[[quoteright:243:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/hornblowercov_2330.jpg]]
->''"I recommend Forester to everyone literate I know."''
-->-- '''Creator/ErnestHemingway'''

A series of stories of a British member of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, and probably C.S. Forester's most well-known work. The eponymous character, Horatio Hornblower, starts as an overaged midshipman at the start of the Napoleonic Wars, shy and awkward but with a knack for innovation and an inner drive that propels him to attempt improbable and daring feats. Unfortunately, he also has a complete inability to think well of himself, crossing the line from HumbleHero to someone afflicted with genuine, miserable self-loathing who views himself with "a sort of amused contempt" at best.

Fighting the [[ObstructiveBureaucrat eccentricities of the Royal Navy]] and his own temperament as much as the French and other enemies, Hornblower rises through the ranks with difficulty, worrying about his poverty, the many ways his career could be ruined, and the constant possibility of violent and painful death; meanwhile he conducts his missions to the utmost of his considerable ability. His career is detailed in twelve novels (written out of chronological order) and several short stories, and he rises from seasick midshipman to Lord.

The books also describe the mechanics of sailing wooden warships in exquisite detail, but Forester does go to the trouble of (occasionally) explaining the jargon to his readers, which may make them more accessible to the average reader than the ''Literature/AubreyMaturin'' series.

The character of Horatio Hornblower was inspired by the career of real-life Thomas Cochrane.

!! Novels
Listed in chronological series order with publication dates.

* ''Mr. Midshipman Hornblower'': 1950. A collection of short stories about Hornblower's first years at sea. It later became the basis of the series starring Ioan Gruffud.
* ''Lieutenant Hornblower'': 1952. Narrated from the point-of-view of Lieutenant Bush. A captain's madness imperils the ship during a dangerous mission in the Caribbean.
* ''Hornblower and the Hotspur'': 1962. Hornblower's first independent command, mostly on blockade duty.
* ''Hornblower and the Crisis'': 1967. The last published book, unfinished due to C.S. Forester's death. It would have dealt with the Battle of Trafalgar. Also includes two short stories--"Hornblower and the Widow [=McCool=]" and "The Last Encounter."
* ''Hornblower and the Atropos'': 1953. Hornblower commands the ''Atropos'' as they recover treasure in the Mediterranean.
* ''The Happy Return'' (UK) / ''Beat to Quarters''* (US): 1937. The first published novel. Hornblower travels to Central America to fund--and then fight--a local tyrant while transporting Lady Barbara Wellesley.
* ''A Ship of the Line''*: 1938. Hornblower takes command of the ''Sutherland'' and fights various battles up and down the French and Spanish coasts.
* ''Flying Colours''*: 1938. Hornblower, Bush, and coxswain Brown escape from imprisonment in France.
* ''The Commodore'' (UK) / ''Commodore Hornblower'' (US): 1945. Hornblower commands a squadron of ships to aid Russia in their fight against Napoleon.
* ''Lord Hornblower'': 1946. Hornblower returns to France to deal with mutineers and Napoleon's attempts to regain power.
* ''Hornblower in the West Indies'': 1957. Hornblower becomes an admiral during peacetime and has several adventures in the Caribbean.
* ''Hornblower Addendum'': Five short stories originally published in magazines; the same two from ''Crisis'' along with three much rarer ones (for why, see below). E-readers only.

[=*=] ''The Happy Return'', ''Ship of the Line'', and ''Flying Colours'' were later combined into a single edition titled ''Captain Hornblower''. It formed the basis of the 1951 film starring Gregory Peck.

!!Adaptations:
* ''[[Film/HoratioHornblower Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N.]]'' (1951). Starring GregoryPeck in his prime in the titular role. Virginia Mayo played Lady Barbara Wellesley. [[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0043379/ The film at imdb.com]]
* A [[Series/HoratioHornblower TV miniseries]] from 1999 to 2003.

!!Notable for inspiring modern works such as:
* A little-known series called ''Franchise/StarTrek'' has been described as "Horatio Hornblower RecycledInSpace". The rumour has it that both captains best known in the mainstream culture, [[Characters/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries Captain Kirk]] and [[Characters/StarTrekTheNextGeneration Captain Picard]], are based on the two different sides of Hornblower's character.
* The Hugo and Nebula nominated science fiction work, ''Literature/TheMoteInGodsEye''.
* Science fiction writer A. Bertram Chandler based his John Grimes character on Hornblower, even making Hornblower a distant relative.
* Literature/HonorHarrington - A SpaceOpera novel series by DavidWeber with a female version of Horatio Hornblower. The [=HH=] initials are not a coincidence. Author David Weber actually [[LampshadeHanging hangs a lampshade]] on this in the sixth book when he shows the title character reading one of the Hornblower books.
* Patrick O'Brian's ''Literature/AubreyMaturin'' series. Takes place during the same time frame as Horatio Hornblower. Not sci-fi.
* In a way, Creator/DavidDrake's ''Literature/{{RCN}}'' series, which are Aubrey/female-Maturin InSpace. Sci-fi.
* Dudley Pope's ''Ramage'' series. It's mentioned that Ramage and Hornblower were junior officers on the same ship for a time (Pope and Forester were friends). Not sci-fi.
* Alexander Kent's Richard Bolitho series. Not sci-fi.
* The ''Literature/{{Sharpe}}'' series of novels and TV movies, starring a soldier in the Napoleonic wars, sort of a land-based equivalent of Hornblower.
* The ''Literature/GauntsGhosts'' series of ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'' {{Tie In Novel}}s, being based on ''Sharpe'', are thus in turn based on Hornblower.
