->''"Arma virumque cano..."''
->''(I sing of arms and the man...)''
-->--'''Opening words'''

''The Aeneid'' is an [[NarrativePoem epic poem]] written by the poet Publius Vergilius Maro - more commonly known as Creator/{{Virgil}}. It's considered one of the great forerunners of literature and many later works are deliberately based off the style Virgil used. Of course, Virgil himself was deliberately writing in the style of Creator/{{Homer}}, his literary hero, also basing his portrayal of certain characters off of stars of ''Literature/TheIliad'' or ''Literature/TheOdyssey''.

''The Aeneid'' is a {{Continuation}} fic set AfterTheEnd of the TrojanWar, following the story of the Trojan hero Aeneas. [[BecauseDestinySaysSo Prophesied]] to found a city whose empire will cover the whole world and rule forever, he travels all over the known world [[CreatorProvincialism (i.e. the Mediterranean)]] trying to reach the fated place. After suffering many tragedies and getting kicked out of most places, he realises that the gods want him to go to Italy. When he gets there, however, he still doesn't have it easy: he has to pretty much conquer the whole area before he can settle down.

The city he eventually founds is the one from which Roman founders Romulus and Remus supposedly come. ''The Aeneid'' was intended as a propaganda piece for the [[JusttheFirstCitizen emperor-in-all-but-name]] [[EmperorAugustus Augustus]], who had recently become the supreme power in Rome, then ravaged by civil war, by defeating Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. Aeneas, who is pious[[note]]Aeneas is often called ''pius Aeneas''. ''Pius'' is often translated as pious, but it refers to devotion to not only the gods, but also one's family and country. In the case of Aeneas, his country is the Rome which will eventually exist.[[/note]], dutiful and brave, was held as the Roman ideal and is obliquely compared with Augustus at several points in the poem. Standard material for Latin students; the U.S. AP Latin exam assumes its takers have read at least a requisite 1800 lines, as the entire test is about the epic. (At least, it did, but as of the 2013 exam, the number of lines of the Aeneid has been lessened, and the AP Latin exam now also tests on [[Creator/GaiusJuliusCaesar Caesar's]] ''De Bello Gallico''. Students still need to know the story in its entirety, though. They're just not held responsible for as much of the Latin.)

The poem may well have made some tropes, and used others cheerfully. This guarantees that all those tropes are at least OlderThanFeudalism.
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!!Tropes Used:

* ActionGirl: Camilla of the Volsci.
* AdaptationalVillainy: In ''Literature/TheOdyssey'', Aeolus is in charge of a thriving kingdom and tries to help Odysseus. Here, he is bribed by Juno into loosing the winds on Aeneas's ships. Helen is also treated less sympathetically than she is in ''Literature/TheIliad'', betraying Deiphobus to the Greeks.
* AerithAndBob: Amongst the exotic sounding Greek and Latin names, it may come as a surprise for some to also find names still used today like 'Anna' and 'Camilla'.
* AffectionateNickname: Aeneas is known as "pious Aeneas".
* AnachronismStew:
** In ''Literature/TheIliad'' and ''Literature/TheOdyssey'', Homer described battles fought with bronze-tipped spears. In ''The Aeneid'', Virgil describes those same battles as having been fought with ''steel''-tipped spears. Steel-making was unknown in Homer's time.
** Escaping from the destruction of Troy, Aeneas lands at Carthage, even though Carthage was founded some four centuries after the Trojan War.
** There are multiple references to Aeneas taking the "''penates''"--statues of the gods to be kept in households--with him when he leaves Troy. Romans had these, but Greeks actually did not.
* AngelUnaware: Aeneas meets his mother Venus when he lands near Carthage, but she is disguised as a huntress. She shows him the way to Carthage. (Aeneas does realize she's a divine being, he just can't tell which one.)
* AuthorExistenceFailure: Virgil died in Augustus' arms with the poem not yet completed to his satisfaction. He asked Augustus to burn it. Luckily, Augustus ignored his wishes and published it instead. The poem still contains half-lines that Virgil included as placeholders while he figured out what the full line should say.
* {{Badass}}: It's a continuation of ''Literature/TheIliad'', so half the cast counts. Turnus, Camilla, Aeneas in the later chapters, and without a doubt, Mezentius, the Etruscan tyrant who comes to Turnus's aid. He's so badass he can ignore the gods, and still give Aeneas one of the best fights in the book.
** Even in the early books, Aeneas shows hints of his badass nature. When he goes hunting for dinner, he manages to take down ''seven deer'' with a bow and arrow.
* BattleCouple: Nisus and Euryalus are the homosexual kind.
