One of the most famous and memorable accounts of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII and UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust, ''The Diary of a Young Girl'' or ''Het Achterhuis'' in the original Dutch, was the title given to the edited version of the diaries of Anne Frank (1929 - 1945), a German Jewish school girl living in Amsterdam. In 1942, Anne was given a diary notebook for her 13th birthday. By that point, [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany Germany had already invaded]] and occupied the Netherlands for two years. At first, the Franks tried to live out the occupation, but as UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler's genocidal intentions began to show, Anne's father Otto built a secret shelter in the building where he worked. (By that point, the borders were closed and travel for Jews was so tightly regulated that leaving Amsterdam would have been impossible.) On 6 July 1942, Anne's sister Margot received relocation orders to enter a [[BlatantLies "work"]] camp and the Franks, along with the Van Pels family and another Jewish friend, immediately moved into the Secret Annex.

The rest of the diary chronicles the next two years of Anne's life in the cramped Annex along with her seven co-fugitives. The daily routine consisted of absolute silence during the day, since the business was still running below them, blissfully unaware. There was relatively more freedom (though they still were not allowed to leave the building) during the night. Their only contact with the outside was a contraband radio and a few co-conspirators who brought them the weekly supplies.

As human nature would dictate, locking eight people in half of a townhouse under such stressful situations [[CabinFever meant that each of the occupants immediately proceeded to get on everyone else's nerves]]. The Diary abounds with morbidly funny tales of the occupants arguing over rations, radio channels, people's cooking, and in one memorable story, a low scale campaign over bathroom privileges (any small mistake, like a toilet flushing at the wrong time, could get everyone killed).

On top of the domestic melodrama, Anne also poured into the diary the teenage rebellion that she could never act on, her confusion over puberty and budding sexuality, her deepest thoughts and philosophy, and her romance with the handsome Peter van Pels. The diary sometimes can sound like the writing of any teenage girl (albeit a very insightful and interesting girl with very good diction and writing skills) if you forget the whole stranded-in-the-Nazi-heartland thing.

The last entry in the Diary was written on 1 August 1944. Three days later, the Grüne Polizei stormed the Annex. Anne was sent to Auschwitz, then the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died of typhus in February or March 1945, about a month before the camp was liberated.

Only Otto Frank survived Auschwitz and returned to Amsterdam. Miep Gies managed to save all of Anne's papers from the ransacked house. It was first published in Dutch in 1947 and translated to English in 1952, and has never left the public consciousness since. If you pull someone out of a crowd and ask them to name a Holocaust victim, you'll probably get Anne Frank.

The best known adaptation of the book is the play (1955) and movie (1959) ''Theatre/TheDiaryOfAnneFrank''. There is also the 2001 miniseries ''Series/AnneFrankTheWholeStory''.


!!This novel provides examples of:

* ADateWithRosiePalms: Some entries deal with Anne's self discovery, including a passage where she experiments with inserting various objects (such as shampoo bottles and hairbrush handles) into herself.
* AllThereIsToKnowAboutTheCryingGame: Anyone with a passing knowledge of World War II knows exactly what's going to happen to everyone in the Secret Annex before reading the diary.
* AloneInACrowd: Even though Anne has a loving family, plus lots of girlfriends and boy admirers, she still wishes for [[TrueCompanions one true friend]] she can confide her thoughts in. Her diary becomes a ReplacementGoldfish in this regard, which she calls Kitty as if it's a friend or pet cat (which she also misses once she's in the Annex).
* AnyoneCanDie: As this is non-fiction, it holds true that anyone can die. Sure enough, most of them do.
* ApocalypticLog
* AwkwardlyPlacedBathtub: The Secret Annex doesn't come with a bath, though it does have running water, so they must bathe in a tin tub. However since everyone has different ideas of acceptable privacy, they all use different rooms in the house.
* BiTheWay: There are passages in the unabridged edition where Anne admits to being excited by the female body and asks to feel a friend's breasts. As mentioned below, these were cut from the original publication, though quite likely as much due to the {{Squick}} factor of her being in her early teens at the time as due to squeamishness about bisexuality.
** To be fair, her father was also one of the original editors, and it seems unlikely that he'd want so many private thoughts from his daughter to be out in the open like that.
* BookcasePassage: To hide the entrance to the Secret Annex, a bookcase is constructed across the doorway.
* {{Bowdlerise}}: Otto Frank's publication of the diary removed much of the passages about her sexuality and arguments with others in the Annexe. The cut passages were published a few years ago in an unabridged edition, which was (perhaps unsurprisingly) [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Diary_of_a_Young_Girl#Banning subject to controversy and even banning]].
* DaddysGirl: Anne adores her father while griping constantly about how her mother doesn't understand her.
* DeadpanSnarker: Anne gets her good share in.
* {{Diary}}
* DownerEnding: Only Otto Frank survived.
* GenreShift: The diary does not begin with her family hiding in the attic. It begins with a girl receiving a blank diary for her thirteenth birthday, having a party, attending school, describing her friends...
* HomeByChristmas: Anne hopes they won't still be in hiding by the end of 1943. When Italy surrenders, hopes are raised once more that the war will be over by the end of 1944.
* MasterOfTheMixedMessage: Anne writes how she's not in love with Peter; she's just wants to [[JustFriends spend more time with him for companionship]]. Then a few paragraphs later she'll be gushing over how much she's in love with him.
* MiseryLit: An archetypal one.
* NoEnding: Anne's diary ends abruptly, since she obviously couldn't continue it in the camps.
* NoPeriodsPeriod: Anne eagerly anticipates the onset of her periods. A year later, having experienced them for real, she goes back through her diary and is embarrassed over how candid she was about the subject.
* ParentsAsPeople: Anne wrote about her difficult relationship with her mother--compounded by the fact that they were all cooped up together and, well, Anne ''was'' 13 or 14--but also regretted it: "I said to myself, 'Anne, is that really you talking about hate? Oh, Anne, how could you?'" Ultimately it came down to a simple personality clash, and later the two grew closer.
* ThePollyanna: Towards the end of her diary, where she has already been stuck in the annex for years and experienced much of the horrors of WWII, Anne writes that she still believes that humans are generally good.
* TheStateless: All the refugees are stateless since the Nazis stripped them from their German citizenships.
* WhoWouldWantToWatchUs: In an early entry (June 20, 1942) Anne writes: "it seems to me that neither I--nor for that matter anyone else--will be interested in the unbosomings of a 13-year-old schoolgirl."
* YouTalkTooMuch: Anne has to write an essay titled "The Chatterbox" because she keeps talking in class (quickly followed by "An Incorrigible Chatterbox" and "Quack, Quack, Quack, said Mistress Chatterback"). This becomes SeriousBusiness when she has to remain quiet for long periods of time in the Secret Annex.