[[quoteright:310:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Sherlock_Holmes_-_The_Man_with_the_Twisted_Lip.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:310: [[CatchPhrase “The Game's Afoot!”]]]]
->''"Here dwell together still two men of note\\
Who never lived and so can never die:\\
How very near they seem, yet how remote\\
That age before the world went all awry.\\
But still the game's afoot for those with ears\\
Attuned to catch the distant view-halloo:\\
England is England yet, for all our fears—\\
Only those things the heart believes are true.''

->''A yellow fog swirls past the window-pane\\
As night descends upon this fabled street:\\
A lonely hansom splashes through the rain,\\
The ghostly gas lamps fail at twenty feet.\\
Here, though the world explode, these two survive,\\
And it is always eighteen ninety-five."''
-->-- '''"221B", Vincent Starrett'''

Sherlock Holmes is a fictional PrivateDetective (or, Consulting Detective, [[InsistentTerminology the term he preferred]]), an analytical genius with generally unrivaled deductive powers (and a [[NoSocialSkills certain disregard of social norms]] [[note]]Though various adaptations tend to overplay this; in the stories, he can occasionally be TheSocialExpert[[/note]]). The original version lived in VictorianLondon, at 221B Baker Street.

Holmes was assisted by his trusty {{sidekick}}, [[TheWatson Doctor John Watson]]. Watson also served as the {{narrator}}: all of Holmes's adventures were (with a few exceptions) told via the FramingDevice of Watson's journals, ably [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis edited for publication by]] [[Creator/ArthurConanDoyle Sir Arthur Conan Doyle]]. Holmes had a number of well-known [[CatchPhrase catch phrases]]: "[[{{Koan}} When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth]]", "The game's afoot" (itself a quote from Creator/{{Shakespeare}}'s ''Theatre/HenryV''), "ThePlotThickens", and, most famously, "Elementary, my dear Watson" (which Holmes [[BeamMeUpScotty never actually said]] in any of Doyle's stories).

Doyle admitted that he [[OlderThanTheyThink based the character of Holmes]] on Dr. Joseph Bell, one of his professors from University, and Creator/EdgarAllanPoe's C. Auguste Dupin. This is lampshaded in a rather blunt statement made by Holmes within the story in which he is originally introduced ("A Study In Scarlet"), "Now, in my opinion, Dupin was a very inferior fellow. That trick of his of breaking in on his friends' thoughts with an apropos remark after a quarter of an hour's silence is really very showy and superficial. He had some analytical genius, no doubt; but he was by no means such a phenomenon as Poe appeared to imagine." (Though Holmes isn't above performing this precise feat on Watson in later stories, to show that he's perfectly capable of doing it--he just considers it more showy than regularly useful.)

Throughout the stories only one person ever refers to Holmes as "Sherlock", and that's his brother. Nearly everyone else, even Watson, calls him "Holmes" or "''Mister'' Holmes". This is normal for Victorian and Edwardian England; at the time, men would only use a first name to address family members, romantic partners (and you had to be all but engaged), junior servants, or children[[note]]This could also be done in very close friendships between two young women[[/note]]. One minor character in "The Sign of Four" refers to him as "Mister Sherlock", which in context implied that he'd known Holmes since boyhood. Additionally, this is updated and [[PlayingWithATrope played with]] in the 2011 Ritchie sequel, where Mycroft calls his brother "[[GenderBlenderName Sherly]]" on a number of occasions.

'''Other recurring characters in the Holmes stories were:'''
* Inspector Lestrade of Scotland Yard. Initially he was mildly antagonistic as he disapproved of Holmes's interference in police matters, but he later came to respect and rely on the detective. Holmes would usually allow -- or insist -- that Lestrade take full credit for cases that Holmes had solved.
* Mycroft Holmes, Sherlock's AloofBigBrother. Mycroft's role varied from time to time, but he was generally AlwaysSomeoneBetter to Holmes. Even Sherlock acknowledged that Mycroft's mind was sharper than his own, but his skills were largely wasted due to his [[BrilliantButLazy exceptional sloth]]: almost nothing piqued Mycroft's interest enough to lure him out of the familiar surroundings of his favorite private club. Mycroft was some sort of government functionary, whose official duties were limited, but "In certain cases, Mycroft ''is'' the British Government."