* BeamMeUpScotty: "Beware of Greeks bearing gifts." The original line, ''"Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes,"'' actually means, "I fear the Greeks, even when they bear gifts." [[note]]The error comes from thinking that "et" means "and", as it usually does. Here, however, it's short for "etiam", which means "even".[[/note]]
* BecauseDestinySaysSo: Largely [[DeconstructedTrope deconstructed]]. Aeneas's life is hell because of this trope. He breaks up with Dido by citing it, which doesn't exactly go well to say the least.
** Doesn't matter whether Lavinia really wants to marry Turnus (implied at one point) or how long they've been promised, it's decided the minute he arrives that she's gonna marry Aeneas, who never shows any interest in her. Which means Turnus is doomed to die, just for being her former fiancé. And that's that.
* BloodKnight: '''Turnus'''. Juno only makes him worse.
** Pyrrhus, if the Siege of Troy is any indication.
* BreakUpBonfire: Dido sets fire to Aeneas's things after he abandons her.
* BreatherEpisode: Anchises' funeral games.
* BuryYourGays: Nisus and Euryalus.
** Notable because it is an accidental trope. Virgil would not have intended, nor his audience understood or expected, this trope. All the same, to a modern reader, it fits it oddly exactly.
*** Given that in Roman society EveryoneIsBi, this might not even count, since the distinctions of homo and heterosexuality didn't even exist at that time.
* CaughtInTheRain: Aeneas and Dido are out hunting and take shelter from the rain in the same cave. The rain was part of Juno's successful plan to hook them up.
* {{Continuation}}: In the 15th century, an Italian poet named Maffeo Vegio wrote a continuaton for it, which was widely printed in later editions.
* CurbStompBattle: Pyrrhus vs. Priam.
* {{Curse}}: Dido directs a rather epic one at Aeneas at the end of Book Four. It's several pages long.
* DeadPersonConversation: Most of Book VI. It happens other times as well. In Book 2, Hector warns Aeneas to get out of Troy, and after Aeneas escapes, Creusa's ghost tells him not to wait for her.
* DeathBySex: Aeneas and Dido both suffer consequences from their affair: [[DoubleStandard Aeneas gets a slap on the wrist from the gods, and Dido stabs herself in a botched suicide and burns to death on her funeral pyre, having lost all the respect of her people, other leaders and herself.]]
* DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment: The metrical restrictions of Latin epic, as well as a hefty bit of Vergil's personal style, make for awkward (if not downright humorous) translations. Aeneas' entrance into the "cavernous cavern" is just one of dozens of examples. Vergil also seems fond of his characters "pressing footsteps" rather than just walking.
* DidYouJustFlipOffCthulhu: Mezentius has made a career out of this.
* DisposableWoman: Creusa, Aeneas' first wife who dies during the razing of Troy.
* DisproportionateRetribution: Juno is still pissed about not being chosen as the fairest by the long-dead Paris. Her hatred for the Trojans is the direct cause for the war that fills the second half of the epic.
** Seems even more fitting seeing as 1) some of her reasons are even more stupid, like the fact that Ganymede was chosen as "cup-bearer" to the gods instead of her daughter and he happened to be a Trojan and 2) in the end, she ends up going along with the creation of Italy and Rome anyway, making all of her resistance pointless.
*** Juno doesn't hate Ganymede just because he's Trojan (and therefore ultimately responsible for the destruction of her beloved city Carthage), but because he was her rival for [[DepravedBisexual Jupiter]]'s affections.
* DoomedHometown: [[ForegoneConclusion Troy]]
* DownerEnding: Somewhat; while Aeneas is victorious and peace is ensured, the epic ends on the death of Turnus.
* DressingAsTheEnemy: A band of Trojans disguise themselves in Greek armour; however, the other Trojans are fooled as well, and the Greeks eventually see through the disguise.
* ExecutiveMeddling: Written as propaganda to make Romans proud of their powerful and noble history.
** Virgil had wished it to be burned after his death. Augustus thought otherwise.
* FanSequel: To ''Literature/TheIliad''. Actual Greek traditions held that:
** Aeneas left Troy after an omen of impending doom - the death of Laocoön and his sons - and returned to Mt. Ida.
** Or he did survive the sack of Troy, making a LastStand until the Greeks let him leave intact.
** Aeneas ruled over a rebuilt Troy after the Trojan War, as the ''Iliad'' hints that the kingship would pass from Priam's line to him.
* {{Flashback}}: Books II and III.
* {{Foreshadowing}}: In Book IV we are repeatedly told that Dido is "burning" with love for Aeneas. At the end of the book, this becomes rather unpleasantly literal.
* ForgingScene: Venus gets Vulcan to forge armor for Aeneas.
