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''The Prince and the Pauper'' is an 1882 MarkTwain HistoricalFiction novel about a StreetUrchin named Tom Canty and Prince Edward VI of England switching places. Tom has always dreamed of a better life, and the Prince is fascinated by Tom's lifestyle. They exchange clothes and swap identities, and the boys each find perks and struggles to each of the other's lives. Tom has matters of national importance to attend to and has a hard time adjusting to court life, and Prince Edward finds out just how hard an urchin's life is.

It is the TropeNamer for PrinceAndPauper, and arguably the story is LostInImitation.
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!!Tropes used by the novel:
* [[AbusiveParents Abusive Parent]]: Dear God, John Canty.
* AcquiredSituationalNarcissism: Tom Canty suffers a bit of this.
* ActuallyPrettyFunny: In the 1937 movie, Tom [[spoiler:using the Great Seal for a nutcracker]] got everyone, including the Archduke, laughing after a moment.
* AuthorTract: Living in [[TheGildedAge an age when the legal system was under the domination of the new rich,]] Twain dropped a few [[SomeAnvilsNeedToBeDropped anvils]] about the dangers of a legal system written strictly to benefit the upper class.
* DeadlyDistantFinale / ForegoneConclusion: [[spoiler:As mentioned in the epilogue, the real Edward VI died at the age of fifteen]].
* DisproportionateRetribution: The book is laden with examples of medieval "justice" - the horror stories that the Prince hears and the other punishments that he witnesses do much to turn him from a nice but clueless IvoryTower dweller into [[RoyalsWhoActuallyDoSomething a determined agent for reform and mercy]] once he returns to his throne.
* {{Doppelganger}}: Seriously, how is it that two kids are exactly alike?
* EmergencyImpersonation: Tom has to pose as the prince.
* FishOutOfWater
* GoneHorriblyRight: Tom and Edward's dreams of living each others' lives for a short time.
* GrassIsGreener: Played entirely straight with regard to the Prince, who thinks Tom Canty's life sounds like fun until he has to live it. [[ZigzaggedTrope Zigzagged]] a bit in Tom's case; at first he's miserable and frightened, but he gradually gets used to his new life and dreads having to become a pauper again, until [[spoiler:seeing his mother]] snaps him out of it and he begs to have his old life back.
* HaveAGayOldTime: It uses "ejaculated" and "orgies" often.
* HiddenPurposeTest: Tom conducts one using ReversePsychology to prove an alleged witch and her daughter innocent.
* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Edward, Elizabeth, Mary, Jane...
* TheHouseOfTudor
* IdenticalStranger
* IntergenerationalFriendship: Miles Hendon and Edward.
* [[PrincessForADay Prince For A Day]]
* KingIncognito
* MockMillionaire
* MutualEnvy: This is why [[PrinceAndPauper the prince and the pauper]] decide to switch places in Mark Twain's novel and its retellings.
* PrincessForADay
* RagsToRiches: Tom.
* RoyalsWhoActuallyDoSomething: Edward
* StreetUrchin: Tom
* SwappedRoles
* UnPerson: Hugh tries to make his brother Miles into this.
* WiseBeyondTheirYears: Both Edward and Tom.
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