[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/OliverTwist_6957.jpg]]
''[[caption-width-right:350:[-[[{{Series/Seinfeld}} No soup for you]].-] ]]''
->''"Please, sir, I want some more."''\\
--'''Oliver Twist'''

Novel by Creator/CharlesDickens, originally published as a serial in ''Bentley's Miscellany'' between 1837 and 1839. Oliver Twist is born an orphan and raised to a young age in a cruel workhouse that exploits the poor. Eventually he escapes the workhouse, only to run afoul of the London underworld. He's recruited into a pickpocket gang, but rescued by a kindly gentlemen who discovers Oliver's real identity and finally finds him a happy home.

The story is one of Dickens' most famous tales and includes some of his most enduring characters, including the crooked Jewish ringleader Fagin and the sly Artful Dodger. Like many of Dickens' works, the novel contains a great deal of social criticism on the way British society at the time treated its poor. Of particular note is the famous scene in which the starving Oliver begs for more gruel from the workhouse cook and is harshly punished.

The story has been adapted many times throughout the years, including:

* ''Theatre/{{Oliver}}''
* ''Disney/OliverAndCompany''
* ''Series/EscapeOfTheArtfulDodger''
* ''Film/{{Twist}}''
* ''Film/BoyCalledTwist''

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!!This book contains examples of:
* {{Adorkable}}: Mr. Brownlow at times seems to give off this vibe.
* AllGirlsWantBadBoys: Played with. Nancy is fiercely loyal to the abusive Sikes, though she has no illusions about what he is. On the other hand, Rose falls for the [[IncorruptiblePurePureness Incorruptibly Pure]] Harry.
* AdultsAreUseless: Played straight then later subverted. This includes the magistrate who ''refuses'' to give Oliver over to a chimney sweeper (who is obviously going to use him to clean chimneys until he gets stuck in one and can't get out just like every ''other'' boy he's adopted) when he sees Oliver is obviously terrified by the man. This is the first time an adult actually shows genuine kindness and concern for Oliver, a poor, sweet little orphan boy. Then there was Mr. Brownlow, who pretty much offers to adopt the young boy, his lovely housekeeper, his grumpy friend Mr. Fang, and then of course the Maylie family.
* TheArtfulDodger: The TropeNamer
* BadassLongcoat: The Artful Dodger has one. To make it more badass, the reason it's so long is that he ''stole it from someone twice his size''.
* BadGuyBar: The Three Cripples, an inn where Fagin and his various criminal associates hang out.
* BeautyEqualsGoodness: Dickens is quite bad for this. All of the adult male criminals are explicitly described as being ugly or disfigured save for "Flash" Toby Crackit. Rose the PuritySue is beautiful, and Agnes, Oliver's [[TheWoobie sympathetic]] mother, was apparently attractive in her youth.
* BeingEvilSucks
* BeingWatched: Sikes suffers from this after he murders Nancy.
* BerserkButton: Don't even ''think'' about insulting Oliver's mother.
* BewareTheNiceOnes: Oliver is for the most part innocent and innocuous, but when Noah Claypole [[YourMom insults Oliver's mother]], [[BerserkButton Oliver snaps]] and administers a NoHoldsBarredBeatdown, to Noah's astonishment.
* BiggerBad: Although Sykes is usually portrayed as the main villain, Monks usually serves as the Bigger Bad.
* BigScrewedUpFamily: Just check out what Oliver's dad, Edwin Leeford, had to deal with.
* BittersweetEnding: Oliver is happy and living with his wealthy family, Dodger is caught and deported to Australia, Fagin is caught and executed, and both Sykes and Nancy are dead. Make of that what you will.
* BreakTheCutie:
** This is exactly what the bad guys want to do to Oliver. They almost succeed.
** Also, Agnes's DeathByChildbirth is the end to one of these.
* BrokenBird: Nancy, Agnes at the time of her death.
* TheBully: Noah Claypole.
* CainAndAbel: Oliver and his half-brother, Monks/Edward Leeford.
* {{Catchphrase}}: Lots of the characters have them. Perhaps the most memorable is "I'll eat my head!"
* ChekhovsGunman: Nancy, Noah . . .
* ChildrenAreInnocent: Played straight and subverted. The pickpockets are streetwise crooks, but they're desperate for survival and guided by malicious adults who exploit them.
* CliffHanger: Since the novel was published as a serial, Dickens was naturally fond of this - how else are you going to make sure the readers buy the next issue?
