'''''[[http://tyrannotitan333.deviantart.com/gallery/37549017 Palae-oh-no]]''''' is a series of stories on DeviantArt by paleontology enthusiast and [[OneOfUs fellow troper]] Tropers/{{Tyrannotitan}}. The stories feature a [[CivilizedAnimal Late Cretaceous society]] run by troodonts in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laramidia Laramidia]], the main characters being two friends studying at university, Sampson Pterygius and Lora Anuscler. Both of them have relatively unusual interests, with Sampson advocating against the [[FantasticRacism Fantastic Speciesism]] that is present in this society (troodonts are the only maniraptors granted full rights) and Lora being interested in synapsids, which are considered little more than food by most troodonts. The two are often joined by Jeff Breud, Sampson's high school science teacher.

Sampson shares his home with two other friends, Kollin the ''Albertonykus'' and Corrie the ''Epichirostenotes'', who are forced to stay permanently indoors due to the FantasticRacism. Kollin spends much of his time on the internet ranting at {{troll}}s and pseudoscientific fringe groups, while Corrie, being [[StraightMan more level-headed]], tries (often unsuccessfully) to get him to relax.

The series frequently [[TakeThat satirizes]] [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology pop cultural depictions of paleontology]] and [[ShoutOut references]] [[GeniusBonus paleontological facts]].

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!!This work provides examples of the following tropes:
* ActionGirl: Lora [=RPRs=] a ''Beelzebufo'' and kills it.
** Kim-Lee, especially if you push her BerserkButton.
* AmplifiedAnimalAptitude: Even non-sapient animals appear to be reasonably intelligent.
** Subverted by the Silurian fish and arthropods, which shown to be able to talk, but it's just because they were accidentally hit by the time machine's energy.
* AnachronismStew: The author took pains to avoid this, though some taxa from the Early Cretaceous of China are present, having arrived by time machine. At the end of "Ton-Zilla", Djhey brings a ''[[ItMakesAsMuchSenseInContext psychic hippo]]'' to the Cretaceous.
* AprilFoolsPlot: "Secrets Revealed".
* AttackOfTheFiftyFootWhatever: The pristichampsosaurs.
* AudienceWhatAudience: Kollin is the only character so far to demonstrate knowledge of the fourth wall, much to the confusion of Corrie. He has started teaching her to be more GenreSavvy though.
* AuthorAppeal: The author is quite fond of ''PhineasAndFerb'' and ''StarWars'', so there are multiple references to both franchises (and other references tend to be from things he likes too).
** Some of the characters have traits of AspergersSyndrome, something the author is diagnosed with.
* AuthorTract: Many episodes voice the author's opinion on portrayals of prehistoric life in popular culture and common reactions to said depictions. The series ''is'' a satire after all.
* BackFromTheDead: "The Bone Wars" parodies [[StarWarsTheCloneWars Darth Maul's]] case of this.
** Played straight in "Soaring Pteros", where [[spoiler: Sampson sort of dies and comes back to life as a ''JurassicPark'' raptor]].
* BadLiar: Sampson.
* BadassBookworm: Kollin helps defeat Djhey's army of mutants.
* BerserkButton: For Kollin, [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology depicting prehistoric animals inaccurately]].
** Kim-Lee ''strongly'' dislikes the assumption that HerbivoresAreFriendly.
* BewareTheSillyOnes: Djhey Pterus is a complete maniac, but he was competent enough to [[spoiler:infiltrate Primus's society and steal blueprints for a time machine, as well as capture the heroes and nearly succeed in ''killing'' them]].
** Partay_Animal was introduced as simply a rude forumgoer, but "Ton-Zilla" reveals that he has aspirations to be a supervillain.
* BigDamnHeroes: [[spoiler:Sampson, mutated into a ''Jurassic Park''-style deinonychosaur, saves the others from Djhey.]]
* BigLippedAlligatorMoment: In-universe, Kollin gets a video that is made to insult you, which has silly lyrics. Also an almost-literal example because the creature featured is a ''Notosuchus'', a crocodyliform that may have had lips.[[invoked]]
* BigNo: [[RevengeOfTheSith Darth Vader's]] [[{{Narm/StarWars}} is parodied]].