* Creator/DavidLangford has [[http://ansible.co.uk/sfx/sfx104.html written an article]] about the "Hornblower in Space" genre.
----
!!These stories provide examples of:
* AbandonShip: ''Ship of the Line'' ends with [[spoiler:Horatio and his crew forced to abandon the sinking ''Sutherland'' and surrender to the French.]]
* AbnormalAmmo: In ''Commodore Hornblower'', Hornblower ends up rallying a group of Russian defenders in a brief gun battle. So panicked are the defenders that one of them forgets to remove the ramrod from his musket after reloading, firing it at the enemy.
* AccidentalTruth: Hornblower tells one of these about Napoleon's death (and beats himself up about it).
* AGodAmI: El Supremo, who is Hornblower's primary ally [[spoiler: and later the primary villain]] in ''Beat To Quarters''.
* AmbiguousSituation: ''Lieutenant Hornblower'' being narrated from Bush's POV allows the creation of this in regards to the insane Captain Sawyer falling down the hold. Bush knows that both Hornblower and Midshipman Wellard had the motive and opportunity to push him, which frankly would have been a service to the ship if they had, but any direct questions result in Hornblower calmly asserting that Sawyer must have tripped and fallen. Further complicating things are the fact that Hornblower takes charge of the investigation, and the court of inquiry won't even touch it because they prefer to say that he died in battle rather than reveal that he went insane first. [[spoiler:Wellard dies offscreen near the end of the book, so the only person who really knows the truth is Hornblower]].
* AnachronicOrder: ''Quarters, Line, Colours, Commodore, Lord, Midshipman, Lieutenant, Atropos, West Indies, Hotspur, Crisis'' (unfinished). In chronological order, these are books 6-10, 1-2, 5, 11, 3-4.
** The short stories too. ''Crisis'' includes one story set in 1799 and another set in the 1850s.
* AnyoneCanDie: Hornblower himself, obviously, [[ForegoneConclusion makes it to the end of the series.]] There are no guarantees against anyone else being killed or seriously injured.
* AnArmAndALeg: [[spoiler:During the climax of ''Ship of the Line'', Lt. Bush loses a leg.]]
* ATasteOfTheLash: As per the standard discipline of the Royal Navy, a flogging occurs in the first chapter of the first book. Hornblower himself avoids this punishment as much as he can, believing that it makes good men bad and bad men worse. (Although he considers this a rationalization of his [[DeliberateValuesDissonance unpardonable squeamishness]].)
* AuthorAvatar: According to his biography, C. S. Forester came up with Hornblower and ''The Happy Return'' during a one day cruise of the Bay of Fronseca in the motor launch with photographer Barbara Sutro, while on a freighter heading for England while escaping a paternity suit by a fading opera singer. He envisioned Hornblower as himself as he wished he had the courage to be.
* AuthorityEqualsAsskicking: Usually subverted. Hornblower might be a brilliant captain, but more than once he thinks that he couldn't match the men's physical capacity for backbreaking work or brawling. However, there are a few occasions where he does fight hand-to-hand.
* AwesomenessByAnalysis: This seems to be Hornblower's main method of gambling, seamanship, and war. In one incident, Hornblower challenges a man known to be a better shot then he to a DuelToTheDeath with the understanding that there will be one pistol randomly loaded, neither will know which one and the contestants will choose it unknowing and fight at point blank. Thus giving a fifty-fifty chance (better than his odds, Hornblower figures, than in any fair fight). [[spoiler:Not knowing that the captain, not wanting to lose either midshipman, arranged for ''both'' guns to be left unloaded.]]
* BadassBookworm: Hornblower is a seadog who uses math skills and meticulous research.
* BadassArmy: The Royal Navy.
* BadToTheLastDrop: Hornblower's supply of coffee tends to run short early in a voyage. The usual Royal Navy substitute is burnt toast in hot water, which obviously doesn't do much except ''look'' like coffee if you squint.
* BattleButler: Brown was originally Hornblower's coxswain, became his servant [[spoiler:at first as a ruse because he's a good man in an escape attempt, but he stays in the position afterward]], then became his coxswain again.
* BeAsUnhelpfulAsPossible: You'd think the, say, Spaniards would give the British Navy all possible assistance when trying to retake crucial military positions. Nope. Heck, everyone outside the British Navy seems slightly or greatly incompetent, and a good deal of the people within.
** With the honourable exception of the Russians.
* BeCarefulWhatYouWishFor: [[spoiler:''Flying Colors'' ends with Hornblower getting everything he's wanted; wealth, fame, prestige, a title, and the way clear to marry Lady Barbara. He starts hating it before the end of the book.]]
* BeenThereShapedHistory:
** Usually inverted. Forester deliberately keeps Horatio out of the way of most of the major historical events of the time (for example, the first book has Hornblower way out in the Pacific in 1808 to keep him out of the Peninsular Wars), particularly [[UsefulNotes/TheWarOf1812 tensions with America]]. This loosened as the books went on, although Hornblower doesn't become Admiral until peacetime.
** There is one short story that takes place during the War of 1812, where Hornblower has a brush with an American ship. [[spoiler:Since he's on a barely-armed ship to take the King on a day trip, he evades battle.]]
** In ''Commodore Hornblower'' it is implied that his actions were essential to foiling the French attempt to take Riga. In the (unfinished) ''Hornblower and the Crisis'', he helps lure the enemy into the Battle of Trafalgar with a false message.
** It's mentioned several times that as a midshipman he served with Captain Pellew on the ''Indefatigable'', and was present at the sinking of the larger ''Droits de l'Hommes'' in 1797. ''Mr. Midshipman Hornblower'', which details his career as a midshipman, ends after his release from a Spanish prison in 1797, several months before the battle.
