->''"Arma virumque cano…"\\
(I sing of arms and the man…)''
-->--'''Opening words'''

''The Aeneid'' is an [[NarrativePoem epic poem]] written by the poet Publius Vergilius Maro--more commonly known as Creator/{{Virgil}}. It's considered one of the great forerunners of literature and many later works are deliberately based off the style Virgil used. Of course, Virgil himself was deliberately writing in the style of Creator/{{Homer}}, his literary hero, also basing his portrayal of certain characters off of stars of ''Literature/TheIliad'' or ''Literature/TheOdyssey''.

''The Aeneid'' is a {{continuation}} set after the end of UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar, following the story of the Trojan hero Aeneas. [[BecauseDestinySaysSo Prophesied]] to found a city whose empire will cover the whole world and rule forever, he travels all over the known world [[CreatorProvincialism (i.e. the Mediterranean)]] trying to reach the fated place. After suffering many tragedies and getting kicked out of most places, he realises that the gods want him to go to Italy. When he gets there, however, he still doesn't have it easy: he has to pretty much conquer the whole area before he can settle down.

The city he eventually founds is the one from which Roman founders Romulus and Remus supposedly come. ''The Aeneid'' was intended as a propaganda piece for the [[JusttheFirstCitizen emperor-in-all-but-name]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} Augustus]], who had recently become the supreme power in Rome, then ravaged by civil war, by defeating Mark Anthony and UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII. Aeneas, who is pious[[note]]Aeneas is often called ''pius Aeneas''. ''Pius'' is often translated as pious, but it refers to devotion to not only the gods, but also one's family and country. In the case of Aeneas, his country is the Rome which will eventually exist.[[/note]], dutiful and brave, was held as the Roman ideal and is obliquely compared with Augustus at several points in the poem.

Standard material for Latin students; the U.S. AP Latin exam assumes its takers have read at least a requisite 1800 lines, as the entire test is about the epic[[note]]At least, it did, but as of the 2013 exam, the number of lines of the Aeneid has been lessened, and the AP Latin exam now also tests on [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Caesar's]] ''[[Literature/CommentariesOnTheGallicWar De Bello Gallico]]''. Students still need to know the story in its entirety, though. They're just not held responsible for as much of the Latin[[/note]].

The poem may well have made some tropes, and used others cheerfully. This guarantees that all those tropes are at least OlderThanFeudalism, if [[UnbuiltTrope built]] at all.
!!Tropes Used:
%% Zero context examples have been commented out. Please write up an actual example before uncommenting.
* ActionGirl: Camilla of the Volsci. Huntress and worshipper of Diana, she's one of the few female war leaders and warriors in the Aeneid. Even Dido got her kingdom through trickery rather than martial prowess.
* AdaptationalVillainy: In ''Literature/TheOdyssey'', Aeolus is in charge of a thriving kingdom and tries to help Odysseus. Here, he is bribed by Juno into loosing the winds on Aeneas's ships. Helen is also treated less sympathetically than she is in ''Literature/TheIliad'', betraying Deiphobus to the Greeks.
** Most of the Greeks in general are portrayed unsympathetically. Odysseus for example is a slimy ManipulativeBastard compared to the GuileHero OnlySaneMan in Homer's epics.
** This also applies to the Gods that were on the Greeks side. Hera's grudge against Aeneas is incredibly petty and excessively destructive. Athena doesn't make an appearance but sends snakes to kill off Laocoon simply for figuring out the trap and warning the Trojans.
* AdultFear: Pyrrhus brutally killing Polites in front of Priam is probably the worst thing you can do to a father.
* AerithAndBob: Amongst the exotic sounding Greek and Latin names, it may come as a surprise for some to also find names still used today like Anna and Camilla.
* AffectionateNickname: Aeneas is known as "''pius Aeneas''" (Usually translated "pious", but "steadfast" or "dutiful" is closer to the original meaning).
** Aeneas is one of many many characters referred to with epithets. Juno is Saturnia, Dido is infelix Dido or miserrima Dido (referring to her destiny and doomed love) etc. Virgil is homaging Homer, who also refers to various heros and gods with epithets
* AnachronismStew:
** In ''Literature/TheIliad'' and ''Literature/TheOdyssey'', Homer described battles fought with bronze-tipped spears. In ''The Aeneid'', Virgil describes those same battles as having been fought with ''steel''-tipped spears. Steel-making was unknown in Homer's time.