* GenreSavvy: Some critics read that Aeneas knows he's in a version of ''The Odyssey'' and ''Iliad'', but [[WrongGenreSavvy he misunderstands exactly what's happening to him]]. For example, when Odysseus lands on Phaeacia, he meets Princess Nausicaa who welcomes him and considers marrying him. So when Aeneas lands in Africa and sees a girl there on the shore, he assumes she's his version of Nausicaa and starts acting like Odysseus did to her (he compares her to Diana, a direct reference to the corresponding passage in ''The Odyssey''). Turns out she's not supposed to be Nausicaa, she's his mom Venus; and when he meets the real Nausicaa stand-in (Dido) he doesn't recognise that fact at all.
* GettingCrapPastTheRadar: Yes, it's there. A good example is a line in Book Four, when Dido tells her sister about her love for Aeneas. In English, it's often translated as "perhaps to this one sin I could succumb." In Latin, the order of words in a sentence doesn't matter, so the word for "sin" doesn't come up until the end of the line. Since the word for "succumb" literally means "to lie under," Romans might have thought that Virgil was referring to [[GoodPeopleHaveGoodSex something else...]]
* GiveMyRegardsInTheNextWorld: A rather villainous version.
-->'''Priam:''' How dare you make me witness my own son's death! You're no son of [[Literature/TheIliad Achilles]] -- he had respect for those begging for mercy!
-->'''Neoptolemus[[note]]a.k.a. Pyrrhus[[/note]]:''' You'll get to see my father yourself! Be sure to tell him how wicked his son is. Now die.
* GodSaveUsFromTheQueen: While her husband is a good if not very proactive king, Queen Amata of Latium sides with Turnus against Aeneas. Then there's Juno, who also causes some trouble for Aeneas.
** Dido goes a bit love-crazy after Aeneas arrives, and it gets worse after he dumps her. By that point virtually all her subjects are against her.
* GrayAndGrayMorality: Aeneas is a courageous, pious, and dutiful leader, but he also commits morally questionable acts such as abandoning Dido without warning and slaying an unarmed Turnus at the end of the poem. The Trojans' enemies are likewise portrayed sympathetically despite being antagonists.
* HalfHumanHybrid: Aeneas is the son of Venus, and Turnus, his rival, is the son of a nymph.
* ImplacableMan: Mezentius, particularly after [[spoiler: the death of his son]].
* InMediasRes / HowWeGotHere: Books II and III are an extended flashback to the events of the Trojan War and the long period of wandering that followed it, leading up to the Trojans arrival in Carthage at the beginning of Book I.
* IronicEcho: Aeneas refers to himself as "pius (roughly "righteous") Aeneas" during his remorse following [[spoiler: the death of Lausus]].
* ItsPersonal: Aeneas ''would'' have been perfectly content to show his rival, Turnus, mercy and let him live... if he hadn't killed his friend a few books ago. Mezentius and Aeneas' conflict also turns personal after [[spoiler: the death of the former's son]].
* JerkassGods: Pretty much all of them, but Juno is in her own category.
* LastOfHisKind: Aeneas and the other Trojans are part of a handful of survivors of their city-state after it was exterminated by the Greeks. ''The Aeneid'' definitely contributed to the idea of the surviving Trojans being the founders of other countries -- for example, several Medieval works had them as the founders of Britain.
* LikeFatherLikeSon: {{Averted}}, Priam explicitly condemns Pyrrhus as not being like Achilles.
* LoveAtFirstSight: Dido for Aeneas, justified in that Cupid, Aeneas' half-brother, personally causes it.
** Aeneas and Pallas seem to have become friends at first sight. I mean seriously, a RoaringRampageOfRevenge for a guy you've known for a week or two?
* LoveRuinsTheRealm: Could have been the title of Dido's autobiography.
* MamaBear: Venus goes to great lengths to make sure Aeneas' destiny happens on schedule. Not only does Aeneas resent it, she really does more damage than good.
* MissionFromGod: The prophecy that Aeneas will found Rome. He finds other nice places to settle ''three times'', and every time the gods say, "Nope, you gotta keep going."
* MoralityPet: Lausus to Mezentius. The [[spoiler: former's death sets off a RoaringRampageOfRevenge]].
** Also Mezentius's faithful horse Rhaebus.
* MyGirlIsNotASlut: Aeneas' people may be just as annoyed about him knocking boots with Dido as hers are, but she's the one who pays for it.
* NayTheist: [[BadAss Mezentius]] is one of the first. His whole shtick is essentially, "screw you Jupiter!"
** Iarbas, an African king spurned by Dido, rhetorically asks Jupiter ''to his face'' whether or not he's powerful enough to be worth worshipping.
** Virgil himself could be seen to take this stance, since the ''Aeneid'' can be read as saying [[JerkassGods "look what horrible people the gods are"]].
* NiceHat: Turnus has a helmet crested with a metal chimera that breathes real fire.
* PapaWolf: Aeneas and Mezentius being the main examples.