** Played straight, though not world-shakingly, by the creation of a fictional Wellesley named Barbara whom Hornblower romances [[spoiler:and eventually marries, making the Duke of Wellington his brother-in-law]].
* BlatantLies: Napoleon's propaganda announcement decrying Hornblower as a pirate in ''Flying Colours''.
* BorrowedCatchphrase: Lady Barbara teases Hornblower with this by imitating his standard, ambiguous response of "ha, h'm."
* {{Bowdlerise}}: Done in-universe in ''Hotspur'', when Bush has to resign himself to calling the hapless midshipmen from the Naval Academy "young gentleman" rather than swearing at them, in view of Hornblower's preferences.
* ButIReadABookAboutIt: Hornblower considers constant research both a duty and a pleasure. It enhances his BadassBookworm status.
* BrokenAce: Hornblower is near-universally adored by his underlings and respected by his brother captains for his brilliance and continual success. Hornblower considers them to be [[HorribleJudgeOfCharacter Horrible Judges Of Character]] because he completely despises himself.
* ByronicHero: Hornblower is an honorable, dutiful, and humble man who acts with great courage under fire. However, he's also a brooding, melancholic mess whose view of himself is often actual self-loathing, often shocked that people might care about him. Underneath his stoic facade is a world-class worry wort, and his courage under fire (in spite of his fears) is matched only by his cowardice in matters of the heart. He's also tone-deaf and never gets over seasickness, much to his humiliation.
* CaptainSmoothAndSergeantRough:
** Hornblower is well-read and profoundly dislikes the brutality of war (including that inflicted by the Navy's own policies). Bush considers it right and proper to bellow at the junior officers and sees nothing wrong with floggings and such, more in common with the views of the time.
** In ''Ship of the Line'', Hornblower watches one of his petty officers apply an order with his fist and considers that he himself wouldn't have the physical strength to enforce discipline that way.
* CanonDiscontinuity: C. S. Forester himself discouraged reprinting of the short stories ''The Hand of Destiny'', ''The Bad Semaritan'' and ''Hornblower and His Majesty'' because of the {{continuity snarl}} ''The Hand of Destiny'' caused (the capture of the ''Castilla'' and the powder burns to Hornblower's hand). All three were included in a very rare biography of C. S. Forester, but can be found [[http://www.scaryfangirl.com/Once%20Again5thNetVer.pdf here]].
* TheCaptain: Guess who. [[spoiler:Bush is eventually promoted captain at the end of ''Flying Colours'', in keeping with the odd custom of complimenting distinguished captains by promoting their first lieutenants (mostly out of the inability to promote the captains themselves)]].
* CatchPhrase: "Ha... h'm." [[spoiler:Lady Barbara's teasing compels him to stop after he marries her.]]
* CardGames:
** Hornblower is himself a great fan of the game of whist, and will often play it to pass the time during stressful situations, such as during a SternChase, giving him something to think about other than things he currently can't control. Forester often describes the games [[MundaneMadeAwesome in great detail]].
** In ''Mr. Midshipman Hornblower'', Hornblower finds an opportunity to challenge his [[TheBully tormentor]] to a duel when the latter angrily implies that Hornblower is cheating (in front of officers from another ship) and then pointedly refuses to apologize.
* CasualDangerDialog: The protracted discussion between Bush and another lieutenant in ''Beat to Quarters,'' where they academically debate how the ''Natividad's'' officers are laying their guns... while they are shooting at the ''Lydia.'' Hornblower, who is trying to concentrate (and slightly envious), eventually tells them to knock it off.
* CharacterizationMarchesOn: Hornblower is also a lot more ill-tempered and choleric in the first book published than in the books first in chronology, although that can be rationalized by being older and more cynical.
* CharacterTics: Lieutenant Mound's habit of putting his hands in his pockets in ''Commodore''. Or rather, the way he continually starts to do it before remembering that he's in the presence of the Commodore and shouldn't. Hornblower eventually orders him to put his hands in his pockets because it's driving him to distraction.
* ChekhovsGun: The set of double barrelled, rifled, percussion pistols Lady Barbara gives Hornblower at the beginning of ''The Commodore''. [[spoiler:One is stolen by his Finnish interpreter, Braun, who attempts to assassinate both Czar Alaxander and the King of Sweden at a banquet, for vengence over the conquest of Finland; he chose Hornblower's, which [[RareGuns were likely the only of their kind in Eastern Europe]], because they were very accurate, wouldn't misfire, and had two shots. Hornblower puts everything together (after remembering seeing the pistol in Braun's waist while embarking the boat to the palace which he forgot in the excitement), and stops him in time. He also retrieves the stolen pistol.]]
* ChildSoldiers: Midshipmen and powder boys.
* CigarChomper: Hornblower, at least in the earlier novels. In ''The Happy Return'', he is so overjoyed he almost forgot to hide it at El Supremo's offer to supply him with several ''hundred'' cigars rolled in El Supremo's "domain" in Nicaragua of Havana tobacco, and reflects to himself that the last cigar he had was a rather mild Virginia cigar, and in ''The Commodore'', Lady Barbara includes several boxes of Jamaican cigars in the supplies she gives him for his mission in the Baltic, which Hornblower smokes after most meals.
* CliffHanger: ''Ship of the Line'' ends with [[spoiler:Hornblower surrendering his ship to the French and Bush with his foot shot off by a cannonball]].