* Professor James Moriarty, Holmes's personal EvilCounterpart; a mathematician and criminal mastermind whom Holmes described as "the Napoleon of Crime". Moriarty was killed (as, apparently, was Holmes, though he turned out to be NotQuiteDead) in "The Final Problem", his introductory story, though Conan Doyle went on to reuse Moriarty in ''The Valley of Fear'', a novel whose action takes place before that of "The Final Problem." Moriarty's henchman, Colonel Sebastian Moran, is the villain of ''The Adventure of the Empty House'' and has been used in many post-Doyle Holmes stories.
* Mrs. Hudson, Holmes's long-suffering landlady.
* Mary Watson (nee Morstan), Watson's fiancee and later wife.
* The Baker Street Irregulars, a gang of street children who gather information for Holmes.

A final note: As one of the oldest continuous franchises in existence (There have been over 230 versions of Holmes in Film, Television, Stage, and Radio), it stands to reason that it also has a ''very'' extensive fandom. For many {{Fanfic Trope|s}} and {{Audience Reaction|s}} it happened in the Sherlock Holmes fandom first.

'''See Literature.SherlockHolmes for a list of canonical Sherlock Holmes works written by Creator/ArthurConanDoyle and the associated tropes.'''
----
!!Adaptations of Sherlock Holmes with Wiki/TVTropes Pages:
[[index]]
* ''Film/TheAdventureOfSherlockHolmesSmarterBrother''
* ''Series/TheAdventuresOfSherlockHolmesAndDoctorWatson''
* ''Series/TheAdventuresOfShirleyHolmes''
* ''Literature/BasilOfBakerStreet''
* ''Series/{{Elementary}}''
* ''Literature/EnolaHolmes''
* ''Disney/TheGreatMouseDetective''
* ''Literature/TheHoundOfTheDurbervilles''
* ''Literature/MaryRussell''
* ''Film/ThePrivateLifeOfSherlockHolmes''
* ''Theatre/TheSecretOfSherlockHolmes''
* ''Series/{{Sherlock}}''
* ''Film/SherlockHolmes'': Two films starring Creator/RobertDowneyJr
* ''Literature/SherlockHolmes'': The original novels and stories written by Conan Doyle
* ''Series/SherlockHolmes'': Television series starring Creator/JeremyBrett
* ''Theatre/SherlockHolmes'': Stage play which debuted in 1899, ran for over 30 years. Itself adapted into a 1922 film starring John Barrymore.
* ''WesternAnimation/SherlockHolmesInTheTwentySecondCentury''
* ''VideoGame/SherlockHolmesVersusArseneLupin''
* ''VideoGame/SherlockHolmesVersusJackTheRipper''
* ''Anime/SherlockHound''
* ''TheSherlockian''
* ''Literature/SherlockInLove''
* ''VideoGame/TheTestamentOfSherlockHolmes''
* ''Film/TheyMightBeGiants''
* ''Film/WithoutAClue''
* ''Film/YoungSherlockHolmes''
[[/index]]
----
!! Also the [[TropeNamers Trope Namer]] for:
* InspectorLestrade
* TheMoriartyEffect (Renamed BreakoutVillain)
* SherlockHomage
* SherlockScan
* TheWatson

!!Adaptations of Sherlock Holmes--a detailed list.
[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: AnimatedShows]]
* ''Anime/SherlockHound'', an {{Anime}} adaptation that recast the characters as {{Funny Animal}}s and aired in 1984 and 1985.
* ''WesternAnimation/SherlockHolmesInTheTwentySecondCentury'', a 1999 AnimatedAdaptation of Holmes RecycledINSPACE!
** This series is predated by "Sherlock Holmes in the 23rd Century", a two-part episode of the 1987 series ''WesternAnimation/{{Bravestarr}}'' with the same concept.
* Holmes and Watson appeared in one episode of ''WesternAnimation/BatmanTheBraveAndTheBold''. During their time, Jason Blood tried (and failed) to bring Batman to that time but Holmes completed the spell. Holmes was soon able to deduce Batman must have been born to some doctor or at least wealthy man.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* Franchise/{{Batman}} meets Sherlock Holmes in ''Detective Comics'' #572, the 50th anniversary. In it, Batman travels to London to foil a plot by a descendant of Moriarty based on a previously untold adventure of Holmes. At the end of the adventure, the Dark Knight and his allies encounter the ancient (but still very much alive) Sherlock.