* BilingualBonus: The title of the second episode, "Ke Makana", is [[{{Hawaii}} Hawai'ian]] for "the gift", and in the same episode, the island called "Te Piro Nui" is [[{{UsefulNotes/Chile}} Rapa Nui]] for "the great rotten".
** BlindIdiotTranslation: An Indonesian on DeviantArt pointed out that the author translated a term wrong, as an attempt at BilingualBonus. WordOfGod admits to using an online translator, so it isn't surprising.
* BondVillainStupidity: Partay_Animal allows the heroes to survive long enough for him to explain his backstory and evil plan to them.
* BreathWeapon: The pristichampsosaurs can shoot FrickinLaserBeams from their mouths.
* BrotherhoodOfFunnyHats: Implied to exist in the form of the "Se'dinoiro".
* CarnivoreConfusion: Due to her interest in mammals, Lora refuses to eat them and even has one as a pet.
** Kollin also has a cockroach "acquaintance" named Bert who he decided not to eat one day.
* CatchPhrase: WordOfGod has stated that Kollin referring Corrie as his "fellow ''Epichirostenotes''" is one.
* CelibateHero: Both Sampson, who is erotophobic, and Lora, who is antisexual.
* ChekhovsGunman: Primus and Partay_Animal.
* ChildProdigy: Kollin has revealed to have been this.
* CivilizedAnimal: The troodonts. Other maniraptors are similarly sapient, but suffer from FantasticRacism.
* CloudCuckooLander: The troodont interrogating Sampson and Lora is implied to be mentally unstable and uses anachronistic phrases. Later revealed to be [[spoiler: Djhey Pterus]], who ''still'' shows insanity.
* ContinuityNod: Kollin manages to get a reply to his Early Extraterrestrials rant. He is not amused.
* CoolPet: Ptilly, Lora's multituberculate, who is implied to have corvid intelligence.
* CoolTeacher: Jeff.
* CriticalResearchFailure: InUniverse example with the programme below, which has heaps of errors.
** A creationist calls ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scutosaurus Scutosaurus]]'' and ''[[StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Diplodocus]]'' synapsids... [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology when they are not at all]].
* CureYourGays: Inverted, with reports of a pill that actually ''turns'' you homosexual.
* CutawayGag: There is one which shows a man working for the Chemistry Channel checking emails.
* DarkerAndEdgier: While the ever-present [[FantasticRacism Fantastic Speciesism]] means that the atmosphere is never all that idealistic, the episodes involving Djhey Pterus tend to be darker than usual.
* DeadpanSnarker: Corrie shows shades of this, often as a result of Kollin's rants.
* DeepCoverAgent: Primus and the other avialians who work for him. And now Sampson, Lora, Jeff, Kollin, and Corrie as well.
* {{Determinator}}: The ''Atrociraptor'' are quite reckless. Fortunately for Jeff, they're also quite easily distracted.
* DeusExMachina: Subverted when it appears that a phoenix has showed up to save Jeff from the ''Atrociraptor'' pursuing him, but it turns out to be a remote-controlled toy that crashes to the ground.
* DidTheyOrDidntThey: Done with [[ShipTease Sampson and Lora]] in "Pseudobufo Pervasor", where the two mention that they have had a great night, but refuse to reveal why (it doesn't help that LiteralMinded Lora mentioned that they ''slept together'', leaving Jeff to interperet things differently). [[spoiler: It turns out they were watching a marathon of a series called ''[[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic The Parksosaurs]]''.]]
* DisneyDeath: [[spoiler:Sampson in "Soaring Pteros".]]
* DistractedByTheSexy: Happens to Jeff when the main characters are on their way to meet with Primus.
* DitzyGenius: Kollin has his moments.
** Vegid. Smart enough to invent a time machine, but very forgetful and often overlooks crucial details.
* DocumentaryOfLies: [[AncientAliens Early Extraterrestrials]] and ''Liopleurodon: Monster of the Deep''.
