[[caption-width-right:350:Portion of the Acropolis, Athens, UsefulNotes/{{Greece}}]]

-> ''"In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas; while I doubt if the world can produce a man, who where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to so many emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility as the Athenian."''
-->-- '''Pericles''', ''[[Creator/{{Thucydides}} Funeral Oration]]''

''Think of CrystalSpiresAndTogas, but'' ''[[{{Dissimile}} without the crystal spires]] [[AncientRome or the togas.]]''

Home of columned temples, chiton-wearing gods, slinkily dressed goddesses, amazons, and bearded philosophers. Also home to mythic [[SwordAndSandal thong-wearing]][[note]]That's referring to thong sandals by the way, not [[BarelyThereSwimwear the ones]] [[HaveAGayOldTime you were probably thinking of]].[[/note]] heroes who ride winged horses and do great deeds (all without getting either chafed ''or'' sunburnt). The [[TheSpartanWay Spartans]]
live here too, and they're known for their [[TrainingFromHell brutal training methods]], stylish [[BulletTime slow-motion fighting techniques]] and for [[Film/ThreeHundred being manly enough to charge nearly naked into battle even when outnumbered 70 to 1]]. And they ''[[BlatantLies definitely]]'' [[HoYay aren't gay]]. Frequently [[AncientGrome confused]] with AncientRome by directors who just don't care.

In fact, this picture is a [[AnachronismStew blend]] of two distinct periods; mythical Greece, conventionally said to end with UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar around 1000BC, and classical Greece, home to the first philosophers. The "classical Greece" period itself tends to [[CulturalBlending blend cultures]] that evolved and combined over the course of many centuries. While Athens at one time pulled the city-states together for defense against Persia, and both Sparta and Athens were heads of large military unions at one time or another, Greece never had a monolithic culture any more than the NATO block or Europe; it was the sum of the cultures of many independent city-states, each with its own culture, religion and calendar, all ultimately blended together in the giant food processor of history. If you were to visit the Balkan Peninsula in, say, Pythagoras' day, you'd find that religious practices and social mores varied heavily depending on what city you were in. Nonetheless, it's been suggested that the Ancient Greeks in general did see themselves as such, in a manner not too dissimilar to what's now called nationalism.

The ancient Greeks were also great colonisers, founding cities across the Mediterranean from what is now Spain to the Black Sea. In fact after the 4th century BC the largest Greek-speaking cities were generally ''outside'' the territory of modern Greece, though only Alexandria in Egypt shows up much in popular fiction. The classic Greek City State era ended with the conquests of UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat followed by UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, by which time Greek actually spread across the Balkans and across the Middle East, all the way to Bactria (Afghanistan) and India. The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka left behind pillars with inscriptions in Greece alongside Pali and other Indian languages, and Greek sculpture inspired Buddhist sculpture in India. Eventually these colonies became conquered by UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic where Hellenistic civilization nonetheless continued on unperturbed under the patronage of Romans who rather liked Greek culture. Indeed by the time the Western Roman Empire fell, TheRemnant of a truly Graeco-Roman culture became [[UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire Eastern Roman Empire]].

Ancient Greece has suffered more than usual cliche-making tendencies, because it was unfortunately cast as the embodiment of Enlightenment in the RomanticismVersusEnlightenment contrast (with TheMiddleAges suffering the opposite fate as its {{foil}}).
!! Popular tropes that feature or came around in this time period are:

* AchillesHeel: Actually ''not'' from Literature/TheIliad but rather a later writer who just happened to write that himself. Yes, FanFiction is OlderThanTheyThink.
* AchillesInHisTent: From Literature/TheIliad.
* ActionGirl: Artemis, Atalanta, Athena, the Amazons... and that's just startin' with the letter A!
* AnAesop: The TropeNamer, Aesop, lived and wrote back then, although the concept is probably as old as storytelling itself.
* BadassArmy: '''The Spartans''' (well, according to pop culture that rose since, anyway; other cities were no slouch either).
** Athens and Rhodes counted as a [[BadassArmy Badass Navy]] during their respective time periods.
* BadassGay: Notably the Sacred Band.
* BiggerIsBetterInBed: Inverted to Tartarus and back. A small wang was a sign of virility, while being hung like a horse was just plain silly looking!
** Though played straight (hem, hem) with Priapus, a Greek god of fertility, who sported such a monster, and in fact is the source of the medical term for an unnaturally long-lasting erection. However Priapus' erection is also seen as a symbol of his incredibly boorish and vulgar nature, and all the other gods scorn him.
* BazaarOfTheBizarre: The Agora was not only the town market but the place where they went to argue philosophy and politics. You could say that its most bizarre product was knowledge (or attempts at it).
* BladeOnAStick: Hoplites' combined spears with heavy armour and shields in a tight formation to create a mass of metal which couldn't be fought head-on any other way than using one of your own and hoping it doesn't break. Hoplites largely ''were'' Greek warfare for many years before the tacticians thought about ''not'' [[HitAndRunTactics fighting them head-on]].
* BoardingParty: The normal tactic for any navy that wasn't handy with a ram.
* CallThatAFormation: Averted. When Greeks fought they liked to get into dense columns called phalanxes (roller, because of course it rolls over people), and simply smash into each other. Holding this formation against the enemy's was more or less Greek warfare for a good while.
%%* CassandraTruth
* Myth/ClassicalMythology
* {{Conscription}}: Citizens of Greek city-states were expected to buy the equipment of a hoplite and serve in campaigns whenever called upon. Those unable to afford such equipment served as skirmishers, while wealthy nobles were expected to pay for the upkeep of horses and act as cavalry. Fortunately for them, since that's what ''everyone'' did and no more for major military manpower, warfare was confined to the summer and generally single-battle conflicts.
* TheFederation: What the Delian league started as, before becoming a HegemonicEmpire.
* ErastesEromenos
* FatalFlaw: Since it's the keystone of Greek {{Tragedy}}.
%%* LovePotion (Eros's arrows)
* LosingTheTeamSpirit: Battles in ancient Greece for many years were just hoplite formations smashing into each other. Being both heavily armoured and in close formation, these battles led to very few casualties and ended with one side cracking first by breaking ranks and subsequently fleeing, knowing they couldn't win anymore.
* HegemonicEmpire: Athens could be considered the UrExample and TropeNamer. It led the formation of the [[TheFederation Delian League]] of cities to fight the Persians, but continued leading the league after the war (as [[TropeNamer "hegemon"]]), and militarily/navaly and economically dominated the other cities and dictated policy to them to the point that it became referred to as the [[TheEmpire "Athenian Empire"]].
* HeManWomanHater: Played straight with Athenian society, which was profoundly misogynistic (which is itself a Greek word). One of the very few famous Athenian women was Aspasia, the mistress of Pericles, Athens's most eminent statesman, and ''{{Creator/Socrates}}'' said that she taught him the art of rhetoric. Very little else about her is known for sure, because most of the men who said or wrote anything about her were repelled by the fact that she was both smart and opinionated, to the point they can't bring themselves to write further about her.[[note]]Plenty of Athenian men noted that the aforementioned Aspasia was a great conversationalist, but none of them bothered to actually write down anything she said.[[/note]]
** Averted, weirdly, with Spartan society, where (unlike in Athens) women were allowed to inherit property and taught to read and write. Spartan girls were also fed the same food as boys and, unlike Athenian girls who were typically married off at 12 or 13, Spartan girls weren't expected to take a husband until their late teens or early 20s, making them much healthier than their Athenian counterparts.[[note]]The practical reason was that Sparta needed to keep its birthrate up and not have women die in childbirth.[[/note]] Spartan girls exercised, just like Spartan boys. They had their own rites and rituals, and whereas Athenian women were dressed in heavy clothes and kept indoors, Spartan women wore light clothes and could walk around in public. They were also encouraged to develop the famous laconic wit. Plutarch published a collection of ''Sayings of Spartan Women''. There are next to no recorded sayings of Athenian women.
* HitAndRunTactics: The innovation of lightly-armoured skirmishers attacking from afar and retreating when the slow hoplite formations got close ended the hoplites' dominance over Greek battlefields.
** To be more precise, it wasn't that skirmishers (archers, javelin users, etc.) were unknown to the Greeks. Most armies had them, although they were considered to be far less honorable than hoplite heavy infantry and rarely decided the outcome of battles. During [[UsefulNotes/ThePeloponnesianWar the Peloponnesian War]] (431-404 BC), however, the role of the skirmishers and other, more flexible troops became more important, particularly after an incident when an entire Spartan mora of six hundred hoplites was defeated by a force comprised mostly of peltasts. By the time the Roman legions landed in Greece, the hoplite phalanx had long since been made obsolete by more flexible troops.
* HomeGuard: Standing armies were not a known concept for much of Ancient Greece - warfare largely consisted of middle-class citizens acting as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoplite hoplites]] with equipment purchased by themselves. Due to this, conflicts were close to the participants' land, confirmed to summertime and usually consisted of a single battle. However, serving in the military however temporary it tended to be was mandatory for citizens. The big exception, of course, was Sparta, where it was ''illegal'' for a citizen male to be anything ''except'' a soldier.
* LandOfOneCity: Independent city-states, of a variety of administrative types, were dominant.
* LoverandBeloved: Very much encouraged in the Ancient Greek society.
* LuckilyMyShieldWillProtectMe: In Ancient Greek tradition the symbol of martial pride was not the sword as in many cultures (Greek swords were sidearms which came in two flavors: leaf-bladed xiphoses, and falcata-like kopides from which the Nepalese [[KukrisAreKool kukri]] is descended), but their gigantic shields or "hoplons" made for phalanx fighting. For instance when measuring the depth of a phalanx (customarily eight deep but once in a while beefed up by a general who wanted to try something new), they would talk of how many shields deep it was.
* MightyGlacier: Hoplites' phalanxes heavy armor and shields in tight formation with spears extended dominated their battlefields for years... until skirmisher tactics with ranged weapons made sure to stay away from the formation that necessarily had to move slowly to keep properly close together enforced a more combined-arms approach in warfare. Rome's development of a faster, more flexible formation equipped with short swords that could get inside the spears' guard sealed the phalanx's fate.
* OpposingCombatPhilosophies: Athens ruled the sea. Sparta ruled the land. Everyone else got out of the way.
* ThePhilosopher: Ancient Greece, or, to be more precise, the Greek cities in Asia Minor is where western philosophy first appeared.
%%* PhysicalGod
* ProudWarriorRaceGuy: Spartans.
* RammingAlwaysWorks: At least it did for Athenians and Rhodians, both of whom were really good at shiphandling. Corinthians, Syracuseans, and others were less obsessed with rams.
* SlaveGalley: Subverted. Nobody put slaves on an oar if they could help it, that was a development of the Renaissance; they weren't reliable or skilled enough (proper oarsmanship and fitness was more difficult than one might think) and local custom made them less easy than freemen to dismiss after hostilities. Moreover there were usually enough poor around who were desperate for work. If a navy was pressed so hard that it stooped to using slaves, it would purchase and manumit them.
* TheSpartanWay: The Spartans are, of course, the TropeNamer.
* TextileWorkIsFeminine: Inverted for the Spartans; a classic saying had a Spartan woman contrast another woman's fine weaving with her excellent sons -- that is what a woman should produce.
* TrainingFromHell: Spartans did it for their citizens to let them give name to TheSpartanWay.
* UriahGambit: There are a few nasty stories about commanders of a coalition army putting the hoplites from an ally he thought might be an enemy in the next round directly opposite the enemy's best troops.