* ''Watson and Holmes'' are an African-American detective duo based in Harlem.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Fan Fic]]
A common urban legend is that Sherlock Holmes fanfics were so common made the writers of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' believe the character, as well as his nemesis Professor Moriarty, were in the public domain when they made the episode "Elementary, My Dear Data", only to receive an angry letter from the Doyle estate. This is, unfortunately, not supported by the facts, but it makes a good story -- students of urban legends will, of course, recognize some slight resemblance between this and the Neiman-Marcus Red Velvet Cake legend.

Sherlock Holmes was arguably one of the first franchises in the modern era to become almost as famous for its fanfiction as for its fiction. Holmes captured the imagination of many writers, and spawned a considerable amount of unauthorized sequels or guest appearances -- especially across the Atlantic, as the state of international copyright enforcement was largely nonexistent at the time. According to Victorian-literature expert Jess Nevins, it was fairly common for penny-dreadful writers to write stories in which Sherlock Holmes is immediately murdered and a plucky young protagonist has to figure out who did it. Also, stories of the French character Literature/ArseneLupin began as a Holmes copycat, but subsequently featured a renamed (by order of Conan Doyle's lawyers) and badly-written version of Holmes himself.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Film - Animated]]
* ''Disney/TheGreatMouseDetective''. See ''Literature/BasilOfBakerStreet'' below.
* ''TomAndJerryMeetSherlockHolmes''. And not only do the famed cat and mouse, but so do Droopy, Spike, Tyke, and Butch, in grand over-the-top style.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Film - Live Action]]
A number of films were made (Holmes has appeared in more films than any other single fictional character), some of which took a number of liberties with the story:
* Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce starred as Holmes and Watson in a popular series of film adaptations in the 1930s and 1940s. The first two ("The Hound of the Baskervilles" and "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes") were produced by TwentiethCenturyFox and were based on, respectively, the Doyle novel and the William Gillette play; both were set in the Victorian era. The others, produced by Creator/{{Universal}}, moved the setting to the 1940s. Initially, Holmes and Watson fought ThoseWackyNazis, but they later went up against more conventional crooks. Bruce's portrayal of Watson as a bumbling incompetent rather than the original ladykilling man of action helped begin a long chain of similar adaptations.
* In the 1937 German comedy adventure ''Der Mann, der Sherlock Holmes war'' (The Man Who Was Sherlock Holmes), two unsuccessful private detectives (Hans Albers and Heinz Rühmann) decide to drum up interest by dressing up as Holmes and Watson. They are met with great deference everywhere, solve the theft of valuable stamps, but are put on trial for impersonation, where they insist that they told everybody that they ''weren't'' Holmes and Watson. Conan Doyle is shown laughing his head off in the courtroom audience and mentioning that Holmes and Watson are fictional characters he invented, which means the movie must be set before 1930.
* The 1970 film ''Film/ThePrivateLifeOfSherlockHolmes'', directed by Creator/BillyWilder.
* ''Film/TheAdventureOfSherlockHolmesSmarterBrother'', released in 1975, was GeneWilder's directorial debut. It follows Sherlock's (self-proclaimed) smarter younger brother Siegerson, who attempts to thwart Moriarty on his own.
* A deleted scene in the NeilSimon Detective Movie parody ''MurderByDeath'' features Holmes and Watson showing up late for the gathering. [[EditedForSyndication Edited For Television]] versions of the film generally restore the cameo.
* 1978's ''The Hound of the Baskervilles'' starring Creator/DudleyMoore and Peter Cook is one of the ''worst films ever made''. Available to watch on Netflix Watch Instantly, it is a stunningly bad comedy with the entire soundtrack consisting of Moore idly noodling on a piano.