* {{Conscription}}: Unfortunately, C. S. Forester seems to have fallen for the modern misconception that the vast majority of seamen on British ships were conscripts [[PressGanged dragged from their homes and family-supporting livelihoods by press gangs]] or criminals given a pardon if they join the King's service.[[note]] The actual practise of impressment was strictly limited to homebound merchant crews and only during wartime, with exemptions for East Indiamen and coal ships. The admiralty, in fact, hated impressment more than anyone, including those affected (who, being legally limited to merchant sailors, considered it an occupational hazard), and only used it because there was no other viable option. Criminals were offered a pardon in exchange for service, although more often than not they were rejected by the Navy, for obvious reasons. Aside from there only being two instinces of actual press gangs (in which the officers responsible were severely punished), any officer who pressed a tradesman, farmer, or anyone with an exemption was in deep trouble.[[/note]] Hornblower (illegally) presses outbound East India Company sailors who were legally exempt in ''Ship of the Line'', and he also releases French prisoners he'd promised freedom in ''Flying Colours''.
* DeadSidekick: Hornblower sees the loss of several protégés: [[spoiler:Wellard in ''Lieutenant Hornblower'', Longley in ''Ship of the Line'', Mound in ''The Commodore'', and finally, Bush himself.]]
* DeathByChildbirth: [[spoiler:Maria, giving birth to Richard, their third child.]]
* DeathOfTheHypotenuse: [[spoiler: [[BookEnds Admiral Leighton and Maria Hornblower]]]] die in ''Flying Colours'', and [[spoiler: Marie Ladon]] is killed in ''Lord Hornblower''.
* DeathSeeker: In the very first ''Midshipman'' story, Hornblower feels that getting shot dead in his duel would be equally as desirable as victory, because both outcomes mean he doesn't have to deal with his tormentor anymore.
* Defictionalization: C. Northcote Parkinson (he of Parkinson's Law) wrote a thick, [[ShownTheirWork thoroughly researched]] and realistic biography of Hornblower that could easily be mistaken for being about a real naval hero. Complete with portraits, maps, a family tree, and some plausible extrapolations. For example, Hornblower's first name was really Horace, and a letter released a century after his death reveals [[spoiler:he really did kill Captain Sawyer]].
* DeliberateValuesDissonance: England in the 1800s was chock-full of racism, sexism, classism, and general disdain for anyone not white and British. Take a shot every time you see the word Dago or Frog! Then get a new liver.
* DeusExMachina: Played with by having the [=DXMs=] usually be actual historical events. If the series was an entirely original work, people would doubtless complain about the author pulling them from his unmentionables.
* DieForOurShip: Maria and Lady Barbara's husband. [[spoiler:In-universe.]]
* DirtyCoward: Seaman Grimes, from ''Hotspur''. More sad and pathetic than evil, though.
* DownerEnding:
** ''Ship of the Line'' [[spoiler:with the sinking of the ''Sutherland'' and Hornblower and his crew captured by the French]].
** ''Lord Hornblower'' [[spoiler:has Hornblower succeeds in his mission and he was raised to the peerage because of it, but Bush, the closest person Horatio had to a friend, dies in the process. Then when Napoleon escapes and Horatio tries to escape, he fails, and in the process loses his mistress. Only news of the Battle of Waterloo saved him from dying again]].
* DramaticIrony: Hornblower spends a good portion of ''Commodore'' worrying about Napoleon's unstoppable advance into Russia. Any moderately knowledgeable reader knows that did not work out so well.
* DressingAsTheEnemy: Hornblower's ruse flying the French tricolour in ''Ship of the Line'', and later when Hornblower himself dresses as a Dutch customs officer in his escape from France.
* DrinkOrder: Contrary to the [[SpotOfTea common English stereotype]], Hornblower prefers to drink coffee rather than tea, or at least whatever passes for coffee depending on supplies (in one book, the coffee is described as being made with crushed burnt bread, with enough sugar to mask the taste.) This was possibly because most of the readers of the ''Hornblower'' series were American. Or alternatively, because tea was expensive and Hornblower was poor. Some consideration though should also be given to the hypothesis that Forester knew enough history to be very well aware that coffee was enormously fashionable in England for many years, and London in particular was [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffeehouse#Coffee_in_Europe lousy]] with coffee-houses in the 1700s.
* DuelToTheDeath: An accepted practice at the time the books take place, which allows Hornblower to challenge a bullying midshipman during his first voyage. He asks one gun be loaded and the other not so as to compensate for his dubious aiming skills. However, challenging a higher-ranking officer is illegal ([[KlingonPromotion for obvious reasons]]).
* DuringTheWar: Set during the Napoleonic Wars.
* EarlyInstallmentWeirdness: Readers following the series in chronological order rather than publishing order may scratch their heads when the opening paragraph of ''Beat to Quarters'', the first published book, suggests that Lt. Bush has only just gotten to know Captain Hornblower in the last few months.
* EarnYourHappyEnding: The short story "The Last Encounter" is set after Hornblower's retirement at the rank of Admiral with his son grown and successful, [[spoiler:comfortably settled with his wife Barbara]]. It's one of the only times in the entire series where Hornblower appears to be happy, lacking any of the "pitiless analysis" he applied to all of his actions and motivations while he was in active service.
* EmbarrassingFirstName: Hornblower thinks his first name is pompous and ludicrous. He prefers not to use it and signs his personal correspondence with a discreet 'H.'
* EmbarrassingNickname: His first wife Maria calls him "Horry", much to his dismay. In the midst of a battle, an unidentified member of Hornblower's crew refers to him as "Old Horny", but the officers are unable to figure out which sailor said it.
* EnemyEatsYourLunch: Midshipman Simpson does this to all of the other midshipmen on the ''Justinian'', helping himself right off their own plates.
* EverybodyKnewAlready: Hornblower's sea sickness, which he goes out of his way to keep secret from his men. It takes him years to figure out that his officers and crew are plainly aware of it, and simply choose not to comment on it out of respect.