* EatsBabies: A [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaoyangopterus Chaoyangopterus]] was reported to have done this in a child care centre. The only survivors of the ''Chaoyangopterus'' attack were the two females running it.
* FailOSuckyName: The ShowWithinAShow, ''[[StarWarsTheCloneWars The Bone Wars]]'', has Nast E. Drink, who keeps on getting called alcohol references to the point where he even [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] it.
* [[FantasticRacism Fantastic Speciesism]]: Most non-troodont maniraptors are forced to live out in the wild. Dromaeosaurids at least live in the society alongside the troodonts, but only troodonts are granted full civil rights. InterspeciesRomance is also frowned upon.
* FanDumb: Referenced in "The Bone Wars", as a [[ShoutOut nod to]] ''StarWars''' own.[[invoked]]
* FantasticSlurs: Colin calls alvarezsaurs "stumpos", in reference to their tiny arms.
* FeatheredFiend: The ''Atrociraptor'' that have a grudge against Jeff.
* FishOutOfTemporalWater: The main characters are subjected to this in "Planet Not-Theropod".
* {{Flanderization}}: In universe, it's been noted that Kollin's frustration has become more and more apparent over time.
* FollowTheLeader: The author has admitted the idea for a [[http://palaeohno.tumblr.com/ Tumblr blog]] was inspired by {{Raptormaniacs}}.
* {{Foreshadowing}}: Gangs of ''Atrociraptor'' are mentioned on the news in the first episode. One with a more important role shows up in the fourth one.
** There are references to frogs in "The Bone Wars", which have a bigger role in the following episode.
* FourthWallMailSlot: There's an [[http://palaeohno.tumblr.com/ askblog]].
* FrogsAndToads: The ''Beelzebufo''.
* FunWithAcronyms: MARTIANS, which stands for a pseudoscientific fringe group that advocates "Mammals Are Really Tiny, Inferior, And Not Synapsids", a parody of the real life fringe group BAND (Bird Are Not Dinosaurs).
* FurryConfusion: Due to FantasticRacism, Kollin and Corrie are officially considered Sampson's "pets", even though he certainly doesn't treat them that way. One of Sampson's students, named [[IncrediblyLamePun Collin]], calls [[NamesTheSame Kollin]] a [[FantasticSlur "stumpo"]], and the students are shocked to find out Kollin (an ''Albertonykus'', alverezsaur) and Corrie (an ''Epichirostenotes'', oviraptorosaur) can speak. Needless to say, Kollin is not amused.
** The ''Microraptor'' living in the Late Cretaceous are the only maniraptors that can't talk due to a time travel accident.
* FurryReminder: The characters have access to technology like cars and computers, but tidbits like the males being more flamboyant and the use of gizzard stones clearly show that these are still maniraptors, not feathered humans.
* FutureSlang: To the troodonts, "horse shit" is this, which brings up the question of how the troodont saying it came to learn the term. [[spoiler:He turns out to be a time traveler.]]
* GadgeteerGenius: Vegid can invent essentially anything the plot requires.
* GenderBlenderName: Anne Mei Rex, the dictator of Brachryo.
* GiantFlyer: ''Quetzalcoatlus'', also doubles as a MonsterOfTheWeek.
* GoneHorriblyWrong: The basic premise of "[[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Operation Screw-up]]".
* GrammarNazi: Kollin is like this when talking to [[{{Troll}} trolls]] in a chat box.
* GuileHero: Kollin, Sampson, and Jeff all have their moments in "Planet Not-Theropod".
* HarmlessVillain: While Rob, Langsty and Bergus are serious about what they do, they aren't very successful at their attempts to kill Jeff in revenge for something he did to their family.
* HealingFactor: Djhey has been exposed to so much of the mutagen he'd collected that he apparently has this power now.
* HeroicSacrifice: [[spoiler: Feduciucc]] in "Planet Not-Theropod".
* {{Hobbits}}: The ancestors of the sapient troodonts were descended from a dwarf troodontid species called the "Boppits". They died out thanks to a volcanic eruption. They are a parody of the real life "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_floresiensis Hobbit]]".