* 1979, ''Murder By Decree'' starring Christopher Plummer as Holmes and James Mason as (a Non-Flanderized) Watson on JackTheRipper case. The basis for the plot was the book ''Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution'' by Stephen Knight, the same book that would be the basis for Creator/AlanMoore's ''Comicbook/FromHell'' some years later. It was seen by some as a DarkerAndEdgier Sherlock Holmes movie but, given the subject matter, it's understandable. This was the second time Holmes and the Ripper met; the first time was in the 1966 movie ''A Study in Terror''.
* In the 1985 Levinson/Spielberg/Columbus movie ''YoungSherlockHolmes'', a teenaged Holmes and Watson meet at a boarding school decades prior to their adult companionship. (Unusual in that it began with a disclaimer explaining that it was a "WhatIf" story.)
* In the 1988 movie ''WithoutAClue'' the Holmes/Watson roles are reversed, with Watson as the real detective and Holmes as an alcoholic actor hired by Watson as his public front.
* In perhaps the most unusual adaptation, there is the 1971 movie ''Film/TheyMightBeGiants'' (from which [[Music/TheyMightBeGiants the band]] took its name), which starred George C. Scott as a man who thought he was Sherlock Holmes, and Joanne Woodward as his psychiatrist, whose name was Watson. The film itself took its name from a line in Don Quixote.
* A 1986 Soviet comedy called ''MyDearlyBelovedDetective''. Not quite an adaptation, since Holmes and Watson are stated to be fictional in story. However, [[DistaffCounterpart two ladies with the last names of Holmes and Watson decide to enter the business]]...
* 2003 saw an adaptation of ''The Hound of the Baskervilles'' which played up Holmes's addiction. It featured Richard Roxbourgh (the Duke in ''MoulinRouge'') as Holmes and Ian Hart (Professor Quirrel in the ''Film/HarryPotter'' first film) as Watson, and introduced several changes to the story: Dr. Mortimer was much OlderAndWiser than in the book, his wife is a believer in the supernatural and holds a party that is ''very'' important to the plot, Selden becomes an AscendedExtra, and [[spoiler: Beryl Stapleton is murdered by her husband Roger aka the BigBad.]]
* ''Film/SherlockHolmes'', a movie directed by GuyRitchie with RobertDowneyJr. as Holmes and Jude Law as Watson, released on Christmas Day 2009. Response to the trailer, [[NeverTrustATrailer which basically strung the comedic moments together]] to make it look more like a spoof than an actual Holmes story, was... controversial... in fandom. The movie received mostly positive reviews, and critics praised Downey Jr's portrayal as the detective (for which he won a Golden Globe) and the chemistry between him and Law. And it was a box-office hit. A sequel to this film, titled ''Film/SherlockHolmesAGameOfShadows'', came to theaters in December 2011 with Jared Harris as Professor Moriarty and StephenFry as Mycroft Holmes.
* TheAsylum released ''Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes'' directly to DVD in 2010 to piggyback on the Ritchie film. Starring Ben Syder as Holmes and Gareth David-Lloyd as Watson. It's {{Steampunk}} and involves dinosaurs.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Literature not written by Arthur Conan Doyle]]
* Adrian Conan Doyle (son of Arthur Conan Doyle) and Creator/JohnDicksonCarr (Doyle's biographer and friend) wrote a series of Short Stories collected under the name 'The Exploits of Sherlock Holmes', and was supposed to be the accounts of the cases that Watson mentioned but never made it to the original 56 short stories. Some consider it canon, for being written by the Author's son, and treat it as the tenth volume of Sherlock Holmes canon, but many more don't for the obvious fact that it wasn't written or approved by Arthur Conan Doyle (it was written and published after his death) and it was cowritten by an unrelated author. Sequels were expected but never produced, mainly because the authors got in a dispute over who wrote what.
* Nicholas Meyer's novel (later adapted to film), ''Literature/TheSevenPercentSolution'' proposed that the Moriarty stories were complete fictions invented by Watson to cover for Holmes's recovery from cocaine addiction. (This was to explain the canon's apparent contradiction of Moriarty dying in the story that ''introduced'' him, yet figuring in other prequel stories.) In the story, Moriarty is revealed as Holmes's childhood maths tutor, whom Holmes had cast as a criminal in his drug-induced delirium. The story ends with a departing Holmes suggesting that Watson explain his absence to the readers by telling them he'd been murdered by his math tutor.
* Laurie R. King's ''Literature/MaryRussell'' series takes place in the 1910s-20s.