* ConsummateLiar: Nancy is perfectly capable of fooling police officers, her lover Bill, and even Fagin.
* ContrivedCoincidence: By an amazing stroke of luck, Sikes and Oliver set out to rob the home of Oliver's aunt Rose. Having previously attempted to pick the pocket of Oliver's dad's best friend, Brownlow.
* CoolOldGuy: Mr Brownlow.
* CoolOldLady: Mrs Maylie, in a PuritySue kind of way.
* CorruptTheCutie: It turns out that most of the business with Fagin and Oliver was part of [[BigBad Monks]]'s plan to make the kid a criminal thus robbing him of his inheritance.
* CrapsackWorld: Played straight, with London and the Workhouse, but subverted when Oliver lives in the country with the Maylies.
* DeathByChildbirth: Oliver's mother Agnes. Who also is Rose's deceased older sister.
* DirtyCoward:
** Monks prefers to get others to do his dirty work for him, and he's shown to be easily intimidated when Mr Brownlow questions him.
** Noah Claypole is even worse. Fagin and Sikes may be criminals, but at least they're willing to be bold about it. Noah considers ''stealing the bags from old ladies'' too dangerous for him, despite acting TheBully whenever he's alone with someone younger and weaker than him. When he's captured, he immediately sells out Fagin to escape prison.
* DisproportionateRetribution:
** Oliver asks for [[FelonyMisdemeanor a second helping of food]] and is ''severely'' punished for it. (This was intended as a cutting {{satire}} on social conditions, of course.)
** To [[ValuesDissonance modern eyes]], having a kid deported because you found a stolen snuffbox on him seems a tad harsh.
* DisneyVillainDeath: Bill Sikes ''technically'' dies by falling off a roof. But he never hits the ground, because he [[FamilyUnfriendlyDeath gets a rope tangled around his neck]] on the way down. Bullseye the dog then gives a straight example.
* DomesticAbuser: Bill Sikes, to Nancy; Noah Claypole, to Charlotte (to a certain extent, anyway; it's verbal, not phsyical); Widow Corney, to Mr Bumble; and Mrs Sowerberry, to Mr Sowerberry. The last two probably qualify more as HenpeckedHusband, but it's still portrayed as somewhat abusive.
* EvenEvilHasStandards: Charley may be a pickpocket and street urchin, but he's VERY upset when Sikes kills Nancy.
* EvilMentor: Fagin.
* EvilRedhead: Fagin and Toby Crackit.
* TheFagin: TropeNamer.
* FemalesAreMoreInnocent:
** Most of the women are wholesome, decent people (special mention goes to TheIngenue Rose), save for Nancy, who is a LoveMartyr for Bill Sykes, someone who is less than pleasant. But Nancy, compared with the other members of Fagin's gang, is ''still'' the most moral of them.
** To be fair with the use of this assumption, male members of Fagin's gang get to live Tom Sawyer's dream, and the females get to be sluts in the eyes of the public.
** Oliver's father stipulates in his will that Agnes' child, should it be a girl, will get an inheritance unconditionally. If the child was born a boy, he could only claim his inheritance provided that he should not have done anything to publicly dishonor his name during his minority. Which is why Edwin's first son Edward/Monks wants to completely discredit his half-brother Oliver, who ''is'' said child.
** Subverted, somewhat humorously, with the Bumbles. While Mr Bumble is by no means innocent, the fact that his wife would be seen by law as 'acting under his influence', thus less guilty, is shown to be absurd since he's a HenpeckedHusband subjected to DomesticAbuse from her. Bumble even lampshades it, stating that the law must be a bachelor and an idiot.
** Subverted hard with Mrs Mann, the baby farm keeper. While the farm gets enough money to feed them, she keeps most of it to herself while underfeeding the children to the edge of starvation. Mortality rate due to neglect and starvation is a staggering 85 percent. Even the otherwise neglectful parish is disturbed by the rumors, but nothing is ever proven.
* FilmOfTheBook: Multiple.
* {{Foil}}[=/=]GoodCounterpart:
** Rose Maylie, a virtuous, pure, innocent, beloved seventeen-year-old ingenue to Nancy, a miserable, alcoholic, unloved, hardened prostitute who happens to be seventeen years old.
