Of course, they used names oddly in general - for example, Daedalus was used as the name of an evil wizard.
* Subverted on ''WesternAnimation/PhineasAndFerb'' by way of BrickJoke: the episode "Greece Lightning" has the characters play gladiators and put on a chariot race after learning about them at an ancient ''Greek'' exhibit at the museum. Then we go to a commercial, and the next fifteen-minute episode, "Leave the Busting to Us," begins with Ferb stating, out of the blue, that "gladiators were Roman, not Greek."
* Played with in ''WesternAnimation/TotalDramaWorldTour,'' when Chris announces that they are going to Rome for their Olympic challenge. When several of the contestants inform him that the Olympics are ''Greek'', he gets annoyed... and then [[DisproportionateRetribution has]] [[ButtMonkey an intern]] [[DisproportionateRetribution thrown out of the plane]] for giving him wrong information.
** For added points, he then takes them to Athens. No one mentions that Olympia is a different place. (Heck, ''Owen'''s guess of "Mt. Olympus" was actually the closest...)
* The US Acres episode "Hogcules II" from ''WesternAnimation/GarfieldAndFriends'' implies a Greek setting with Orson as the legendary Greek hero Hogcules, yet Booker is shown in Orson's fantasy as resembling more of a Roman emperor in a toga with laurel wreath around his head.
* Subverted on an episode of ''WesternAnimation/TimeWarpTrio'' that takes place at the ancient Olympics. Fred gets worried that they'll be thrown to the lions; Samantha corrects him, saying the Greeks would probably just throw them off a cliff.
* ''WesternAnimation/SuperLittleFantaHeroes'' has a rare justification in calling Heracles "Hercules" and Odysseus "Ulysses" because Mondo TV, the production company, is Italian in origin.

[[folder: Real Life ]]
* American college fraternities use Greek letters as names, and fraternity culture is called "Greek." A famous part of "Greek" college life is "toga parties," but togas were actually a Roman article of clothing. The Greeks wore chitons, not togas. On the other hand, the bedsheet-togas of "toga parties" is actually nothing like the Roman toga (which was a complexly draped semicircular piece of woolen cloth, typically worn over a tunic, and covering both shoulders anyway, it was the Roman equivalent of a three-piece suit and not good for parties) and a lot like... the Greek chiton (which were made of a rectangular piece of linen, and were often worn as a tunic with other garments like the chlamys--a rectangular woolen cloak--on top, often not covering one shoulder, they were the Greek equivalent of a white T-shirt and quite excellent for parties).
* The word "Greek" comes from latin ("Graecus"), the "Greeks" called themselves (and still do today) "Hellenes". The mere popularity of the word "Greek" above the more historically correct "Hellen" is an example of this trope. To make matters more confusing, the Greeks from the time of the Byzantine Empire (when Greece really was all that was left of the Roman Empire) to independence in the 1820s called themselves "Romans".
* The Romans had Latin names for their gods, but several have names which are directly lifted from Greece: Apollo is the first one, the other one is Uranus, whose name replaced the god's original Latin name Caelus. Hence, Uranus can be both the Greek or the Latin name in English. Other languages do not have this ambiguity: in French, the Greek name is transcribed as "Ouranos", which is close but distinct from Latin "Uranus".
** The best application for this is the name of the planets of the Solar System not named Earth. All of them are named after Roman gods, except for UsefulNotes/{{Uranus}}. While some may challenge it by using "Caelus" as an alternative, it's perfectly credible, because the Romans ''did'' refer to their sky god as Uranus, in addition to Caelus.
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayer_designation Bayer designation]] was developed by Johann Bayer in the 17th century to systematically identify stars without common names (such as Sirius or Betelgeuse). It uses a binomial system; the first name is a Greek letter indicating its relative brightness in its constellation ("Alpha" = the brightest star in its constellation, "Beta" = second brightest, and so forth), while the second name is the Latin genitive case (meaning "of the thing") of the constellation name. For example, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Leporis Gamma Leporis]] literally translates as "Gamma of Lepus" - i.e., the third brightest star in the constellation Lepus, the Hare). Naturally, since there are only 24 letters in the Greek alphabet, the system has some limitations. Also, it didn't help that Bayer didn't consistently follow his own rules - he didn't distinguish between stars of roughly the same magnitude, sometimes (as in the case of Castor and Pollux), he gave a star that rose first precedence over its later, brighter neighbor, and sometimes [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega_Centauri he misidentified a non-stellar object as a star.]]