'''''Dead Souls''''' is the most famous novel by Russian author Creator/NikolaiGogol. It tells the story of the ambitious guy Pavel Ivanovich Chichikov, who had the idea for a great scam.

Background explanation: In feudal Russia, the great landowners had to pay a tax according to the number of serfs ("souls") they owned. Said serfs were counted in special revisions, which happened not that often - less than once per decade, even. If during the time between two revisions some of these souls happened to die, bad luck, their owners'd still have to pay the tax as if they were alive. OTOH, they could mortgage the estate, with souls included, to the Russian state. Now Chichikov adds two and two and gets the idea: If he buys up a lot of dead souls - which the squires probably want to get rid off - and mortgages them to the state, he'll acquire a big fortune without hard work or risk. Well, that's the theory. In practice, the buying part alone becomes pretty hard due to the eccentricity of said squires.

Sadly, the book isn't finished, due to CreatorBreakdown. What survives is the complete first volume of what was to be a trilogy, plus the beginning and end of the second. Many people have never even read the surviving parts of the second volume.
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!!Examples:

* AffablyEvil: Chichikov.
* BelievingTheirOwnLies: Must be the case with Nozdryov, who tells a lot of bullshit, ''even in court''. You'll have to read it to see how much he [=BSs=].
* BigEater: Several characters, including Chichikov. Michail Sobakevich and Peter Petrovitch Pietukh (the latter is from the second volume) are probably take the cake [[IncrediblyLamePun and eat it in one sitting]].
* BlatantLies: When Tyentyetnikov inquires why the harvest was so bad, the serfs claim it was the lack of rain. But even the WideEyedIdealist Tyentyetnikov can't help but notice that apparently the rain happened to fall exclusively on the fields of the serfs, but not on his ones.
* BoisterousBruiser: Nozdryov is a deconstruction of this trope.
* BunnyEarsLawyer: Many of the squires.
* ButNotTooForeign: Kostanshoglo is described being not a pure Russian, although he thinks of himself as Russian and doesn't speak foreign languages. Speculation: He may have a Turkish ancestor, since many Turkish names end in -oglu.
* ButtMonkey: Captain Kopeikin
* CloudCuckooLander: Tyentyetnikov, Manilov
* CockADoodleDawn: At the Korobochka's place. Chichikov reacts by calling the rooster dumb.
* ConMan: What Chichikov essentially is. In the past he also was involved with government corruption (which seemed to have been endemic in Czarist Russia) and smuggling.
* CordonBleughChef: Nozdryov's, who has an {{egregious}} approach to cooking.
* [[CrazyCatLady Crazy Bird Lady]]: Khlobuyev's rich old aunt, who owns hundreds of canaries. Of course, she is very rich, so this doesn't make her crazy, only eccentric. But quite eccentric.
* CreatorBreakdown: Originally, the book was supposed to have three parts (like Dante's ''Literature/DivineComedy'', standing for ''Inferno'', ''Purgatory'' and ''Paradise'' respectively). But then Gogol went through a religious crisis, mixed with paranoid schizophrenia, destroyed the third book and also parts of the second. Until his death, he wouldn't restore them. He also stated that he felt Chichikov and other characters couldn't be redeemed.
* DealWithTheDevil: Chichikov definitely invokes this with the whole "buying people's 'souls'" thing and he's a lot like the "devil as small time bureaucrat" / TheDevilIsALoser portrayal in works like ''TheDevilAndDanielWebster'' and ''Literature/TheBrothersKaramazov'' (both post-date this novel, but probably draw from the same idea). In fact, both Chichikov and [[TheDevilAndDanielWebster Scratch]] store their souls in a box - the only difference is that Chichikov's are metaphorical.
* TheDitz: Mrs Korobochka the widow, who hesitates selling her "dead souls" and even suggests that "you could still need them".
* DoubleEntendre: Sobakevich says that he doesn't eat oysters because he knows what they look like. And by that, he means a certain part of the female anatomy. (He isn't kidding. Oysters were considered aphrodisiaka for this very reason.)
* DoYouWantToHaggle: Sobakevitch initially demands one hundred roubles per dead soul. He even starts arguing what great workers his souls were when alive. Way better than anything this Plyushkin guy may sell.
* EpilepticTrees: In-universe, concerning Chichikov's plans and nature. Some even think that he is Napoleon in disguise.
* EurekaMoment: When Chichikov gets the idea for his scam.
* ExtremeOmnivore: Plyushkin is so cheap, he's willing to eat moldy bread and drink alcohol in which insects have died. He even offers this food to Chichikov.
* FoodPorn: The descriptions of the several-courses meals the squires eat.
* ForeignCussWord: The city people go so far to avoid saying "this glass stinks" and will instead say "this glass doesn't behave well" or so. They don't mind using stronger words in GratuitousFrench, however.
* {{Foreshadowing}}: In the first chapter the author mentions that Chichikov is able to talk about custom officials "as if he had been one of them". Much later we'll learn that this has indeed been the case - and that he tried a big smuggle operation, which almost would've made him a rich man.
* FriendlessBackground: Chichikov.
* TheGamblingAddict: Nozdryov. He cheats, too.
* GargleBlaster: It is mentioned that the Madeira wine they sell to Russians sometimes gets "spiked" with aqua regia. Which is an acid so strong it even dissolves ''gold''.
* GoodIsNotNice: Kostanshoglo demands from his serfs that they work as hard as himself.
* GossipyHens: The society ladies of N____, especially those two in chapter #9.
