[[caption-width-right:350:''Biggles of the Camel Squadron''. The third book in the series, but the first to feature the name "Biggles" in the title- all subsequent books would use it.]]
''Biggles'' is a long-running series of books about James "[[OnlyKnownByTheirNickname Biggles]]" Bigglesworth, written by "Captain" W.E. Johns (the rank was self-awarded; Johns retired from the RAF as a Flying Officer, equivalent to a Lieutenant in the army) between the 1930s and the 1960s.
Biggles originated in a series of short stories that Johns (himself a former airman) wrote for ''Popular Flying'' magazine, and the original intention was to provide the fighter pilots of the future with an entertaining way to remember the "tricks of the trade" learned the hard way during UsefulNotes/WorldWarI.
The stories became very popular with children, particularly young boys, and Johns began to write more to this audience. The story was advanced to the inter-war period, with Biggles and his friends acting as freelance adventurers, sometimes working for the British Secret Service, either directly or via the Air Ministry.
When UsefulNotes/WorldWarII rolled around, Biggles naturally joined up and flew with the Royal Air Force throughout, having many adventures along the way.
The books continued after the war, with Biggles now a member of the Special Air Police, and Johns continued writing until his death in 1968, though the later books are not as highly regarded.
Although originally written as a realistic Great War airman -- hard-drinking, running on pure nervous energy, often murderously vindictive towards the enemy, and only a matter of time until his number was up -- Biggles then went into ContractualPurity. He became a strict teetotaler, and one of the early stories was [[RetCon retconned]] to replace whisky with lemonade, leading to the bizarre idea of squadrons of young pilots risking their lives to win a crate of lemonade. Similarly, while Biggles had a brief affair in one of the early stories, his young fans were outraged that an Australian radio adaptation had Biggles "go soft" by having a romantic escapade.
Biggles has in many ways dated very badly. Very much a product of its time, Biggles embodies the British values of Decency, Fair Play and Courage, and the casual sexism and racism of British society in the 1930s, though Biggles himself is shown to have been born and raised in India and speak fluent Hindi. The books are now generally considered [[FairForItsDay fair for their day]].
The colourful "ripping yarns" style of the prose is often parodied in British media, and Biggles is in many ways the archetypal ''Boy's Own'' story. Particularly satirised is Johns' habit of [[SaidBookism substituting colourful verbs in place of "said" in dialogue tags,]] and in particular his use of the verb "[[HaveAGayOldTime ejaculated]]" in place of "exclaimed".
Biggles holds a place in British popular culture comparable with Flash Gordon in the US, and it's probably not too much of a stretch to suggest that, if Biggles had been an American series, there would have been numerous screen adaptations by now. As it is, only a short-lived 1960s TV series and the SoBadItsGood 1986 ''Film/BigglesAdventuresInTime'' movie (in which Biggles is joined by a time-travelling American salesman) have been made.
Biggles was referenced multiple times on ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus'' (thus paying homage both to Biggles' importance as British pop hero and to underline/mock the show's supposed "aviatorial" nature); he was also featured as "cardinal" in the infamous Spanish Inquisition sketches.
Biggles was deconstructed and subverted - most egregiously in the character of foul-mouthed alcoholic working-class Brummie Major Wooley, in Creator/DerekRobinson's trilogy of UsefulNotes/WW1 fighter pilot novels.
Biggles is spoofed by blogger Reed dé Buch in [[http://reeddebuch.blogspot.com/search/label/biggles Biggles Over Baghdad]], an ongoing series of short stories, setting Biggles in contemporary Iraq and Iran - definitively not part of the Biggles canon.
[[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/tayside_and_central/8198268.stm Has recently been in the news]] when a pilot in RealLife used his knowledge of Biggles to make an emergency landing.
!!Tropes used in Biggles include:
%%%%* AcePilot: The
* TheAlcoholic: Supposedly the reason he's never seen to drink in books written after the series started pursuing a younger demographic; he [[NoMoreForMe swore off strong drink]] after it nearly got him killed in action.
* AlphaStrike: The [=WW1=] equivalent is a "Zone Call", which Biggles uses on a wood concealing German troops.
* AmbiguouslyGay: Biggles being at least a non-practicing gay can be inferred from the books given a modern dirty mind. It is a verifiable detail that only ''one'' woman even came close to seducing Biggles away from the manly embrace of his chums. A blonde FemmeFataleSpy called Ilse plays the FemmeFatale role, twice: on both occasions acting as agent for the dastardly villain, Count Erich von Stalhein of the German Intelligence Services.
* AnachronicOrder: His origin story, ''Biggles Learns to Fly'', was not the first book to be published.
** ''Biggles Goes to School'' and ''The Boy Biggles'' explore his childhood. The latter was one of the last stories written.
* CelibateHero; Biggles, despite his one flirtation with a FemmeFataleSpy, and all the retrospective HoYay stuff you can read into the books.
* CharacterDevelopment: And not just for the ContractualPurity reasons mentioned above. Biggles becomes [[OlderAndWiser appreciably smarter and less hot-headed with age.]]
* DistaffCounterpart: Flight Officer Joan "Worrals" Worralson of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force appeared in a number of stories between 1941 and 1950. She was created largely to encourage girls to become pilots.
* FrothyMugsOfWater: The ''Biggles'' stories were originally written for adults. When they were republished for children, references to whisky were changed to lemonade -- so pilots would willingly risk their lives on dangerous missions when offered the reward of a crate of lemonade.
%%%%* ImprobablePilotingSkills: Displayed by all four Aces.
* KidHero: Biggles is a borderline example, being eight months shy of his claimed seventeen years when he arrives as NewMeat at the Air Training School in ''Biggles Learns To Fly''. Most of the franchise is set some time after he reaches adulthood, however.
** Somewhat justified in that there are numerous cases of fourteen year olds winding up in the various armies. Sixteen is terribly young for the RFC, but not impossible.
** A couple of stories are set during his childhood.
* MilitaryAlphabet: Uses the old UsefulNotes/WorldWarI era British one (Ack for A and so on).
* OldSoldier: Biggles ages naturally during the course of the books. His last excursion as an over-age and deniable James Bond is a mission into the Russian Gulag in 1965, when he would have been as old as the century, to liberate old antagonist Erich von Stalhein from Soviet incarceration.
* OnlyAFleshWound: Frequently invoked. In one egregious example, Ginger is shot through the thigh but still manages to outrun his pursuers for over a mile.
* SaidBookism: All characters created by Johns are prone to colourful ejaculations.
* SkyPirate: Played somewhat realistically; the typical scenario was either a war-surplus fighter or mechanical sabotage being used to force down an aircraft carrying valuables that was then met by accomplices on the ground, or a fairly conventional ArmedBlag that used an aircraft instead of a getaway car.
* UniversalDriversLicense: Played straight for the most part, though probably justified by Biggles having literally ''decades'' of experience in civil and military aviation alike, at least by the time World War 2 rolls around. It was a minor plot point in one volume that he wasn't Instrument Flight Rules-qualified, however.
* VaporTrail: A SkyPirate encounters Biggles' deHavilland Mosquito fighter variant (four 20mm cannon plus or minus four .303 machine guns) in place of the unarmed bomber-turned-civilian-transport he'd planned to attack. When Biggles nails his opponent's fuel tank, the fellow panics and attempts to return fire through ''his own'' vapour trail. Because he's using tracer rounds, which basically trail a stream of fire behind them for up to six hundred yards... well, you can guess the rest.