* Robert L. Fish's ridiculously pun-packed Schlock Homes stories...where to begin...
** Some titles of stories: "The Adventure of the Printer's Inc.", "The Adventure of the Spectacled Band" (there is a Holmes adventure of the ''speckled'' band), "The Adventure of the Snared Drummer", "The Adventure of the Perforated Ulster", "The Adventure of the Dog in the Knight", "The Adventure of the Artist's Mottle"
** Watney's first paragraph of "The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarters":
--> "My notes for the early part of the year '65 contain several instances of more than passing interest for those who follow the adventures of my friend Mr. Schlock Homes. There was, for example, his brilliant solution to the mysterious gunning down of a retired boilermaker, a case which I find listed as ''The Adventure of the Shot and the Bier''; and there is also reference to the intriguing business of the hitchhiking young actress, noted in my journal as ''The Adventure of the Ingenue's Thumb''." (There's a Holmes adventure of the ''engineer's'' thumb.)
* The ''Literature/EnolaHolmes'' series by Nancy Springer, which depicts the adventures of the much younger sister of Sherlock. This series is a cut above others in that on top of each mystery, the overall plot arc is of the eventual reconciliation of the Holmes siblings as Enola finds that she is a match for her brother in every way for her age. For his part, a spot-on depicted Sherlock learns to admire his brilliant sister as a professional colleague in an utterly believable way.
* Creator/MichaelChabon's 2004 novella ''The Final Solution'', in which Holmes (never named directly, but it is clearly him), a 90ish old man living in country retirement as a beekeeper, tries to locate a German Jewish boy's stolen parrot.
* Andrew Lane's "Young Sherlock Holmes" series (not to be confused with the movie of the same name), chronicling a [[TeenGenius teenage Sherlock's]] adventures. These stand to be the only teen novels endorsed by the Doyle Estate.
** As Andy Lane, he'd earlier written ''All-Consuming Fire'', a Literature/{{Doctor Who New Adventure|s}} crossing over Holmes with ''Series/DoctorWho'' (specifically the Seventh Doctor, Ace, and novel companion Franchise/BerniceSummerfield).
* ''Literature/BasilOfBakerStreet'', later adapted by Creator/{{Disney}} as ''Disney/TheGreatMouseDetective''. A FunnyAnimal version of the mythos, and many a child's first exposure to Sherlock Holmes. Basil's name is an obvious ShoutOut to Basil Rathbone. In the film, Rathbone himself even has a vocal cameo (albeit one well after his death) as Holmes himself.
* ''Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street'', a popular tongue-in-cheek "biography" of Sherlock Holmes written in 1962 by W.S. Baring-Gould, has been the source of many interesting theories about Holmes, some of which are often assumed to be canon (even in this very entry). These include the idea that the King of Bohemia was Edward [=VII=]; that Sherlock Holmes and Irene Adler became lovers in Montenegro during the time Holmes was hiding from Moran, and that Irene returned to New Jersey to bear his child, a boy later known as Literature/NeroWolfe [[note]]This was actually suggested to him by Rex Stout, the writer of the Nero Wolfe novels, but given that Stout once wrote a paper suggesting that Watson was a woman...[[/note]]; that Holmes in his twenties was a stage actor in a company that toured America; that he worked on the JackTheRipper case; that Watson had three wives; that Holmes's bee-keeping in later years was intended as a way of producing royal jelly, then thought of as a "fountain of youth"; and that Holmes died in the 1950s after spending the war years - when he would have been roughly 90 years old - fighting Nazis. In ''Film/TheAdventureOfSherlockHolmesSmarterBrother'', the title character, Siegerson, is named for Baring-Gould's Holmes ''pere''. As a way of freeing up Sherlock and Mycroft for their various occupations while still ensuring they were members of the "right" class, Baring-Gould invented Sherringford, the eldest--and smartest--brother, who stayed home in Yorkshire to take care of the responsibilities of a country squire. Sherringford was Holmes's original name in Doyle's first draft of ''A Study in Scarlet''.