* FairForItsDay: Invoked with Hornblower's general worldview. He can be quite racist at times, as well as sexist, but he also expresses some anti-slavery sentiments and doesn't share the Navy's general fondness for ATasteOfTheLash.
* AFatherToHisMen: Not Hornblower, Sir Edward Pellew.
* GenreSavvy:
** Hornblower is acutely aware of how his every move will appear, which is strange, because this is the book that started the genre. Hilariously, he has trouble believing anyone could like him, despite evidence to the contrary. Even when he ''does'' believe it, he finds some way to make himself rationalize or downplay it.
** In ''Hotspur'', his ship is being fired upon by shore artillery. He hears noise aloft, and a howitzer shell falls to the deck at his feet. He takes a fraction of an instant to realize that there's about a quarter-inch left on the fuse before he hurries to extinguish it. When he stands up, he sees everyone on the deck staring at him, and realizes he's about to become ShroudedInMyth.
** He has his men dance the hornpipe during a long battle specifically because it will keep morale up. The narration goes on to describe how the battle would become legendary because of it. It also describes how one man kept dancing even after someone's brains were smashed out by a cannon ball and blown onto him.
* GoodWithNumbers: Hornblower is ''very'' good with numbers.
* GuileHero: Horatio steps into this role at different points over his career, but [[BuffySpeak the guiliest]] would probably be ''Lieutenant Hornblower.'' He is the least senior lieutenant aboard, but he sets the tone for what the senior lieutenants do after Sawyer's fall and persuades them to implement all of his subsequent ideas.
* HandRubbing: Bush isn't obsequious like most of the examples on that page, but he does rub his hands together when he's pleased a lot.
* HavingAGayOldTime: Horatio's men occasionally refer to him as "Old Horny" or simply "Horny."
* HeroicSacrifice:
** [[spoiler:Horatio's ship]] at the end of ''Ship of the Line''.
** [[spoiler:Bush blowing up the powder barge]].
* HistoricalDomainCharacter: A number of real captains (and other officers) from the Royal Navy appear in the novels--mostly cameos, but some of them have a more significant role. Some of the more prominent examples are Admiral Cornwallis and ''George III''. TheOtherWiki has a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horatio_Hornblower#Historical_figures_in_the_novels comprehensive list]].
* HistoricalInJoke:
** In ''Flying Colours,'' Hornblower sees an American ship and thinks it inevitable that they'll have to give up their neutrality soon--the only question is if they'll fight Napoleon or if they'll decide to [[WarOf1812 have another go at the British]].
** The plot of ''Commodore Hornblower'' is about Napoleon's plan to invade Russia. [[ForegoneConclusion Wonder how that one will go]].
** Basically any well-known historical event can be seen that way. Such as when Hornblower is involved in a naval action off Cape Trafalgar in 1805 in "Crisis".
* HonorBeforeReason: Deconstructed, as Hornblower is ''profoundly'' aware of the difference between the right thing to do and the logical thing to do. On several occasions, he's actually dickered over courses of action, then justifiably angsted afterward.
** Played straight in a couple of ''Midshipman'' stories, where he feels obligated to request staying aboard the ''Justinian'' rather than transfer to the ''Indefatigable'', even though it would basically kill his career before it started, and when he refuses to take credit for stopping a privateer to punish himself for losing his damaged prize vessel.
** In ''West Indies'' he gives an ex-Colonel of Napoleon's Imperial Guard his "word as a gentleman" that Napoleon has died on St. Helena, believing it to be a lie, in order to prevent said Colonel from breaking Napoleon out of exile. He then goes and drafts his letter of resignation but before he can give it to a ship headed to London to deliver it to the admiralty, he finds out that Napoleon has indeed died after all.
* ICanStillFight: In ''Lord Hornblower'', Hornblower loses his temper when Bush and his other officers suggest that he take it easy after his medical leave [[spoiler:for the case of typhus that knocked him out at the end of ''Commodore'']], but he apologizes for the outburst a moment later.
* IJustShotMarvinInTheFace: There are a handful of gun-handling failures throughout the series. At one point, Hornblower narrowly remembers to put his fllintlock on half-cock before putting it into his belt, which would likely have blown his genitals off.
* [[IrritationIsTheSincerestFormOfFlattery Imitation Is The Sincerest Form Of Flattery]]: In ''Commodore'', Hornblower realizes, with amusement, that Mound is modeling his aloof, cool-under-fire attitude on Hornblower's own.[[note]]Irritation doesn't actually happen, but the trope named 'imitation' doesn't apply to fiction.[[/note]]
* ImprobableAge: Inverted, since Hornblower, when the series begins, is improbably ''old'' to be a beginning midshipsman. He is in his late teens, while his messmates went to sea at age 12 or thereabouts.
* IndyPloy: Hornblower has to make plans up as he goes along to get out of the various scrapes he gets into.
* InfantImmortality:
** Averted. Hornblower has to sit and watch his first two children die of smallpox.
** Averted. Longley, a PluckyMiddie in ''Ship of the Line,'' is shot dead in the ''Sutherland's'' desperate LastStand.
* InHarmsWay: Hornblower sometimes does this because he's ashamed of his private fears.
* InSeriesNickname: "Horny" Hornblower, as well as the various other real-life officers with nicknames.
* JerkWithAHeartOfGold: Bush is a hardass who brooks no incompetence or disrespect and doesn't question the Navy's draconian discipline, but he takes the first watch after he and his men have gone over a day without sleeping, gives nearly all his pay to his sisters and mother, and extends subtle kindness to Wellard after he's beaten without cause.
