[[quoteright:340:[[Creator/{{Socrates}} http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/socrates.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:340:Sure talks a lot for a guy who [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_know_that_I_know_nothing knows nothing]].]]

Describe ''The Republic'' here.

Oh, no, no. If I do that, you'll just twist my words around and make me look silly.

Well, if you insist. ''The Republic'' (''Πολιτεία'' -- ''Politeia'') is perhaps the most well-known dialogue of the ancient Greek philosopher Creator/{{Plato}}, offering profound contemplation on the meaning of justice, and whether the just or the unjust man is happier in life. The work is split into ten separate books, making it one of Plato's longer pieces. Like most of Plato's dialogues, ''The Republic'' centers on Plato's teacher, the celebrated Creator/{{Socrates}}. The other characters in the dialogue are Glaucon, Polemarchus, Cephalus, Thrasymachus, Adeimantus, and Cleitophon. Of these, the chief characters are Glaucon and Adeimantus (incidentally, Plato's older brothers); the others speak little –if at all – beyond the first book. Others are present, but do not speak during the dialogue.

The dialogue begins as Socrates and Glaucon are invited to a gathering at the home of Polemarchus. Upon arrival, Socrates begins conversing with Polemarchus’s father Cephalus. During this talk, Cephalus comments upon the benefits of justice, prompting Socrates to pose the question for which he is probably best remembered: “What ''is'' justice?” Cephalus (perhaps wisely) excuses himself from the discussion at this point, and it is taken up by Polemarchus and later Thrasymachus, who each have their own definitions of justice. Socrates responds with his renowned Socratic Method: instead of openly contradicting their definitions, he asks a series of questions regarding their specifics until their inherent contradictions become apparent. Polemarchus soon abandons his definition, and though Thrasymachus is regarded as one of Socrates’s more formidable opponents, he eventually does likewise.

When Thrasymachus yields, Glaucon and his brother Adeimantus take his place, not convinced by Socrates’s reasoning. Socrates therefore suggests a bold thought experiment: the three of them will devise a hypothetical society which is perfectly just and analyze what ''makes'' it just, then deduce from there what justice means. The rest of the dialogue is dedicated to the conception of this hypothetical republic, as Socrates describes it in minute detail and goes to great lengths to explain his reasoning. Along the way, Socrates determines that a just society is one in which each individual concerns himself with his own business and no one else’s, that a just person is one whose emotions do not overwhelm his reason, and that acting justly leads to happiness while acting unjustly leads to unhappiness.

Socrates's idea of a perfect society [[ValuesDissonance may not sound so great to modern audiences]], but it isn't his conclusions so much as his process that makes ''The Republic'' so interesting. Socrates is logical and methodical. He is concerned less with coming to an answer quickly than with coming to the correct answer in the end. He considers no detail obvious or unimportant, and examines everything. And most strikingly, he doesn't allow himself to get carried away, constantly pausing to make sure that his friends agree with his reasoning. This is Socrates in all his humble glory, providing a shining example for students of philosophy even today, and that is why ''The Republic'' has endured as a philosophical masterpiece for so many centuries.

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!! ''The Republic'' by Plato offers examples of:

* AuthorAvatar: When you consider that no one is really sure whether it was actually Socrates or Plato who wrote the book... From a literary perspective, the two philosophers are actually considered the same person. This trope is in play with Socrates as the main character and Socrates/Plato as the author.
* AxeCrazy: Probably one of the first literal examples in the Western canon. Socrates uses the example of giving a woodcutting axe back to a violent lunatic is irresponsible, and that a responsible government must abrogate the rights to property if it might be a danger to the polis. Therefore, proper government is not just about guarding property.
* TheCynic: Thrasymachus. He even believes that Justice [[MightMakesRight is just a fraud defined by the stronger (the lawmakers) to exploit the weak]].
* DayHurtsDarkAdjustedEyes: used in the PlatonicCave description
* DemocracyIsBad: Socrates believes it is an {{Idiocracy}} that is one step away from tyranny.
** Of course, the democracy he knew was quite different from modern republicanism.
* ThePhilosopherKing: The TropeNamer, and the prototype for technocracy in general.
* FanFic[=/=]RealPersonFic: Most of Plato's works amount to fanfics of Socrates's life, [[FanFicRecommendations but that being said...]]
* FantasticCasteSystem: A big part of the ''Republic''[='=]s definition of justice is that everyone should do what they are meant to do best ("a place for everyone and everyone in their place" kind of thing), so a big part of the city in speech is classification of its citizens into classes, supported by the "myth of metals": A god mixed different metals in the souls of different classes, with iron and bronze in the souls of farmers, laborers, and merchants; silver in the souls of soldiers/auxiliaries; and gold in the souls of the philosopher-kings. Unlike most caste systems, your caste is not entirely dependent on the caste of your parents.
* ForHappiness: UnbuiltTrope, and a very different approach from the later version. Socrates argues that you should be just, because in being a just man, ''you'' will be happier with yourself.
* GenreSavvy: At one point, Socrates is leading the conversation in [[ObfuscatingStupidity his]] [[ArmorPiercingQuestion usual]] [[PullTheThread manner]], and Adeimantus notices. He proceeds to interrupt the conversation and demand that Socrates stop pretending to be a moron and simply state what he's trying to get at.
* {{GIFT}}: The Ring of Gyges is sort of an UrExample: instead of Normal Person+Anonymity+Audience=Total Fuckwad, you get Normal Person+Ring of Invisibility+Tempting Targets=Murderer and Rapist. Same principle, really.
* GoodFeelsGood: A just man is happier than an unjust man.
* IJustWantToBeNormal: During the Myth of Er, when the departed souls are given the opportunity to select their next life, Odysseus searches for the most uneventful, simple life he can find.
* {{Invisibility}}: The Ring of Gyges parable.
* MightMakesRight: Thrasymachus is all over this trope.
* OlderThanFeudalism
* PerfectPacifistPeople: The hypothetical republic embraces pacifism... for the most part.
* PlatonicCave: The TropeNamer
* ScrewThisImOuttaHere: Cephalus does what may be the wisest thing anyone has ever done in a debate with Socrates: He excuses himself before Socrates has an opportunity to make a fool of him.
* TotalitarianUtilitarian: The way in which Karl Popper interprets Plato as the author of this dialogue.
* {{Utopia}}: The point of the dialogue is to define one.
* UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans: Some of the utopia's laws are actually horrifying by today's standards. (think Literature/NineteenEightyFour with the hierarchical division between the philosopher-king Inner Party, the no-individuality Outer Party, and the viewed-as-animals Proles).
* WhatYouAreInTheDark: The Ring of Gyges myth is about examining how and why someone would act when he truly is in the dark. [[spoiler: The reason to act justly in the dark is because a just man is happier than an unjust one, and this facet is independent of social sanction.]]
* WithGreatPowerComesGreatInsanity: Socrates claims that philosophers make the best rulers because they can avoid this.
* YesMan: One problem with Plato's writings is that he often has Socrates spout off very extensive lists of premises that are simply immediately accepted by everyone present. Characters can go on for pages simply saying, "Yes," "Certainly," "Very true," and "No doubt," while Socrates talks for paragraph after paragraph. Thrasymachus is probably the only one who averts this, but Socrates shuts down his MightMakesRight argument halfway through Book 2.

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