** Escaping from the destruction of Troy, Aeneas lands at Carthage, even though Carthage was founded some four centuries after UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar.
** There are multiple references to Aeneas taking the "''penates''"--statues of the gods to be kept in households--with him when he leaves Troy. Romans had these, but Greeks actually did not.
** The text references a type of ship called a bireme multiple times, which did not exist at the time of the story.
* AngelUnaware: Aeneas meets his mother Venus when he lands near Carthage, but she is disguised as a huntress. She shows him the way to Carthage. (Aeneas does realize she's a divine being, he just can't tell which one.)
* BattleCouple: Nisus and Euryalus are the homosexual kind. They are tied at the hip. [[spoiler: They start a night raid against the Latins together. It doesn’t end well.]]
* BecauseDestinySaysSo: Largely [[DeconstructedTrope deconstructed]]. Aeneas's life is hell because of this trope. He breaks up with Dido by citing it, which doesn't exactly go well to say the least.
** Doesn't matter whether Lavinia really wants to marry Turnus (implied at one point) or how long they've been promised, it's decided the minute he arrives that she's gonna marry Aeneas, who never shows any interest in her. Which means Turnus is doomed to die, just for being her former fiancé. And that's that.
* BigBad: Juno. [[NonActionBigBad While she never directly confronts Aeneas]], she does spark the most amount of conflict for him in her efforts to prolong his suffering, even manipulating Turnus to start a war.
* {{Bishonen}}: Euryalus is described as “pulchrior”, or more beautiful, than any of Aeneas’ other men.
%%* BloodKnight:
%%** '''Turnus'''. Juno only makes him worse.
%%** Pyrrhus, if the Siege of Troy is any indication.
* BreakUpBonfire: After Aeneas abandons her, Dido orders to build a pyre to burn Aeneas' clothes and weapons, an image of Aeneas and also the bed on which she slept with him, claiming this ritual will heal her of her lovesickness. But when the pyre is ready, she stabs herself with Aeneas' sword on it, and the Breakup Bonfire becomes her funeral pyre.
* BreatherEpisode: Anchises' funeral games.
%%* BuryYourGays: Nisus and Euryalus.
%%** Notable because it is an accidental trope. Virgil would not have intended, nor his audience understood or expected, this trope. All the same, to a modern reader, it fits it oddly exactly.
%%*** Given that in Roman society EveryoneIsBi, this might not even count, since the distinctions of homo and heterosexuality didn't even exist at that time.
* CaughtInTheRain: Aeneas and Dido are out hunting and take shelter from the rain in the same cave. The rain was part of Juno's successful plan to hook them up.
* {{Continuation}}: In the 15th century, an Italian poet named Maffeo Vegio wrote a continuation for it, which was widely printed in later editions.
* CurbStompBattle: Pyrrhus vs. Priam. Priam's a broken old man having suffered the death of his numerous children and the downfall of his family and kingdom. His son being killed galvanizes him to fight but his spear bounces off Pyrrhus' shield and he's dragged to an altar and slaughtered.
* DeadPersonConversation: In Book II, Hector warns Aeneas to get out of Troy, and after Aeneas escapes, Creusa's ghost tells him not to wait for her.
* DeathBySex: Aeneas and Dido both suffer consequences from their affair: [[DoubleStandard Aeneas gets a slap on the wrist from the gods, and Dido stabs herself in a botched suicide and burns to death on her funeral pyre, having lost all the respect of her people, other leaders and herself.]]
* DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment: The metrical restrictions of Latin epic, as well as a hefty bit of Vergil's personal style, make for awkward (if not downright humorous) translations. Aeneas' entrance into the "cavernous cavern" is just one of dozens of examples. Vergil also seems fond of his characters "pressing footsteps" rather than just walking.
%%* DidYouJustFlipOffCthulhu: Mezentius has made a career out of this.
* DisposableWoman: Creusa, Aeneas' first wife who dies during the razing of Troy.
* DisproportionateRetribution: Juno is still pissed about not being chosen as the fairest by the long-dead Paris. Her hatred for the Trojans is the direct cause for the war that fills the second half of the epic.
** Seems even more fitting seeing as 1) some of her reasons are even more stupid, like the fact that Ganymede was chosen as "cup-bearer" to the gods instead of her daughter and he happened to be a Trojan and 2) in the end, she ends up going along with the creation of Italy and Rome anyway, making all of her resistance pointless.