* LateArrivalSpoiler: The fourth book wasn't completed by Forrester before his death, and has two short stories, from Hornblower's midshipman days and retirement, added to it. This means that if you flip to the wrong page, you now know [[spoiler:Hornblower marries Lady Barbara.]]
* TheLawsAndCustomsOfWar: In ''Flying Colours'', Napoleon sentences Hornblower and Bush ''in absentia'' to be executed for a DressingAsTheEnemy maneuver performed in ''Ship of the Line'' (There were several precedents that proved what they did was legal; courts conducted ''in absentia'' are also a violation of the defendants rights. Napoleon didn't care; he needed a propaganda coup). Hornblower later mentions that Napoleon put a "quite flattering" bounty on his head.
** In ''Midshipman Hornblower'', Hornblower, while a prisoner of war, takes a crew of Spanish fishermen out into a storm to rescue men from a wrecked ship. The storm prevents them from returning, afterwards, and they are picked up at sea by a British frigate. The Spaniards are returned to Spain because it was bad form (and against Admiralty Instructions) to take prisoner men who had gone to sea to save lives. And Hornblower returned with the Spaniards because he had given his parole to not try to escape.
* LightningBruiser: Bush in ''Lieutenant Hornblower,'' who is described as immensely strong and lightfooted.
* LostEpisode: The short stories, namely ''The Hand of Destiny'', ''Hornblower and His Majesty'' and ''The Bad Samaritan''. Because of the ContinuitySnarl caused by ''The Hand of Destiny'' and ''Hornblower and the Atropos'', Forester discouraged their reprinting. Fortunately, [[MeaningfulName scaryfangirl.com]] has [[http://www.scaryfangirl.com/Once%20Again5thNetVer.pdf found them]], as well as the (increasingly rare) biography of C. S. Forester they were published in. They were also compiled in the ''Hornblower Addendum'' for e-readers.
* LotsOfLuggage: Subverted in the first (written) novel. Hornblower starts to lecture Lady Barbara on the impracticality of bringing a huge amount of luggage onto a warship, but she irritates him by showing that she only has a couple of sea-chests, which is a perfectly reasonable amount.
* MadeOfExplodium: Black powder. This was TruthInTelevision; men who worked in the powder stores even had to wear slippers because a spark from a nailed shoe could send them sky-high.
* MeaningfulName: Inverted. Horatio ''Hornblower'' is absolutely tone-deaf, unable, on at least one occasion, to recognize even "God Save the King."
* MentorArchetype:
** Pellew, though more in the TV series than in the books.
** Admiral Cornwallis is this to an extent in ''Hotspur,'' encouraging Hornblower's innovative tendencies [[spoiler:and promoting him to captain at the end]].
* MustHaveCaffeine: Hornblower is an avid coffee drinker... when he can get it. Usually it's an infusion of burnt bread ends.
* MutualKill: [[spoiler:The ''Sutherland'' and the four French ships at the end of ''Ship of the Line''.]]
* MyGirlBackHome: Despite not actually loving Maria, newlywed Hornblower is surprised to realize he does miss her. Books set later in his life subvert this since he's grown to dislike her quite a lot. [[spoiler:Played straight with Lady Barbara, since they both love each other.]]
* NapoleonicWars
* NavalBlockade: ''Hornblower and the Hotspur'' involves the British blockade of the French port of Brest and Hornblower's deeds during the blockade.
* NervesOfSteel: Hornblower has these, even if he thinks otherwise.
* NeverGiveTheCaptainAStraightAnswer: Inverted. Hornblower doesn't tell his men his plans so it looks better if he succeeds. It works.
* NicknamingTheEnemy: Frenchmen are always referred to as Frogs, and the Spaniards are called Dagos. Napoleon is often called "Boney".
* NobleFugitive: The German Prince serving as a PluckyMiddie in Hornblower and the Atropos.
* ObnoxiousInLaws: Mrs. Mason. "His Nibs," the Marquis Wellesley.
* ObstructiveBureaucrat: The Royal Navy might be the greatest enemy besides Napoleon. During the Peace of Amiens, they refuse to confirm his promotion to commander and then put him under pay stoppage for months because he has to "repay" the commander's salary he drew, forcing him to pawn or sell anything valuable he owns and support himself entirely by playing whist. In ''Hotspur'' they try to reprimand him for using too much stuff while he's on the front lines of blockade duty; Cornwallis tells him not to worry about it.
* OfficerAndAGentleman: It takes Hornblower some time after his promotion to captaincy to achieve the gentleman part, as he rarely has any prize money with which to supplement his pay.
* OhCrap: Numerous.
** One particularly large one happens during the incident mentioned in ChekhovsGun, once Hornblower realizes [[spoiler:the Czar, with whom he is supposed to form an alliance, is about to be shot by Hornblower's own aide with ''Hornblower's own pistol'']]. Cue giant flashing CAREER DEATH alert.
** Bush in ''Lieutenant Hornblower'' when he realizes that the ''Reknown'' has run aground while being fired at by multiple shore batteries. The third-person narration breaks into an "Oh my God!"
** The sailor's traditional blasphemous prayer when they're about to be hit with a broadside. "For what we are about to receive..."
* OverlyPolitePals: One ''Midshipman'' story has Midshipmen Hornblower and Kennedy going through a variation as Kennedy relays a message to Hornblower that the Captain needs to speak to him. The two take turns addressing each other formally and bowing politely in jest (it's midway through a very uneventful watch), and they only cut it short when one of the Lieutenants notices.
* PaintingTheMedium: Hornblower thinks of Bush as having little imagination. ''Lieutenant'' follows Bush instead of Hornblower, and there's a profound lack of Hornblower's usual metaphors and similes, especially when compared to ''Atropos''.