** Mr. Brownlow to Fagin
** Harry Maylie to Bill Sykes
** And let's not forget Oliver to the Artful Dodger
* GettingCrapPastTheRadar:
** Charley Bates, who is always going around with his hands and is prone to fits of laughter, is frequently referred to as "Master Bates." This might be interpreted as simply an instance of HaveAGayOldTime, but as the term "masturbate" was already in use when Dickens wrote Oliver Twist, and had the same meaning then as it does today, it seems more likely it was completely intentional.
** In one scene, Nancy rages at Fagin for corrupting her when she was a child. While Fagin explicitly employs several individuals in different illegal activities (pickpockets, housebreakers, spies), Dickens had to [[WordOfGod confirm later]] that, yes, he's also a pimp, and Nancy (and probably Bet) are prostitutes.
* GreedyJew:
** Dickens indulges in this trope to the hilt with Fagin, however it does not appear that Dickens ''himself'' held any grudge against Jews. Creating exaggerated characters out of all walks of life was simply his stock in trade. He also claimed that he only made Fagin Jewish because he legitimately believed that most London "kidsmen" were Jewish. Later in life, Dickens befriended some Jewish people and discovered that they ''were'', rather understandably, offended by the character; by way of apology, he want back and excised many references to Fagin's faith.
** Perhaps even more offensive than Fagin is Barney, the barman at The Three Cripples, who gets no characterisation beyond that he's Jewish, greedy, ugly, evil, and has a speech impediment.
* HardDrinkingPartyGirl: Nancy, though she also shows shades of TheAlcoholic. Fagin gets all his female wards addicted to alcohol. Though the reason is never given, it's most likely so that they'll be more dependent and/or more pleasant company.
* HaveAGayOldTime: Charley Bates is frequently called "Master Bates." Unless you view that as a deliberate attempt at GettingCrapPastTheRadar, it might be an instance of this trope. The intended humor then lies in the fact that Charley is a street urchin unlikely to deserve such an honorific.
* HeartwarmingOrphan
* HeelFaceTurn:
** After helping kidnap him, Nancy starts to care for Oliver and betrays Fagin in order to protect the child. Note: she does ''not'' turn on Sikes, and refuses to leave him. If only he knew that . . .
** Charley Bates is the only one of Fagin's associates who fully reforms.
* HenpeckedHusband:
** The eventual outcome of Mr. Bumble's marriage to the Widow Corney.
** Also Mr. and Mrs. Sowerberry.
* HeterosexualLifePartners:
** The Dodger and Charley Bates, Brownlow and Grimwig, the Doctor and Grimwig (they become this after the events of the book, anyway).
** If the fact that Bet cried and screamed over Nancy's death to the point where she was sent to a ''mental institution'' is any indication of their closeness/friendship, they probably were.
** Also Brownlow and Oliver's DisappearedDad Edwin Leeford, to the point of becoming his SecretKeeper.
* HookerWithAHeartOfGold: Nancy. Charles Dickens stated in a preface written for the full novel that "the girl is a prostitute."
* IncorruptiblePurePureness: Oliver and the Maylies.
* JerkAss: Near the beginning, most authority figures.
* KillTheCutie: Dick, the younger HeartwarmingOrphan who was Oliver's OnlyFriend at the workhouse, is [[DroppedABridgeOnHim briefly mentioned to have died off-page]], just to make the reader feel bad.
* LaserGuidedKarma: After years of tyrannizing over the workhouse, the Bumbles end the novel ''in'' it.
* LemonyNarrator: Dickens' authorial voice is well known for this trope.
* LukeIAmYourFather: Or better said, "Oliver, I'm your DisappearedDad's best friend".
* MayDecemberRomance.
** Edwin Leefort was on both ends of this. First he married a much older woman (Monks's mother) and theirs was a ''very'' unhappy union. After his wife's death he met a much younger girl named Agnes and they hit it off, but he suddenly died and Agnes ran away from her family. [[DeathBychildbirth And we all know what happened to her]]. [[ValuesDissonance And he, married at about twenty to a thirty-year-old woman, was treated almost like a child sold to some old hag, while him taking interest in a nineteen-year old girl more than ten years later, was perfectly okay in terms of age]].
** Also, Bill Sikes was thirty-five and Nancy was about seventeen.
* MeaningfulName: Many, as Dickens is known for this. The most obvious include Bumble, Crackit, Grimwig and Fang.
* MissingMom: Oliver's mother Agnes dies at the beginning of the novel.
* NiceHat: The Artful Dodger is mentioned to wear a hat which (like the rest of his attire) doesn't quite fit, but which stays on his head at all times because he's developed the habit of jerking his head just right to keep it on. One early illustrator decided that the hat should be a slightly-battered top hat, which has since become a beloved icon of the character.