*** Juno doesn't hate Ganymede just because he's Trojan (and therefore ultimately responsible for the destruction of her beloved city Carthage), but because he was her rival for [[DepravedBisexual Jupiter]]'s affections.
* DoomedHometown: Aeneas' odyssey is set off by the Greeks' destruction of Troy.
* DownerEnding: Somewhat; while Aeneas is victorious and peace is ensured, the epic ends on the death of Turnus.
* DressingAsTheEnemy: A band of Trojans disguise themselves in Greek armour; however, the other Trojans are fooled as well, and the Greeks eventually see through the disguise.
* DyingCurse: Immediately before Queen Dido of Carthage commits suicide because Aeneas left her, she prays to the gods that Aeneas' mission may fail, and that the Carthaginians may forever be enemies to the descendants of Aeneas' Trojans and may one day avenge her. While part of the curse comes true, it ultimately fails: Aeneas succeeds despite many obstacles, and although Carthage came close to defeating Rome in the [[UsefulNotes/PunicWars Second Punic War]], in the end Rome turned out victorious.
* FanSequel: To ''Literature/TheIliad''. Actual Greek traditions held that:
** Aeneas left Troy after an omen of impending doom--the death of Laocoön and his sons--and returned to Mt. Ida.
** Or he did survive the sack of Troy, making a LastStand until the Greeks let him leave intact.
** Aeneas ruled over a rebuilt Troy after UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar, as the ''Iliad'' hints that the kingship would pass from Priam's line to him.
* {{Flashback}}: Books II and III is Aeneas telling the story of the fall of Troy to Dido.
* {{Foreshadowing}}: In Book IV we are repeatedly told that Dido is "burning" with love for Aeneas. At the end of the book, this becomes rather unpleasantly literal.
* ForgingScene: Venus gets [[UltimateBlacksmith Vulcan]] to forge armor for Aeneas.
** [[http://classicsvic.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/penwillvol18.pdf This article]] gives details on the comparisons between the shields.
* GettingCrapPastTheRadar: When Dido in book IV tells her sister about her love for Aeneas, she says a line which is often translated as "perhaps to this one sin I could succumb." In Latin, the order of words in a sentence doesn't matter, so the word for "sin" doesn't come up until the end of the line. Since the word for "succumb" literally means "to lie under," Romans might have thought that Virgil was referring to [[GoodPeopleHaveGoodSex something else...]]
* GiveMyRegardsInTheNextWorld: A rather villainous version.
-->'''Priam:''' How dare you make me witness my own son's death! You're no son of [[Literature/TheIliad Achilles]]--he had respect for those begging for mercy!\\
'''Neoptolemus[[note]]a.k.a. Pyrrhus[[/note]]:''' You'll get to see my father yourself! Be sure to tell him how wicked his son is. Now die.
* GodSaveUsFromTheQueen: While her husband is a good if not very proactive king, Queen Amata of Latium sides with Turnus against Aeneas. Then there's Juno, who also causes some trouble for Aeneas.
** Dido goes a bit love-crazy after Aeneas arrives, and it gets worse after he dumps her. By that point virtually all her subjects are against her.
* GrayAndGrayMorality: Aeneas is a courageous, pious, and dutiful leader, but he also commits morally questionable acts such as abandoning Dido without warning and slaying an unarmed Turnus at the end of the poem. The Trojans' enemies are likewise portrayed sympathetically despite being antagonists.
* HalfHumanHybrid: Aeneas is the son of Venus, and Turnus, his rival, is the son of a nymph.
%%* ImplacableMan: Mezentius, particularly after [[spoiler: the death of his son]].
* InMediasRes[=/=]HowWeGotHere: Books II and III are an extended flashback to the events of UsefulNotes/TheTrojanWar and the long period of wandering that followed it, leading up to the Trojans arrival in Carthage at the beginning of Book I.
* IronicEcho: Aeneas refers to himself as "pius (roughly "righteous") Aeneas" during his remorse following [[spoiler: the death of Lausus]].
* ItsPersonal: Aeneas ''would'' have been perfectly content to show his rival, Turnus, mercy and let him live... if he hadn't killed his friend a few books ago. Mezentius and Aeneas' conflict also turns personal after [[spoiler: the death of the former's son]].
%%* JerkassGods: Pretty much all of them, but Juno is in her own category.