* HopeSpot: The phoenix that appears when Jeff is being chased by some ''Atrociraptor'' is just a remote-controlled toy.
** The gang successfully escape from their car when it gets stuck in quicksand, but are blown back into the quicksand by a strong wind.
** Earlier in the same episode, Jeff realises that the man running the airport security is a friend of his, and sees if he can get past him using that. Unfortunately, it involves Sampson and Lora being questioned.
* HotTeacher: Feduciucc Synaphy, according to at least one student.
* HypocriticalHumor: Kollin thinks "Colin" is a pathetic name.
* [[ImplacableMan Implacable Frog]]: The ''Beelzebufo'' that tries to eat Kollin.
* InterspeciesRomance: Jeff's girlfriend is Chera, Rob the ''Atrociraptor'''s daughter, hence Rob's grudge against him.
** Kollin's crush on Kim-Lee.
* ItWillNeverCatchOn: In "Ke Makana", Jeff scoffs at the idea that featherless troodonts would become popular someday.
* JerkWithAHeartOfGold: Feduciucc Synaphy turns out to be one. [[spoiler: He is an advocate for equal rights among maniraptors and has been actively involved in promoting the cause.]]
* JerkassHasAPoint: Fedcuciucc calls out Lora for treating him as nothing but a one-dimensional crank.
* KeepingSecretsSucks: Lora has this opinion when she has to do so to surprise Sampson.
* LampshadeHanging: All the time!
* LargeHam: Kollin can become this when he is annoyed.
** Early Extraterrestrials is pretty overdramatic too.
** The Silurian arthropods.
* LaughablyEvil: Djhey and Partay_Animal.
* LiteralMinded: Lora.
* LovableSexManiac: Jeff is implied to be this.
* MadScientist: Djhey Pterus.
* MadeOfIron: The ''Beelzebufo'' that chases Kollin falls into a ditch, gets run over by a bus, is set on fire, and is blown up by a bomb but [[ImplacableMan just keeps coming]].
* MassiveNumberedSiblings: Sampson has 22 siblings. [[ShownTheirWork This falls within the size range of known troodont clutches.]]
* MeaningfulName: Essentially every single character. These are explained in the author's comments on every story.
* MemeticMutation: InUniverse example with the "[[BigLippedAlligatorMoment Big-lipped]] ''[[BigLippedAlligatorMoment Notosuchus]]''", a video used to [[{{Jerkass}} insult people]].
* MisplacedWildlife: The author took pains to avoid this, though some taxa from the Early Cretaceous of China are present, having arrived by time machine.
** Other invasive species in Laramidia are also mentioned, having been artificially introduced by troodonts.
* MistakenForBadass: In ''The Bone Wars'' Han Solo turns out to be [[spoiler:a trilobite of the species ''Han solo'']].
* MixAndMatchCritter: The pristichampsosaurs, as giant part ''Pristichampsus'', part champsosaurs.
* MoneyDearBoy: Jeff references this trope when he thinks about why the ''Atrociraptor'' would decide to fight an ''Edmontosaurus''.
** Kollin uses this technique to convince a "dresser" to remove her feathers.
* MonsterMunch: Dat Guye.
* MotorMouth: Sampson's father.
* NewPowersAsThePlotDemands: There are constant reveals of devices made by Vegid to help the main characters.
* NinjaLog: On several occasions, Corrie has created artwork so quickly that it can be used to this effect.
* NotZilla: The pristichampsosaurs, as lampshaded by the title of their debut episode, "Ton-Zilla".
* OldFriend: Cyryl.
* OverreactingAirportSecurity: Used in the first half of "It Begins", where ''everyone'' (except Jeff, Kollin and Corrie) was taken for interrogation after the security inspector [[LawfulStupid jumped to conclusions]].
* PaperThinDisguise: Kollin and Corrie's troodont disguises. Literally, as said disguises are just paper masks. In "Planet Not-Theropod", they put on similar masks to disguise themselves as humans, and it's ''still'' effective.
* ParalyzingFearOfSexuality: Sampson has this, to the point where he had to take a tranquiliser.