* {{Greed}}: Chichikov's vice.
* HeelFaceTurn: It was in the author's plans to redeem Chichikov (and, according to one Gogol's letter, Plyushkin too) in the third volume. Alas, it never happened.
* {{Hypocrite}}: Chichikov is able to talk about virtue in such a wonderful way that it makes you cry, but isn't exactly virtuous himself.
* IHaveAFamily: Chichikov claims this (and is lying - again), to get a lesser punishment after one of his schemes is discovered. [[spoiler:When he tries this at the end of the book, they don't believe him anymore.]]
* IneffectualSympatheticVillain: Essentially what Chichikov actually is (rather than the LovableRogue he initially seems to be).
* InsaneTrollLogic: At one point, the narrator muses about it. Like with people who don't believe in {{God}} but are certain that they'll have to die soon when the bridge of their nose is itching.
* [[spoiler:KarmaHoudini: Chichikov fakes the testament of Khlobuyev's rich aunt, is even thrown into prison, but the influential Murayov liberates him with a complicated scheme, and Chichikov can leave the town - although Murayov also told him to change his ways. A somewhat BittersweetEnding.]]
* LargeHam: It's just a book, but Sobakevich, Kostanshoglo, Nozdryov and the general in the second book would probably fit.
* LoanShark: One appears in Kostanshoglo's village.
* LostHimInACardGame: Nozdryov suggests that they play cards for his dead souls. Chichikov declines, being savvy enough to know that Nozdryov cheats. Then he suggests they play checkers instead. Chichikov agrees, but things end awry since Nozdryov cheats again and gets very angry when Chichikov points this out.
* MissingMom: Chichikov's.
* NarrativeProfanityFilter: Plyushkin was given a derogatory nickname for his cheapness by the nearby-living peasants. The nickname starts with 'patched' and is obviously of an unprintable nature, and the narrator tells us about how it fits Plyushkin perfectly - but doesn't reveal what it actually ''is''.
* TheNicknamer: The widow Korobochka. The nicknames she gives to her serfs are pretty {{egregious}}.
* TheNondescript:
** Chichikov's whole appearance and personality is that of pleasant blandness, although as noted, he ultimately becomes very suspicious because of this.
** Also the narrator complains about how hard it is to describe Manilov - the reason being Manilov's lack of descriptive features, both in appearance and in personality, and overall blandness.
* NotGoodWithPeople: Sobakevich doesn't like the other people of the city very much, thinks the worst of them and only visits their parties [[BigEater for the food]].
* PetTheDog: Although Chichikov is a cheapskate, the author informs us that he'll always give a copper to a beggar.
* ThePigPen: One of Chichikov's servants who never washes himself.
* PlotHole: In this case just because parts of the second half of the novel are literally missing, since Gogol originally wanted to destroy the text. Sadly, the complete story is now LostForever.
* PottyFailure: [[JustifiedTrope By a baby.]] When visiting a family, Chichikov holds it on his arm. The fact that he doesn't take it badly helps him getting a favor by the parents, i.e. getting more dead souls.
* PreachersKid: Chichikov calls one of his partners in crime a "son of a priest", in jest; said partner really is a son of a priest, but gets so insulted he spills the beans.
* TheScrooge: Plyushkin, who owns several hundred souls, but lives as cheap as a beggar. Chichikov also doesn't like giving away money.
* SickeninglySweethearts: Manilov and his wife.
* SpellMyNameWithABlank: "the district seat N_______"
* [[RoyalsWhoActuallyDoSomething Squires Who Actually Do Something]] / NonIdleRich: Kostanshoglo, who works hard to make his village wealthy, while one of his neighbors (Khlobuyev) wastes his money, another one is almost as reality-impaired as Literature/DonQuixote, and the third one only thinks about his next meal.
* StartOfDarkness: Chichikov and Plyushkin started out as decent people, and there's a [[CryForTheDevil Cry For The Villain]] in revealing how both of them descended into what they are now.
** To be precise: Chichikov is taught by his father that you can't rely on other people, not even those whom you call friends, and that little Pavel should rather rely on his money - and acquire a lot of it. (Because [[{{Hypocrite}} his father]] didn't.)
* SternTeacher: At Tyentyetnikov's school. Sadly, this great teacher passed away before Tyentyetnikov would do his courses, which is blamed for his incompetence in life.
* TakeThat: One guy does this to Chichikov, since he takes the "dead souls" literally and pedantically points out that souls (in the usual sense) can't die but are immortal.
* TeachersPet: Chichikov became this when he had a SadistTeacher who'd give the best grades to, well, teacher's pets and bad grades to smart kids who were even a little bit unruly - or showed too much smartness.
* TitleDrop: More than once.
* TrashOfTheTitans: Plyushkin's household.
* UngratefulBastard: Chichikov to the aforementioned teacher. Even though those good grades and references gave him a head start in life, when the teacher is fired from school and sinks into poverty, and all those "unruly" students he'd been giving shit [[CrowningMomentOfHeartwarming immediately chip in together to help him]], Chichikov cannot spare but a single coin he gets rightfully thrown back into his face.
* UnsympatheticComedyProtagonist: Pretty much every single character.
* UpperClassTwit: Some characters, especially Manilov.
* VillainProtagonist: Chichikov.
* WideEyedIdealist: Tyentyetnikov tries to improve the lot of his serfs, with at best mixed results, and becomes apathetic in the end.
* YoungEntrepreneur: Chichikov started as this.
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