* LastOfHisKind: Aeneas and the other Trojans are part of a handful of survivors of their city-state after it was exterminated by the Greeks. ''The Aeneid'' definitely contributed to the idea of the surviving Trojans being the founders of other countries--for example, several medieval works had them as the founders of Britain. Especially pronounced as, to make Juno feel better about losing this particular godly squabble, Jupiter says that the Trojans will not pass on their culture but fully assimilate with the Latins instead.
* LikeFatherLikeSon: {{Averted}}, Priam explicitly condemns Pyrrhus as not being like Achilles. Specifically, Achilles held some measure of honor and compassion by returning Hector's body. Pyrrhus just killed Polites in front of Priam.
* LoveAtFirstSight: Dido for Aeneas, justified in that Cupid, Aeneas' half-brother, personally causes it.
** Aeneas and Pallas seem to have become friends at first sight. I mean seriously, a RoaringRampageOfRevenge for a guy you've known for a week or two?
%%* LoveRuinsTheRealm: Could have been the title of Dido's autobiography.
* LoverAndBeloved: Nisus and Euryalus at first embody this dynamic that was characteristic of homosexuality in Ancient Greece, with Nisus as the older loving mentor and Euryalus as the younger beloved follower. However, their relationship shifts to one of more equal footing as they embrace more Roman values.
* MamaBear: Venus goes to great lengths to make sure Aeneas' destiny happens on schedule. Not only does Aeneas resent it, she really does more damage than good.
* MissionFromGod: The prophecy that Aeneas will found Rome. He finds other nice places to settle ''three times'', and every time the gods say, "Nope, you gotta keep going."
%%* MoralityPet:
%%** Lausus to Mezentius. The [[spoiler: former's death sets off a RoaringRampageOfRevenge]].
%%** Also Mezentius's faithful horse Rhaebus.
* MyGirlIsNotASlut: Aeneas' people may be just as annoyed about him knocking boots with Dido as hers are, but she's the one who pays for it.
* NayTheist:
** Mezentius is one of the first known examples. His whole shtick is essentially, "screw you Jupiter!"
** Iarbas, an African king spurned by Dido, rhetorically asks Jupiter ''to his face'' whether or not he's powerful enough to be worth worshipping.
** Virgil himself could be seen to take this stance, since the ''Aeneid'' can be read as saying [[JerkassGods "look what horrible people the gods are"]].
* NiceHat: Turnus has a helmet crested with a metal chimera that breathes real fire.
%%* PapaWolf: Aeneas and Mezentius being the main examples.
* PatrioticFervor: One of the whole points of the work!
** [-"Remember, Roman, these will be the arts for you, to rule peoples by command, to impose the custom of peace, to spare the conquered, and to wear down the proud with war." (6.851-3)-]
** As mentioned above, though, it can be read as satire against that same PatrioticFervor.
* PerspectiveFlip: While the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'' told the story from the Greeks' point of view, this work tells it from that of the surviving Trojans.
* PreMortemOneLiner:
** Pyrrhus to [[spoiler:King Priam]].
** Aeneas to [[spoiler: Turnus]]: "This wound will come from Pallas: Pallas makes this offering, and from your criminal blood exacts his due!". All the more famous because it sparks a WhatTheHellHero moment, and dishes out an [[NoEnding abrupt]], rather DownerEnding.
* PrettyBoy: Young men such as Ascanius, Pallas, Euryalus, and Lausus often have their almost feminine beauty described at length (since it was highly valued in Rome). Turnus' good looks are apparently enough to inspire other men to fight and die for him.
* PropagandaHero: The poem was more or less state propaganda promoted by UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} to link the emerging and brand-new UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire with antique origins. It deliberately aimed to displace Remus and Romulus (the popular founders of Rome) with Aeneas. The Julio-Claudian family of which Augustus was a descendant claimed descent from the Trojans and the Goddess Venus, both origins linked Augustus and Caesar to Aeneas, thereby creating a continuity of the ruling family with their ancestors, and insisting that the foundations of Rome were imperial rather than republican. Aeneas likewise embodies virtues more amenable to Augustan Roman: piety, family honor, stoicism, differing from the more capricious and earthy nature of the Homeric attitude.
--> '''Jupiter''': His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono;\\
Imperium sine fine dedi.\\
["For these I set no limits, world or time,\\
But make the gift of empire without end"].\\
Lines 278–279 (tr. Robert Fitzgerald)
* ProphecyTwist: The Harpy Celaeno's prophecy that they will get so hungry that they'll eat their tables... which they do when they eat a meal served on big pieces of flatbread.