* {{Parody}}: Quite common, considering it is meant to be a satire of palaeontology. This has so far been done to the [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology BAND]], ''AncientAliens'', ''JurassicFightClub'', creationists, ''{{Primeval}}'', ''[[WalkingWithDinosaurs Walking with Monsters]]'', ''PhineasAndFerbTheMovieAcrossTheSecondDimension'' and a double parody involving [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bone_Wars The Bone Wars]] and ''StarWarsTheCloneWars''.
** Kollin is essentially one of hardcore dinosaur enthusiasts.
* ParentalAbandonment: A major factor in Corrie's childhood, as her father forced her to leave him at less than a month old, and her mother was killed by an ''Arrhinoceratops''.
* PlatonicLifePartners: Sampson and Lora appear to be this, as they are very kind to each other, get along well and seem fairly close.
** Kollin and Corrie as well, as the two practically have spent their whole lives together.
* PrehistoricMonster: Parodied.
* PteroSoarer: Parodied.
* PunctuatedForEmphasis: A palaeontologist in Early Extraterrestrials does this in a ShoutOut to ThreeHundred.
* RaptorAttack: Averted, though often parodied.
* RealLifeWritesThePlot: Many examples, but [[http://tyrannotitan333.deviantart.com/art/Palae-oh-no-Ep-9-The-Great-Banning-334209921 "The Great Banning"]] especially is based on an actual online experience of the author.
* RealityEnsues: Vegid builds a device that can ''invoke'' this, [[spoiler:causing the pristichampsosaurs to succumb to SquareCubeLaw]].
* RebelLeader: Primus. Unusually for this trope, he holds an extremely powerful position in the society, being the owner of a highly successful shopping center.
* RedShirt: Lampshaded.
--> '''Dat Guye:''' It ''always'' has to be the unimportant guy, doesn’t it?
* RedemptionEqualsDeath: Though the author [[ShrugOfGod hasn't decided]] [[spoiler:whether Feduciucc actually died at the end of "Planet Not-Theropod",]] said event certainly comes across as this trope.
* ResetButton: Vegid's time machine is designed to do this. Time travelers who use it remember their trip, but otherwise the timeline remains unaltered and {{Temporal Paradox}}es cannot happen.
** One happens in "Operation Screw-up", in the form of a mind wiping device [[AffectionateParody which is presented like in]] ''PhineasAndFerbTheMovieAcrossTheSecondDimension''.
* RuleOfCool: The ''Beelzebufo'' being toxic like cane toads.
* SeldomSeenSpecies: Many mentioned and shown, with major ones including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therocephalia therocephalians]], ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertonykus Albertonykus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epichirostenotes Epichirostenotes]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atrociraptor Atrociraptor]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaoyangopterus Chaoyangopterus]]'', [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avisauridae avisaurids]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notosuchidae notosuchids]], ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemicolopterus Nemicolopterus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_solo_(trilobite) Han solo]]'', [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptoceratopsidae leptoceratopsids]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Champsosauridae champsosaurs]], ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bistahieversor Bistahieversor]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labocania Labocania]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrhinoceratops Arrhinoceratops]]'' and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beelzebufo Beelzebufo]]''.
* SesquipedalianLoquaciousness: A theme in "The Great Banning", which also results in a parody.
* SheIsNotMyGirlfriend: [[LampshadeHanging Lampshaded]] when Sampson and Lora are being interrogated by a troodont at the airport.
--> '''Sampson:''' Okay, why does everyone assume that we are a couple because we are a male and female together?
* ShipTease: Subverted in "It was MARITANS! 2/2", as when Kollin meets Lora, he becomes catatonic, but is merely stunned at the sight of a lizard. He acts normally once he turns his attention to her.
** Sampson and Lora both are very kind to each other and have had some ''interesting'' interactions, though WordOfGod states that he doesn't know what direction to take, but that it's unlikely at the moment.
** Kollin has been shown to have a crush on Kim-Lee.
* ShipperOnDeck: Corrie is both amused by and supportive of Kollin's crush on Kim-Lee.