* ParentalSubstitute: Inverted. Bush loves Hornblower like a son, even if he's too out-of-touch with his own emotions to realize it. When they first served together, this was more of BigBrotherInstinct for Bush.
* PluckyMiddie: There are several capable young midshipmen. However, any time you meet one, there's about a 75% chance of them dying. The more endearing they are, the more likely this is. Hornblower himself gets to be one in ''Mr. Midshipman Hornblower''. ([[CaptainObvious He's one of the ones who survives]].)
** Others, like Midshipman Simpson, are just the opposite. At 33 and having failed so many times that he's more than halfway to an automatic promotion to Lieutenant at age fifty (something of an EpicFail by itself - most passed on their first or second attempts after only three or four years at sea), he would have better served the Navy as an Ordinary Seaman.
* {{Plunder}}:
** Subverted. Hornblower is usually unlucky in the matter of prize money, and has a dislike for the entire system. He doesn't mention this in front of others, though, and is aware [[HypocriticalHumor that his views would likely be different once he won a prize]]. It does in ''Ship of the Line'', when he takes nearly a dozen prizes, and escapes back to England in ''Flying Colours'' with ''The Witch of Endor'', a Royal Navy cutter captured by the French a year earlier.
** Played straight by the French at the beginning of ''Flying Colours''. They even strip the gold off of his sword, and the brasswork from the ''Sutherland''. They also gorge themselves on the unappetizing rations.
* PopculturalOsmosis: You've probably encountered the tropes this series popularized long before you ever heard of the series itself.
* PosthumousCollaboration: Several other authors have written their own conclusions to ''Crisis''.
* PottyEmergency: Hornblower uses this as an excuse to get out of a reception line at the Czar's court [[spoiler:so he can go and stop Braun from assassinating him]]. Even [[PottyDance dancing from one foot to the other]] in his anxiety to get away, which adds to the veracity of his excuse.
* {{Privateer}}: There are numerous encounters with them. The ship's entire mission in ''Lieutenant Hornblower'' is to incapacitate a Spanish privateer base in Haiti.
* PurpleProse: Invoked in ''Beat to Quarters'' when Hornblower thinks of the morning light on the ocean as "argent and azure," and then realizes he's used the exact same mental phrasing every day for the past two weeks.
* TheQuietOne: Hornblower is naturally inclined towards shyness and maintains a deliberate reserve beyond what would be typically expected of a captain, and despises what he calls "unnecessary words."
* RareGuns: Lady Barbara gives Hornblower a pair of ebony handled, double barrelled, rifled percussion pistols, which he muses must have taken some craftsman months in rifling and handmade caps alone, in ''The Commodore''. Which is set in ''1812''. [[DescriptionPorn Nearly two pages are dedicated to describing them.]]
* RealitySubtext: ''Commodore'' was less historically-researched than the others. Instead, it reflects WorldWarII: Russia's tenuous alliance with England and threat from invaders, occupied and/or neutral Baltic/Scandanavian powers, and Britain's tenuous support.
* RecycledInSpace: Got recycled as Honor Harrington and others, as seen above.
* RefugeInAudacity: At one time Hornblower scares away a Spanish ship bigger then his by sailing towards it to while signalling to his nonexistent backup.
* RetCon: Hornblower's age in ''Beat to Quarters'', set in 1808, is given as 37, and his exact birthdate is stated by WordOfGod as June 11, 1771. ''Mr. Midshipman Hornblower'' changes it to [[IronicBirthday July 4, 1776]], so his career could start just before the French Revolution instead of peacetime. There's also the story of how he received powder burns on his hand and the capturing of the Spanish ship ''Castilla''. Forester overwrote the events of the short stories in the novels, later discouraged their reprinting. See SeriesContinuityError below.
* RoyallyScrewedUp: Practically all non-British nobility, royalty, and other civilian leadership. Examples that embody this trope include The Marquis of Pouzauges from ''Midshipman'' and "El Supremo"[[note]]admittedly only "royal" in his own delusional mind[[/note]] from ''Quarters.'' Worst of all, ''[[EnemyMine these are England's allies]].''
--> ''"...England still had allies -- [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_I_of_Portugal Portugal under an insane queen]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_XIII_of_Sweden Sweden under a mad king]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I_of_the_Two_Sicilies and Sicily, here, under a worthless king]]."''
** George III by 1810, who is actually featured in the short story ''Hornblower and His Majesty''.
* RunningGag:
** Not in the series, but on this wiki; Honor Harrington is frequently described as Horatio Hornblower [[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: IN SPACE! ]]

** Bush rubbing his hands together when pleased.
** Hornblower's seasickness when setting out to sea after a long period on land.
* SensitiveGuyAndManlyMan: Hornblower is a broody, self-loathing mess when he's not being a brilliant naval captain and can't stop thinking about the prospect of death and mutilation in battle even if he never shirks from it. Bush is a stolid and [[TheStoic stoic]] LightningBruiser who's unfazed by hardship but also lacking in Hornblower's genius.
* SeriesContinuityError: How Hornblower received the powder burns on his hand and, subsequently, the capture of the Spanish ship ''Castilla''. Even ''which'' hand is burned is inconsistant. In ''Beat to Quarters'', he mentions his right hand was burned during the ''Castilla's'' capture while he was a lieutenant, yet in the short story ''The Hand of Destiny'', which details the capture while he's a lieutenant, it's his left hand that's burned, and ''Hornblower and the Atropos'', in which he's a post captain in command of the 20 gun ''Atropos'' (a post ship, the smallest ship to warrent a post of full captain), he aids in the capture of the ''Castilla'' in a completely different action from what's described in ''The Hand of Destiny'', and doesn't receive a powder burn to his hand.