* ''Literature/TheHoundOfTheDurbervilles'' by Creator/KimNewman focuses on Professor Moriarty and his subordinate, Sebastian Moran, as they share a series of adventures that oddly echo Holmes's famous cases and have them meeting [[MassiveMultiplayerCrossover numerous other characters from Victorian and Edwardian fiction]]. The last story in the collection, "The Problem of the Final Adventure", retells "The Final Problem" from Moran's point of view.
** Titan Books, Newman's publisher, has an ongoing series of Holmes pastiches.
* ''Trouble in Bugland: A Collection of Inspector Mantis Mysteries'' is Sherlock Holmes in "Bugland," where everyone is an insect. Holmes is Inspector Mantis, a praying mantis, and Watson is Doctor Hopper.
* In PoulAnderson's ''Literature/TimePatrol'', the Victorian era office would like to hire a contemporary detective, but the only one clever enough is probably clever enough to figure out the Time Patrol. Other clues makes it clear who this unnamed detective is.
* ''The House of Silk'', by Creator/AnthonyHorowitz, follows two crimes that end up closely linked, one where a family is being hounded by an American gang boss and another where Holmes searches for the elusive House of Silk. Notable in that it's the first novel, not written by Sir Doyle, that the the Conan Doyle Estate has endorsed.
* ''The Holmes/Dracula Files'' by Fred Saberhagen, a {{Crossover}} novel that's pretty much ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin; Sherlock Holmes meets {{Dracula}}. Also used to explain [[NoodleIncident The Giant Rat of Sumatra]].
* Brazilian TV personality Jô Soares (a veteran TV comedian, now known for his DavidLetterman-style talk show) wrote a book titled "O Xangô de Baker Street". In that book, Holmes was described as knowing the Portuguese language, which helped him since he went to Brazil to try to figure out the identity of a serial killer. His portrayal in that book had him misinterpret clues. He [[spoiler:failed, which was attributed to his lack of knowledge of how musical notes were known in Brazil. The culprit, whose identity was revealed to the readers, moved to England and was implied to be JackTheRipper]].
* ''[[Literature/DustAndShadow Dust and Shadow: An Account of the Ripper Killings by Dr. John H. Watson]]'', by Lyndsay Faye. ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin.
* ''Bert Coules'', the writer who set out to dramatise the entire canon for BBC radio, also wrote 15 dramatisations of his own, available from the BBC as ''The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes''.
* Contained in StephenKing's short-fiction collection ''Literature/NightmaresAndDreamscapes'' is the Sherlock Holmes pastiche "The Doctor's Case." A shipping magnate has been murdered in what Lestrade describes as "the perfect locked-room mystery"; Holmes and Watson investigate, and the solution takes an unusual and surprising turn.
* Denis O. Smith's ''The Lost Chronicles of Sherlock Holmes'' is twelve new cases from Holmes' early years, in a fair imitation of Doyle's style.
* MichaelKurland's Moriarty novels, a PerspectiveFlip in which Moriarty is the protagonist.
* Donald Thomas has published multiple short story and novella pastiches featuring Holmes and Watson, most recently ''The Execution of Sherlock Holmes and Other New Adventures of the Great Detective.''
* Loren D. Estleman has published crossover novels featuring Holmes meeting up with {{Dracula}} and [[StrangeCaseOfDrJekyllAndMrHyde Jekyll and Hyde.]]
* In the early 2000s, David Pirie wrote three novels featuring Arthur Conan Doyle and Joseph Bell as the detectives. Although the novels are self-enclosed, the larger plot arc remains [[OrphanedSeries unfinished.]]
* Michael Dibdin's take on Sherlock Holmes and JackTheRipper, ''The Last Sherlock Holmes Story.'' [[spoiler: Holmes ''is'' Jack. He's also Moriarty.]]
* ManlyWadeWellman, best known as the author of the [[SilverJohn John The Balladeer]] stories, wrote one short story in which a by-then elderly Holmes and Watson stop a [[ThoseWackyNazis Nazi agent]] from setting up an invasion of England in 1940. He also wrote a novel in which Sherlock, Watson, and Sherlock's cousin [[Literature/TheLostWorld Professor Edward Challenger]] help to stop [[AlienInvasion the War of the Worlds]]. Rather disliked by some fans for setting up a romance between Holmes and Mrs. Hudson.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Live Action TV]]
* Sherlock Holmes first appeared on television in 1937.
