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'''Philip Marlowe''' is the creation of Creator/RaymondChandler, and an original TropeCodifier of the [[HardboiledDetective Hardboiled]] PrivateDetective archetype. While his first official appearance was in the 1939 novel ''Literature/TheBigSleep,'' Chandler later adapted some of his short stories about similar detectives into longer novels.

InAWorld of [[DirtyCop dirty cops]], [[FemmeFatale femme fatales]], and a whole lot of murder, he faces the seamy underbelly of UsefulNotes/LosAngeles with nothing but a gun and his wits -- and they're both pretty quick.

When he's not [[DeadpanSnarker snarking]] or [[SmokingIsCool smoking]], he enjoys a good game of [[SmartPeoplePlayChess chess]] or even some nice poetry.

Marlowe features in the novels ''The Big Sleep'' (1939), ''Farewell, My Lovely'' (1940), ''The High Window'' (1942), ''The Lady in the Lake'' (1943), ''The Little Sister'' (1949), ''The Long Goodbye'' (1953), and ''Playback'' (1958).

Besides Chandler's works (and some other authors' take on the character as well), Marlowe has appeared in no less than 10 film adaptions, even more television and radio programs, and at least one video game.
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!!Works about Philip Marlowe with their own pages:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Literature ]]

* 1939: ''Literature/TheBigSleep''
* 1940: ''Literature/FarewellMyLovely''
* 1953: ''Literature/TheLongGoodbye''

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Film ]]

* 1944: ''Film/MurderMySweet''. Based on the novel ''Farewell, My Lovely''. Marlowe is played by Dick Powell.
* 1946: ''Film/TheBigSleep''. This is perhaps the most famous film adaption. Marlowe is played by HumphreyBogart.
* 1973: ''Film/TheLongGoodbye''. Marlowe is played by Elliott Gould. Interestingly, it is not a PeriodPiece, but takes place in TheSeventies, when it was made.
* 1975: ''Film/FarewellMyLovely''. Marlowe is played by Robert Mitchum -- the only actor ever to play Marlowe in two different movies.

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!!Philip Marlowe provides examples of the following tropes:

* AccidentalTruth: In one book, intending to express his lack of interest in a case, Marlowe tells a random person that he couldn't care less if they were a previously mentioned long-disappeared killer. This causes most of the book's plot as they mistakenly assume he knows their secret.
* TheAlcoholic: Marlowe himself would be considered an alcoholic by today's standards.
* AluminumChristmasTrees: As discussed in [[http://onlyagame.wbur.org/2014/12/27/best-of-raymond-chandler-baseball this article]], ''The High Window'' contains a puzzling-to-modern-readers reference to synthetic crowd noise at a Dodgers game broadcast on the radio, particularly given that the novel is set in California and was written well before the Dodgers left Brooklyn. As the article explains, between the 1920s and the 1950s there was an industry in re-creating baseball games for same-day delay broadcasts, and sportscasters would mimic details such as crowd sounds and the noise of the bat in order to provide listeners with a realistic experience.
%%* BadassLongcoat
%%* BlackAndGreyMorality
* CatApult: In "Finger Man", when the villainous corrupt politician has Marlowe taken to his turf in order to threaten him, Marlowe tosses the villain's pet cat into his face and uses the distraction to grab his revolver and hold him at gunpoint.
* ChandlersLaw: Used several times, but usually with some kind of twist. In ''The Lady in the Lake'', a ''woman'' comes through the door with a gun, and that's only the first of several twists.
* ComicBookTime: While he did get older, he didn't age as much as the intervening years between installments should have allowed for.
* DeadpanSnarker: And ''how.''
* EvilGloating: Lampshaded in ''The Lady in the Lake''.
-->"I've never liked this scene," I said. "Detective confronts murderer. Murderer produces gun, points same at detective. Murderer tells detective the whole sad story, with the idea of shooting him at the end of it. Thus wasting a lot of valuable time, even if in the end murderer did shoot detective. Only murderer never does. Something always happens to prevent it. The gods don't like this scene either. They always manage to spoil it."
* {{Expy}}: Philip Marlowe, protagonist of Chandler's novels, is pretty much John Dalmas, protagonist of Chandler's stories for ''Dime Detective'' magazine, who is pretty much Carmady, protagonist of Chandler's stories for ''Black Mask'' magazine. To the extent that the Dalmas and Carmady stories were subsequently collected and reprinted [[DolledUpInstallment with Marlowe's name substituted for theirs]].
* FakingTheDead: At least two of the novels have one of the murders ([[NeverOneMurder there's always more than one]]) turn out to be this.
%%* FilmNoir
%%* TheForties
* FriendOnTheForce: Bernie Ohls, chief investigator for the DA's office. Also, [[UnseenCharacter Violets M'Gee]].
%%* GambitPileup
* GeniusBruiser: Marlowe is tall and about as tough as they come. He's also incredibly street smart, an intelligent detective and has a classical education. He occasionally references some pretty academic subjects that usually confuse whomever he's talking to. His only real hobby seems to be playing chess.
* HorribleHollywood: Features prominently in ''The Little Sister''.
%%* HardboiledDetective
* InVinoVeritas: While Marlowe can certainly hold his liquor, not everyone else can. A frequent tactic of his is to get people to talk to him when they're drunk.
* IWasNeverHere: In ''The Little Sister'', a telephone conversation ends with this trope.
-->'''Gonzalez:''' One moment, you have not told me what happened.\\
'''Marlowe:''' I haven't even telephoned you.
* KnightInSourArmor: He gets positively acidic by the time of ''The Little Sister'' and ''The Long Goodbye''.
* LemonyNarrator: Marlowe both unconventionally describes people and isn't above LeaningOnTheFourthWall.
%%* LoveMakesYouEvil: ''The Little Sister''.
* MacGuffin: ''The High Window'' has Marlowe tracking down the Brasher Dubloon, a legendary coin worth a fortune that leaves a trail of dead thieves behind it; come the ending, it turns out [[spoiler:a minor character sold it for a new start with a clean slate]], but it's unimportant considering Marlowe uncovers a framing and a few murders in the process.
* MinorCrimeRevealsMajorPlot: Quite a lot of Marlowe's cases follow this pattern -- he's hired to do something relatively straightforward (negotiate with a blackmailer, mind a missing woman) and as soon as he begins asking questions, everybody in the neighbourhood with a dirty secret assumes he's after them and starts threatening him. Then, of course, he ''has'' to investigate them, just in case they're connected to his case.
%%* MysteryFiction
* NiceHat: Can't go wrong in a fedora.
* NothingIsScarier: In ''The Little Sister'', the series takes an unusual turn when the conclusion has Marlowe investigating an isolated estate on a private road. The lack of traffic or people makes it eerily quiet as it is, but then even Marlowe himself suddenly announces something seems off.
-->[The living room] was curtained and quite dark, but it had the feel of great size. The darkness was heavy in it and my nose twitched at a lingering odor that said somebody had been there not too long ago. I stopped breathing and listened. Tigers could be in the darkness watching me. Or guys with large guns, standing flat-footed, breathing softly with their mouths open. ''Or nothing and nobody and too much imagination in the wrong place.''
* OfficialCouple: With Linda Loring, once he meets her in ''The Long Goodbye''. Chandler specifically created the character to be the perfect match for a man like Marlowe (a sort of "Princess In Sour Dress" to his KnightInSourArmor). Appropriately enough, she's the first woman we ever "see" Marlowe in bed with. She appears again in the final scene of ''Playback'' (the next novel and Chandler's last finished one), and the unfinished ''The Poodle Springs Story'' ([[PosthumousCollaboration which Robert B. Parker finished,]] to dubious response).
* PinkElephants: In chapter 18 of ''The Lady in the Lake'', a character refers to a doctor "who ran around all night with a case of loaded hypodermic needles, keeping the fast set from having pink elephants for breakfast."
* PoliceAreUseless: [[DownplayedTrope Not as often as you'd think, though.]]
* PosthumousCollaboration: Chandler's unfinished eighth Marlowe novel, ''Poodle Springs'', was finished by Robert B. Parker (of ''{{Spenser}}'' fame) and published in 1989. Generally [[FanonDisContinuity dismissed]] by Chandler fans.
%%* PrivateDetective
* PrivateEyeMonologue: The TropeCodifier.
%%* PublicDomainCharacter
* RevolversAreJustBetter: Marlowe's .38.
* SelfPlagiarism: The first four Marlowe novels are patched together out of Dalmas and Carmady short stories, with bits rearranged, merged, split and/or renamed.
* ShapedLikeItself: From ''The Lady in the Lake'':
-->''She jerked away from me like a startled fawn might, if I had a startled fawn and it jerked away from me.''
* SkeletonKeyCard: It's mentioned in some of the stories that Marlowe carries a strip of celluloid in his wallet precisely for this purpose (this was in the days before credit cards).
* SmartPeoplePlayChess: Several of the books show Marlowe studying chess problems during his down time. (Although he's never seen playing an actual game, because that would presuppose that he had friends to play with.)
* SmokingIsCool: Marlowe starts out as a cigarette smoker, and switches to a pipe as he grows older and more thoughtful.
* TheStoic: Though Marlowe does have his more human moments, these mainly occur when he's been truly pushed over the edge. The rest of the time, though, he manages to remain completely deadpan even as he's being beaten up by crooked cops or having guns waved in his face.
%%* StreetSmart
* TalksLikeASimile: A feature of Marlowe's narration, originally because Chandler was being paid by the word.
* TapOnTheHead: Happens quite often, sometimes accompanied by a lengthy and poetic description of darkness washing over him as he loses consciousness. Did we mention Chandler was being paid by the word?
* ThirdPersonPerson: Marlowe as narrator occasionally refers to himself as "Marlowe" rather than "I," usually when he's being cheeky.
* TropeCodifier: Of the {{Hardboiled|Detective}} PrivateDetective -- well, ''[[Film/TheMalteseFalcon one]]'' of them, at least.

!!Adaptations without their own pages provide examples of:

* ArtisticLicenseGunSafety: In ''Marlowe'' (1969), Philip Marlowe, at the scene of a murder, checks that a gun has been fired by putting the muzzle under his nose and smelling it. Yes, his finger isn't on the trigger, but he certainly should know better.
* BadassInANiceSuit: The title character aside, there is Winslow Wong in the 1969 version. When Marlowe refuses his Bribe, [[PersonOfMassDestruction Winslow tears apart his office with his bare hands.]] It helps that Wong is played by Creator/BruceLee prior to his Hong Kong action films.
* GenreSavvy: Marlowe knows he can't take Winslow on in a one on one fight. [[spoiler: So his plan is to get him angry, [[DeadlyDodging while dodging him.]] Then when Winslow is too riled up, he goes for a flying kick, causing him to fall to his death.]]
* POVCam: The 1947 film version of ''Lady in the Lake'', directed by and starring Robert Montgomery, was filmed almost entirely in P.O.V. Cam to imitate the novel's first-person narration. Just so the film's Big Name Star was not totally unseen, he appears in bridging sequences and is seen whenever Marlowe looks into a mirror.

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