* ShootTheDog: One particular scene in ''Ship of the Line'' switches to the POV of the hot and weary conscripts marching on a coastal road, going out of its way to tell the reader that these are just ordinary men who have been taken far from home by the war. When they see a pretty ship offshore, they're quite happy to benignly watch it and even ''wave'' to it. Then, the ship--Hornblower's ''Sutherland''--opens fire. (After he's slaughtered or dispersed most of the soldiers he has the cannons turned on the pack animals. His men are more upset about shooting oxen and donkeys than people.)
* ShoutOut: Hornblower shares his first name with Lord Nelson.
* ShowerScene: As a captain, Hornblower is known to his crew for taking a daily shower by having a couple of sailors at the pump with a hose--even in the Baltic where the water is freezing, and an incident partway through has him moving around the deck without any clothes on for about half an hour. The first time this habit appears chronologically is in ''Lieutenant Hornblower'', where it's described in great detail.
* ShownTheirWork: The books are exceptionally well-researched in terms of understanding naval matters and the period. It's relatively easy to miss that this was written as historical fiction.
* SignificantBirthDate: Hornblower was born on July 4, 1776. Occasionally remarked on by individuals who find his views to be dangerously republican (for instance, [[DeliberateValuesDissonance the idea that a republic could be a legitimate form of government]].) Otherwise, it's not significant at all--he never even meets any Americans.
* ElSpanishO: There are a number of occasions where British sailors and officers gamely attempt to communicate with Spanish, French, or Italian people (either their prisoners, or their erstwhile allies, depending on what is going on) by speaking slowly and adding vowels to the ends of their words. It generally doesn't work.
* SpiritedYoungLady: Although she's out of the 16 - 25 age bracket, Lady Barbara Wellesley fits all the other qualifications. She's traveling without a male companion, doesn't mind the tiny accommodations, and is basically described as being so capable that it ''aggravates'' Hornblower, who thinks that a properly feminine woman should at least be a little incompetent. [[spoiler:His opinion changes ''significantly'' by book's end.]]
* {{Squick}}: InUniverse, Hornblower has a little bit of this when he cuts a wedding cake with his sword because his sword had cut [[BloodierAndGorier other things]] before.
* TheStrategist: Hornblower always comes up with clever schemes.
* StealthInsult [=/=] SnarkToSnarkCombat: Hornblower's conversation with his brother-in-law Richard Wellesley in ''The Commodore''. Hornblower will have a translator, but it will be his problem how the translator is rated on the books, to which Richard adds, "I believe that's what it's called". Hornblower calls him by his Christian name, which he is entitled to use as brother-in-law, and calls Richard a "master of all trades" [[ForTheFunnyz just to annoy him]] by insinuating the Marquis was in a trade. Wellessley makes an equally snarky comment, and Hornblower gives up, deciding it was just too difficult because Richard was so good at it.
* StiffUpperLip: Horatio acts like he has one, even if he's panicking on the inside. This is also one of Bush's key traits--at one point he muses that having to endure injustice (such as being beaten without cause) in a world that is essentially unjust is an essential part of growing up.
* TapOnTheHead: Averted in one of the ''Midshipman'' stories. During a cutting-out expedition, when stealth is key, Hornblower has to silence an epileptic sailor and thumps him quite hard with the boat's tiller; he is almost certain that he he killed the man by doing so. The boat is later set adrift somehow during the fight, meaning that even if he wasn't killed by the hit, he would have certainly died at sea.
* TemptingFate: Near the end of "Midshipman", [[spoiler:Hornblower attends a banquet where a toast is made to the hope of the Spanish fleet leaving Cadiz. Hornblower is also ordered to convey a Duchess to England in a small sloop. Guess what fleet he sails right into the middle of?]]
* TwentyOneGunSalute: Hornblower encounters a megalomaniacal would-be Central American despot who demands a 23-gun salute in ''The Happy Return''. (21 is usually the max, reserved for heads of state). Hornblower agonizes and then decides that since a 21-gun salute is the upper limit, a 23-gun salute is meaningless.
* TwoPartTrilogy: The first book published, ''The Happy Return'' (or ''[[MarketBasedTitle Beat To Quarters]]'') was a stand alone adventure. The next book, ''Ship of the Line'' proceeded directly into ''Flying Colours'' via a CliffHanger ending.
* UnbuiltTrope: Even in what's arguably the flagship of the WoodenShipsAndIronMen genre, Hornblower is brilliant captain, and a frequently self-doubting man who has difficulty remembering or believing that people actually ''like'' him.
* UnwantedHarem: Marie (not Maria) points out that he is a very easy man for women to love but a man who finds it hard to love in return. [[spoiler:She's mostly right.]]
* UnwantedSpouse: Horatio essentially marries Maria out of guilt because he can't bear to hurt her feelings when she throws herself at him. He spends as much time as possible avoiding her at sea and finds writing letters to her to be a chore.
* VehicularTurnabout: Frequently, a ship is boarded and turned against its order. In ''Flying Colours'', Hornblower, Bush, and Brown steal a ship that had been captured from the British in the first place.
* VillainousBreakdown: El Supremo, after being turned over to the Spanish.
* ViewersAreGeniuses: Don't know a halyard from a hawse-hole, a maintop from a mizzenmast, or a sea-anchor from a sea-cucumber? Good luck!
* WarIsHell: Forester goes out of his way to describe what happens to men who are hit by cannonballs, then what happens to them when they visit the surgeon, and then the funeral. Not to mention the [[{{Squick}} weevils and bad water]].
* WoodenShipsAndIronMen: The books are a fairly pure distillation of this trope, most adaptations somewhat less so.
* YourCheatingHeart: Hornblower is not faithful to either of his wives, under different circumstances.
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