* 1951 saw the first regular TV series based on Holmes' exploits, airing on the BBC with Alan Wheatley as Holmes.
* A syndicated 1950s TV series, filmed in France, starring Ronald Howard and Marion Crawford.
* A series of adaptations starring Creator/PeterCushing in the 1960s.
* ''Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson'', a 24-part series from 1979 with Geoffrey Whitehead.
* ''Series/SherlockHolmes'', produced by Granada Television (ITV), starring Creator/JeremyBrett, David Burke, and Edward Hardwicke. Ran from 1984 to 1994, and is generally considered to be most faithful to Conan Doyle's original vision of the character. Series one and two ran under then name ''The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes'', three and four ''The Return of Sherlock Holmes'', five ''The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes'', and six ''The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes''. Five feature length episodes were made and released between series, two based on the novels ''The Sign of Four'' and ''The Hound of the Baskervilles'', three based on short stories turned into AdaptationExpansion.
* The [[TheEighties 1979-1986]] [[SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn Soviet]] series of TV movies ''Series/TheAdventuresOfSherlockHolmesAndDoctorWatson'' -- no relationship to the above. A Russian-language series notable for ''not'' [[{{Flanderization}} flanderizing]] Watson into an idiot, being a generally faithful AdaptationDistillation and for the fact that the actor playing Holmes got an Order of the British Empire for his portrayal (surprising for a Soviet citizen). It's also provided fodder for a lot of [[RussianHumor Russian jokes]] (but then again, what doesn't?)
* ''[[Series/MurderRooms Murder Rooms: The Dark Origins of Sherlock Holmes]]'' is a BBC series which featured not Holmes and Watson, but instead had the young Arthur Conan Doyle himself in the [[TheWatson Watson role]] and expounded on the theory that the character of Holmes was a thinly-veiled stand-in for one of Doyle's medical school teachers, Professor Joseph Bell.
* ''Series/{{Sherlock}}'', a BBC miniseries beginning July 2010. Created by Creator/StevenMoffat and Creator/MarkGatiss, the series stars Creator/BenedictCumberbatch as Sherlock Holmes and Creator/MartinFreeman as Dr John Watson in a 21st-century SettingUpdate of the original stories. The show has been a critical and commercial smash hit both in the UK and abroad and cleaned up at the 2011 {{BAFTA}}s, including wins for Best Supporting Actor (Freeman) and Best Drama Series.
* The Canadian mystery series ''Series/TheAdventuresOfShirleyHolmes'' was about the great-grandniece of Sherlock Holmes solving crimes.
* ''Series/{{House}}'' owes quite a bit to Sherlock Holmes. Besides the [[{{Expy}} acknowledged parallels]] -- Greg House/Sherlock Holmes and James Wilson/John Watson -- there are a number of references and running jokes that pay homage to Sherlock Holmes, such as House's address being 221B (Baker Street), the name of the man in "No Reason" who [[spoiler:shoots House]], named as "Moriarty" [[AllThereInTheManual (although never onscreen)]], a book by Dr. Bell, the inspiration for Holmes, being given to House as a gift, an episode where House writes the phrase "The game is a itchy foot" on an envelope, and the fact that the very first patient that he treats in the pilot episode is a woman named "Adler". On that note, one episode had Wilson tell another character about a woman named Irene Adler, who he described as being essentially the same as the original Irene Adler--[[spoiler:then subverting it by admitting that he made it up]]. Finally, in the series finale [[spoiler:House fakes his death, just like Holmes did via the Reichenbach Falls incident]].
* Creator/{{CBS}} created an American television adaptation of Sherlock Holmes titled ''Series/{{Elementary}}'', which stars Creator/JonnyLeeMiller as Holmes and Creator/LucyLiu as [[GenderFlip Joan Watson]]. Sherlock goes to UsefulNotes/NewYorkCity after a [[TraumaCongaLine becoming a heroin addict after a serious trauma]] while in London and meets Joan Watson, a sober companion hired by his father to help him in the post-rehab life. The main focus of the show is the growing relationship between Holmes and Watson and works as a deconstruction of TheWatson and the {{Sidekick}} tropes. Joan Watson is one of the protagonists, an aspiring consultant detective (ex-sober companion and ex-surgeon) and her insights are crucial to the story arc.