** Young Ascanius making direct reference to the pun only makes it better.
%%* RealisticDictionIsUnrealistic
* TheRival: Turnus, Aeneas' rival for the land of Latium. He's even called a "second Achilles".
%%* SecondHandStorytelling
* SenselessSacrifice: [[spoiler:Nisus tries to save Euryalus by pleading with the Latins to kill him instead, but the Latins kill them both.]]
* SexyWalk: How Aeneas recognizes Venus in her disguise at the beginning of the book. ("And by her stride she showed herself a goddess.")
%%* ShamingTheMob: Only in metaphor, but [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome cool all the same]].
* ShoutOut:
** The first words, "I sing of arms and a man," are meant by Vergil as a callback to ''Literature/TheIliad'' and ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' respectively, to connect his epic with the works of Homer.
%%** The whole book is chock full of [[ShoutOut shout outs]] of various kinds to both epics.
* SoapOperaRapidAgingSyndrome: Ascanius goes from a small child in the first book to being able to go hunting at Carthage and then fighting and killing in the Latin wars.
%%* StarCrossedLovers: Dido and Aeneas.
* SwordOverHead: Subverted. Aeneas almost decides to spare Turnus when he has him cornered at swordpoint, until he remembers how Turnus killed his friend.
* TemporaryLoveInterest: Dido. Her love keeps Aeneas in Carthage and away from his destiny and so the gods send a messenger to remind him to continue his journey.
* ToHellAndBack: Book VI. In a homage to ''The Odyssey'', Aeneas enters the underworld to talk to the ghost of his father.
* TrojanHorse: Book II contains the beginning of the fall of Troy and shows the horse from the view of the Trojans.
* UndignifiedDeath: Dido, a once competent ruler, kills herself in a rather embarrassing way, having lost the respect of her people an as a result of Aeneas leaving her.
%%* WarIsHell: Look no further than the Fall of Troy.
%%* WatchingTroyBurn: The TropeNamer.
* WeWillMeetAgain: Dido's LastWords are that hers and Aeneas' people will meet again in war--Virgil's fictional cause of the Punic Wars.
* WhatTheHellHero: Aeneas does a few things to provoke this reaction, among them abandoning Dido without warning and slaying the helpless Turnus at the end of the poem. While the ancient Romans [[ValuesDissonance would have viewed these actions somewhat differently than modern readers do]], the discrepancy is not so great that Aeneas' less heroic moments wouldn't have caused them some pause.
** Some have argued that this was deliberate; since Aeneas was supposed to be a stand-in for Augustus, many believe that Virgil worked in a TakeThat or two out of resentment for having his farm confiscated to give to soldiers.
** Priam also calls out Pyrrhus, [[ForegoneConclusion sadly to no effect]]:
-->'''Priam''': You pretend that Achilles was your father, but this is not how Achilles treated his enemy Priam.
* WomanScorned: Dido ''really'' goes off the deep end, even though Aeneas obviously didn't want to leave, and wouldn't have if [[JerkassGods the gods (mostly Juno)]] [[YouCantFightFate told him to move on]].
** [-"Could I not have torn apart his snatched-away body, and scattered it on the waves? Could I not have murdered his companions and Ascanius himself, and served them on the father's table to be feasted upon?"-]
** Additionally, Juno's whole reason for being miffed at the Trojans (and therefore Aeneas) is that Paris didn't pick her.
* WouldntHitAGirl: Some historians believe that the reason [[spoiler:Camilla isn't killed by Aeneas was so that Virgil could avoid having his hero kill a woman. Even a badass ActionGirl kind of woman]].
%%* {{Yandere}}: Dido, Juno, Amata (once Allecto has her way with her).
* YouCantFightFate: Juno does her best to avert Aeneas' fate (she hooks up him up with Dido to distract him, supports the Rutuli, tries to kill him multiple times) and fails miserably.
* YouCantGoHomeAgain: Troy has been razed by Greek soldiers; the premise of the poem is Aeneas trying to found a new one.
** Well, for a while Aeneas certainly does try to make a new Troy and actually meets someone else who successfully does so however the point of the story is really more him realizing that it is not his place to reproduce Troy but instead to lay the groundwork for Rome.
* YouHaveWaitedLongEnough: Dido's sister Anna says this when Dido believes that having an affair with Aeneas would be betraying her deceased husband.