!!Series set in this time period are:


[[folder:{{Anime}} and {{Manga}}]]
* ''Manga/{{Historie}}''
* So far, alluded to in ''Manga/AxisPowersHetalia'' though Herakles/Greece's as yet unseen mother, Mama Greece. It's also implied that she eventually became the Byzantine Empire... only for her to die in Turkey's hands.

[[folder:{{Comic Books}}]]
* ''ComicBook/ThreeHundred''
* ''ComicBook/{{Three}}'', an intentional SpiritualAntithesis to ''300''.
* ''ComicBook/{{Asterix}} at the Olympic Games''
* ''ComicBook/TheCartoonHistoryOfTheUniverse'': Volumes 5-7, at any rate.
* ''ComicBook/{{Epicurus the Sage}}'' by William Messner-Loebs and Sam Kieth.
* ''ComicBook/{{Mosaik}}'' No. 218-233 sees the [[ComicBook/DieAbrafaxe Abrafaxe]] in Athens, Delphi and elsewhere on the eve of UsefulNotes/ThePeloponnesianWar. They meet Alcibiades, Socrates and Sophocles, but it is not all wine and roses - Abrax even becomes a slave and has to work building the Parthenon and in the Athenian silver mines.

* ''Film/ThreeHundred''
* ''[[Film/ThreeHundredRiseOfAnEmpire 300 : Rise Of An Empire]]''
* ''Film/{{Clash of the Titans|1981}}'' and ''Film/JasonAndTheArgonauts'' by Creator/RayHarryhausen.
* ''Disney/{{Hercules}}''
* ''Film/{{Troy}}''
* ''Film/{{Alexander}}''