* ShippingGoggles: In-universe, a student misinterprets the use of "partner" to refer to Kollin and Corrie's relationship. [[invoked]]
* ShoutOut: Too many to list, including references to ''StarWars'', ''AncientAliens'', ''{{Primeval}}'', ''DoctorWho'', ''Series/PlanetDinosaur'', ''RiseOfThePlanetOfTheApes'', ''JurassicPark'', ''RatchetAndClank'', ''WesternAnimation/PhineasAndFerb'', ''TheDinosaurProject'', ''AustinPowers'', ''TheSecretShow'', ''WesternAnimation/MarchOfTheDinosaurs'', ''Blog/TetrapodZoology'', ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'', ''Series/TheMightyBoosh'' and ''{{Film/Prometheus}}''.
* ShownTheirWork: As explained in the author's comments, the author goes to great lengths with his research.
* ShrinkingViolet: Due to being homeschooled prior to meeting Sampson, Lora shows shades of this.
* SdrawkcabName: When Partay_Animal acts as Feducciuc's replacement, he goes by the moniker "Ton Ccuicudef".
* SomeCallMeTim: Jeff's acquaintance Zanzizabazalar insists on being called Za-Za.
* StockDinosaurs: ''Edmontosaurus'', and that's about it so far (due to the avoidance of AnachronismStew and MisplacedWildlife). "Planet Not-Theropod" further emphasizes this by showing that some of the most famous StockDinosaurs (e.g.: ''TyrannosaurusRex'' and ''Triceratops'') are unknown to the main characters, as those taxa lived after their time.[[note]]Although this emphasis is actually subverted in a sense, since some of the main characters had [[ItMakesSenseInContext attended a showing]] of ''Film/JurassicPark'' by that point and had seen those dinosaurs in the film.[[/note]]
* StraightMan: Corrie to Kollin, especially during the alvarezsaurid's more passionate moments.
* SuperOCD: Kollin.
* SuperPersistentPredator: The ''Beelzebufo'' pursuing Kollin.
* SuspiciouslySimilarSubstitute: Partay_Animal's brief stint as a stand-in for Feducciuc blatantly invokes this.
* TakeThat: Extremely common (as the series was created primarily to be a satire).
* TakingTheBullet: Sampson takes a taser shock for Jeff when the two are being interrogated about their genus name.
* TalkingAnimal: The maniraptors turn out to have no problem communicating with humans in "Planet Not-Theropod". Naturally, it is lampshaded how improbably convenient this is.
* TechnoBabble: How Vegid explains her memory wiping device. The author admitted that he just did it so it would work as a ResetButton.
* TemptingFate: Corrie is GenreSavvy enough to subvert this in "Ton-Zilla".
* TooDumbToLive: [[TakeThat The teenager who hates feathered dinosaurs]] in "Planet Not-Theropod" continues to insult them even ''after'' being wounded by Kim-Lee.
* [[LionsAndTigersAndHumansOhMy Troodontids and Alvarezsaurids and Humans Oh My!]]: "Planet Not-Theropod". [[spoiler:Later revealed to be the result of time travel.]]
* TurtlePower: The bimorphs have a turtle form, but subverted in that they are harmless in this state.
* TheUnreveal: "''Muffasaurus''" is not the real genus name of the troodonts.
* VoluntaryShapeshifting: The bimorphs can shift between turtle and pterosaur forms [[spoiler:until the end of "Ton-Zilla"]].
* WeHardlyKnewYe: [[MeaningfulName Dat Guye]] is eaten by a ''Quetzalcoatlus'' not long after his introduction. This scene is also an example of MonsterMunch.
* WhyDidItHaveToBeSnakes: A minor one with Lora and the ''Beelzebufo'', though [[SubvertedTrope she quickly RPR's and kills it.]]
* TheWorfEffect: Cyryl is the first to get captured in "Soaring Pteros".
* ZanyScheme: Kollin comes up with one to get Jeff to come with him and Corrie to meet Primus.
* ZergRush: The ''Atrociraptor'' attempt this on the ''Edmontosaurus'', but it doesn't work out.
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