* PatrioticFervor: One of the whole points of the work!
** [-"Remember, Roman, these will be the arts for you, to rule peoples by command, to impose the custom of peace, to spare the conquered, and to wear down the proud with war." (6.851-3)-]
** As mentioned above, though, it can be read as satire against that same PatrioticFervor.
* PerspectiveFlip: While the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'' told the story from the Greeks' point of view, this work tells it from that of the surviving Trojans.
* PreMortemOneLiner: Pyrrhus to [[spoiler:King Priam]].
** Also, Aeneas to [[spoiler: Turnus]]: "This wound will come from Pallas: Pallas makes this offering, and from your criminal blood exacts his due!". All the more famous because it sparks a WhatTheHellHero moment, and dishes out an [[NoEnding abrupt]], rather DownerEnding.
* PrettyBoy: Young men such as Ascanius, Pallas and Lausus often have their almost feminine beauty described at length (since it was highly valued in Rome). Turnus' good looks are apparently enough to inspire other men to fight and die for him.
* ProphecyTwist: The Harpy Celaeno's prophecy that they will get so hungry that they'll eat their tables...which they do when they eat a meal served on big pieces of flatbread.
** Young Ascanius making direct reference to the pun only makes it better.
* RealisticDictionIsUnrealistic
* TheRival: Turnus, Aeneas' rival for the land of Latium. He's even called a "second Achilles".
* SecondHandStorytelling
* SexyWalk: How Aeneas recognizes Venus in her disguise at the beginning of the book. ("And by her stride she showed herself a goddess.")
* ShamingTheMob: Only in metaphor, but [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome cool all the same]].
* ShoutOut:
** The first words, "I sing of arms and a man," are meant by Vergil as a callback to ''Literature/TheIliad'' and ''Literature/TheOdyssey'' respectively, to connect his epic with the works of Homer.
** The whole book is chock full of [[ShoutOut shout outs]] of various kinds to both epics.
* SoapOperaRapidAgingSyndrome: Ascanius goes from a small child in the first book to being able to go hunting at Carthage and then fighting and killing in the Latin wars.
* StarCrossedLovers: Dido and Aeneas.
* SwordOverHead: Subverted -- Aeneas almost decides to spare Turnus when he has him cornered at swordpoint, until he remembers how Turnus killed his friend.
* TemporaryLoveInterest: Dido.
* ToHellAndBack: Book VI.
* TrojanHorse: Book II.
* WarIsHell: Look no further than the Fall of Troy.
* WatchingTroyBurn: The TropeNamer.
* WeWillMeetAgain: Dido's LastWords are that hers and Aeneas' people will meet again in war -- Virgil's fictional cause of the Punic Wars.
* WhatTheHellHero: Aeneas does a few things to provoke this reaction, among them abandoning Dido without warning and slaying the helpless Turnus at the end of the poem. While the ancient Romans [[ValuesDissonance would have viewed these actions somewhat differently than modern readers do]], the discrepancy is not so great that Aeneas' less heroic moments wouldn't have caused them some pause.
** Some have argued that this was deliberate; since Aeneas was supposed to be a stand-in for Augustus, many believe that Virgil worked in a TakeThat or two out of resentment for having his farm confiscated to give to soldiers.
** Priam also calls out Pyrrhus, [[ForegoneConclusion sadly to no effect]]:
--> '''Priam''': You pretend that Achilles was your father, but this is not how Achilles treated his enemy Priam.
* WomanScorned: Dido ''really'' goes off the deep end, even though Aeneas obviously didn't want to leave, and wouldn't have if [[JerkassGods the gods (mostly Juno)]] [[YouCantFightFate told him to move on]].
** [-"Could I not have torn apart his snatched-away body, and scattered it on the waves? Could I not have murdered his companions and Ascanius himself, and served them on the father's table to be feasted upon?"-]
** Additionally, Juno's whole reason for being miffed at the Trojans (and therefore Aeneas) is that Paris didn't pick her.
* WouldntHitAGirl: Some historians believe that the reason [[spoiler:Camilla isn't killed by Aeneas was so that Virgil could avoid having his hero kill a woman. Even a BadAss ActionGirl kind of woman]].
* {{Yandere}}: Dido, Juno, Amata (once Allecto has her way with her).
* YouCantFightFate: What we would call an OverusedRunningGag.
* YouCantGoHomeAgain: Troy has been razed by Greek soldiers; the premise of the poem is Aeneas trying to found a new one.
** Well, for a while Aeneas certainly does try to make a new Troy and actually meets someone else who successfully does so however the point of the story is really more him realizing that it is not his place to reproduce Troy but instead to lay the groundwork for Rome.
* YouHaveWaitedLongEnough: Dido's sister Anna says this when Dido believes that having an affair with Aeneas would be betraying her deceased husband.
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