* NoCelebritiesWereHarmed: Mr. Fang is based on the hot-tempered magistrate Allan Laing.
* ObviouslyEvil: Dickens describes Sikes in these terms. He even says that his ''legs alone'' wouldn't look right without manacles on them.
* OrphanageOfFear: Though it's actually a workhouse, ''Oliver Twist'' features probably the most infamous orphanage in literature. And this is AFTER surviving the horrors of the baby farm...
* OrphansOrdeal
* ParentalAbandonment: Oliver's mother suffered DeathByChildbirth, leaving him to the care of the parish orphanage. This doesn't work out so well.
* ParentalSubstitute: Many, good and bad, including: Fagin, Nancy, Mr. Brownlow, his housekeeper, Rose Maylie, and Mrs. Maylie.
* PinballProtagonist: Justified. Oliver is just an innocent kid, but all the other characters have motives for wanting their hands on him.
* PurpleProse: As is typical for a Dickens novel, the writing is quite purple and filled with SesquipedalianLoquaciousness, often to produce a wry effect.
* RedemptionEqualsDeath: Nancy, who goes from kidnapping crook to martyr through her death.
* RedRightHand: Monks has a red mark on his face. He also suffers from fits which occasionally discolour his face further. Some of the other criminals are mentioned to have scars and the like.
* RevealingCoverUp: If Sikes et al hadn't been so concerned about getting Oliver back so he couldn't implicate them, then they probably would have continued unnoticed and lived. Of course as soon as they kidnap him the whole house of cards starts to collapse.
* RightHandAttackDog: Bill Sikes' dog Bull's Eye who is as vicious as his owner, probably because Sikes abuses him. Bull's Eye is pathetically loyal to Sikes though, and jumps to his death after Sikes hangs himself.
* RightOnTheTick: Used in a bit of foreshadowing when Nancy pays attention to clock striking eight p.m. Eight a.m. was when friends/colleagues of hers were to be executed the next day.
* SentencedToDownUnder: The Artful Dodger's final fate. Probably. The book doesn't explicitly state it beyond some vague references to him being "sent away" or similar.
* SignatureLine: "Please, sir, I want some more."
* SlidingScaleOfIdealismVersusCynicism: The book was famously quite cynical and critical about the plight of the poor in England at the time, yet is also typically idealistic in its regard for incorruptible youth.
* SlutShaming: Poor Nancy is trying to help the Maylies with information on Monks, but almost every time, someone of higher status than herself shames her for being a prostitute.
* StarCrossedLovers: Agnes and Edwin, who don't get better. Later Rose and Harry Maylie -- who do.
* StreetUrchin:
** The Artful Dodger, Charley Bates and the rest of Fagin's pickpockets, including Oliver.
** Nancy was this once, as well, before Fagin put her on the street and became her pimp.
* StrongFamilyResemblance: Mr. Brownlow started to have thoughts about Oliver's true identity when he noticed that he looked a LOT like the portrait of Agnes that he kept at his home...
* TheSummation: At the end, Mr. Brownlow assembles everyone in a room to explain the mystery of Monks' relationship to Oliver.
* ThisBedOfRoses: Nancy takes Oliver under her wing and is determined to raise him to be a respectable young man.
* TooGoodForThisSinfulEarth: Comes very close to playing this straight with Rose but ultimately subverts it.
* TrailersAlwaysSpoil: When the completed novel was reprinted in parts, the very first cover gave away Fagin's imprisonment and Bill Sikes' death.
* TrapDoor: Monks meets Mr and Mrs Bumble in his derelict warehouse hideout, and after their conversation reveals that they had been sitting on a trapdoor that he could have used to drop them in the river had he wished.
* TruthInTelevision: Charles Dickens wrote the book based on many problems that were prevalent in English society at the time. Fagin was a representative of a type of criminal found in the slums of that day, called a "kidsman." They would train young runaways and "throwaway" children to pick pockets, and pay them for the proceeds, as well as providing a place to sleep. Oliver Twist himself gets used as what was called a "snakesman"---a young child or very small adult who could insinuate himself into places where an adult could not pass, to open doors and allow older, larger confederates to enter.
* VillainousBreakdown: Sikes after murdering Nancy; Fagin while awaiting execution.
* WouldHitAGirl: Sikes, who physically abuses Nancy. This includes the fatal beating of her toward the end of the novel.
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