* Literature/TheTrojanCycle, including the Creator/{{Homer}}ic epics
** ''Literature/TheIliad''
** ''Literature/TheOdyssey''
* The ''Literature/{{Batrachomyomachia}}''
* ''Literature/TheAeneid''
* ''Literature/TheMetamorphoses''
* Creator/DavidGemmell's ''Literature/LionOfMacedon'' is a retelling of Alexander the Great (or, rather, his dad).
* ''The End of Sparta'' by Victor Davis Hanson is a novel about the deeds of the author's hero Epaminondas.
* Creator/TerryPratchett's ''Discworld/{{Pyramids}}'' and ''Discworld/SmallGods'' both feature Ephebe, an AffectionateParody of Athens and her philosophers, while ''Discworld/{{Eric}}'' (as well as the videogame ''VideoGame/DiscworldNoir'') touches on UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar.
* Creator/GeneWolfe's ''Literature/SoldierOfTheMist'' series tells the story of a mercenary in Xerxes' army who does something to offend the gods, and is cursed with forgetting everything that happens more than a day ago, but who can see the gods. [[Creator/GeneWolfe Wolfe]] "translates" place names (for example, [[TheSpartanWay Sparta]] is "Rope", and they fought the "Great King" at "Hot Springs"), lending a sense of immediacy, and distancing the book from the familiarity of the trope.
* ''The Firebrand'' by Creator/MarionZimmerBradley is a retelling of the Trojan War that gives the focus to the female characters.
* Creator/MaryRenault's mature period novels.
* ''Literature/LiddellAndScottGreekEnglishLexicon'': Decidedly NonFiction.
* ''Literature/ThaisOfAthens'' is set during the classical period and the onset of Hellenism.
* ''Literature/TimeScout'' mentions Ancient Greece as the destination of a tourist gate, but only one brief scene features it and only two downtimers came through that gate.
* ''Literature/OverTheWineDarkSea'': Hellenistic period.

* ''Series/HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys''
* ''Series/XenaWarriorPrincess'': Though the series is ''also'' happening at the time of AncientRome. The writers never tried to respect chronology.

* Creator/{{Aeschylus}}
** ''Theatre/TheOresteia'': ''Theatre/{{Agamemnon}}'', ''Theatre/TheLibationBearers'' and ''Theatre/{{Eumenides}}''.
* Creator/{{Aristophanes}}
** ''Theatre/TheClouds''
** ''Theatre/{{Lysistrata}}''
* Creator/{{Euripides}}
** ''Theatre/{{Medea}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Alcestis}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Bacchae}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Hippolytus}}''
* Creator/{{Sophocles}}
** ''Theatre/OedipusTheKing''
** ''Theatre/OedipusAtColonus''
** ''Theatre/{{Antigone}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Ajax}}''
** ''Theatre/TheWomenOfTrachis''
** ''Theatre/{{Electra}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Philoctetes}}''
* Creator/{{Shakespeare}}
** ''Theatre/AMidsummerNightsDream'': Albeit in a fantasy version of the setting.
** ''Theatre/PericlesPrinceOfTyre''
** ''Theatre/TimonOfAthens''
** ''Theatre/TroilusAndCressida''

* ''VideoGame/GodOfWar''
* ''The Battle of Olympus''
* ''VideoGame/KidIcarus''
* ''VideoGame/EmpireEarth''
* ''VideoGame/{{Age of Empires|I}}'', as well as ''VideoGame/AgeOfMythology''; also, ''VideoGame/RiseOfNations'' has a tour through the "Classical Age"
* The ''VideoGame/{{Civilization}}'' series when playing as Greece. This is most apparent in VI where Greece is uniquely [[DecompositeCharacter split]] between the Athenian and Spartan city states and Macedon, allowing a game to be played with nothing ''but'' Greeks.
* The first two games in the ''VideoGame/HegemonySeries''.
* ''VideoGame/TotalWar''
** Despite the title, ''VideoGame/RomeTotalWar'' is set in an era still very much dominated by Greek culture, and the Successor States of Alexander the Great constitute a large portion of playable factions.
** The ''Wrath of Sparta'' expansion campaign to ''VideoGame/TotalWarRomeII'', which focuses on the Peloponnesian War.
* ''VideoGame/TitanQuest''
* ''VideoGame/ZeusMasterOfOlympus''

* ''Webcomic/{{GastroPhobia}}'' is about an [[ActionMom Amazonian single mother]] and her son and their adventures in Ancient Greece.
* ''[[http://www.bigheadpress.com/otr Odysseus the Rebel]]''
* ''[[http://prometheuscomic.wordpress.com/ Prometheus!]]''
* ''WebComic/{{Amazoness}}!''
* ''Webcomic/RumorsOfWar'': Somewhere between the Late Bronze Age and the Classical Period, presumably in the Greek Dark Ages.
* In ''Webcomic/SluggyFreelance'', this is seemingly where the Holiday figures (Santa Claus, Tom Turkey, etc.) got their origins.

[[folder: Western Animation]]
* The setting of the [[Creator/VanBeurenStudios Cubby Bear cartoon]] "Fiddlin' Fun" is in times of Ancient Greece, with Cubby participating in a chariot race.