* ''FantasyIsland'' had at least one story in which a guest wanted to be/meet the World's Greatest Detective.
* An episode of ''The Father Dowling Mysteries'' had the good Father doubting his detecting skills when the police arrest the wrong man on his advice. This causes him to conjure up an image of his hero Holmes as a consulting detective to help him solve the case.
* ''Series/{{Psych}}'' features an amateur detective with phenomenal powers of observation and his less-able, though still clever, partner, who are retained as consultants by a skeptical police department. If it's not officially a Holmes adaptation, it may as well be.
* The 1985 television PilotMovie ''The Return of Sherlock Holmes'' had Michael Pennington as the great detective, thawed out in modern times by a female descendant of Watson.
* And a large number of made-for-TV-movies, starring such actors as Creator/TomBaker, Larry Hagman, Roger Moore, Richard Roxbourgh, Creator/RupertEverett, and Matt Frewer.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Radio]]
* There was also a series of [[TheBBC BBC]] radio adaptations starring Clive Merrison as Holmes. Merrison's performance has some marked similarities to Brett's; he is the only actor to have appeared in adaptations of ''all'' the original stories, as well as new pastiches.
* A number of radio adaptations, both adaptations and original stories, starring Nigel Bruce as Watson and first Basil Rathbone and then Tom Conway as Holmes. (Rathbone and Bruce were associated with the roles from a long-running film series. Several available here [[http://www.archive.org/details/HQSherlockRathboneTCS]])
* Creator/BigFinish, most famous for their extensive range of ''Series/DoctorWho'' [[AudioPlay/BigFinishDoctorWho audio plays]], have been producing a series of Sherlock Holmes dramas. There are four in the series so far: one is an adaptation of a canonical story, one is set during Holmes' elderly years after the passing of Dr. Watson, one is a metafictional tale in which Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Professor Moriarty conspire against Holmes, and the most recent installment pits Holmes against JackTheRipper. The Great Detective is played by Roger Llewellyn and Nicholas Briggs. In the most recent release, Briggs' Holmes meets the Creator/BigFinish version of Dorian Gray.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Theatre]]
* Sherlock Holmes first appeared on-stage in a 1899 play written by and starring William Gillette. Simply titled ''Theatre/SherlockHolmes'', it featured an original plot. Years later, Creator/OrsonWelles would adapt the play for ''The Mercury Radio Theater'' with the explanation that, "It is not enough to say that William Gillette looks like Sherlock Holmes: Sherlock Holmes looks ''exactly'' like William Gillette." It was Gillette, and not Doyle, who popularized most of the visual tropes associated with the character to this day such as the deerstalker cap, the distinctive pipe and riding cloak. His iconic attire was originally depicted by Sidney Paget, who illustrated the stories for their initial publication in ''Strand Magazine'', but he only put Holmes in them in appropriate situations: when the story took him out of London, and into the countryside.
* Starting in 1988, Creator/JeremyBrett and his second Watson, Edward Hardwicke, starred in a stage production titled ''Theatre/TheSecretOfSherlockHolmes''. It was written by Jeremy Paul, who scripted many episodes of [[Series/SherlockHolmes the Granada Television series.]]
* Charles Marowitz's black comedy ''Sherlock's Last Case,'' in which Watson has been so DrivenToMadness by Holmes' nastiness that he tries to murder him. [[spoiler: That goes so badly that poor Watson is DrivenToSuicide instead.]]
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[[folder: Video Games]]
* Three Sherlock Holmes games were released on a Famicom, but none of them outside Japan. Two were your typical adventure games solving clues. The third one was an action-adventure game which wasn't received well.
* ''Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective'', was released for PC, [=TurboDuo=], CTDV and Sega CD in the early '90s, as part of the FullMotionVideo craze that gripped gaming after the introduction of the CD-ROM format.
* One of the last InteractiveFiction games produced by {{Infocom}} was 1988's ''Sherlock: The Riddle of the Crown Jewels'', in which the player takes the role of Watson.
* Electronic Arts' ''The Lost Files of Sherlock Holmes'', sadly limited to two adventures (''The Case of the Serrated Scalpel'' and ''The Case of the Rose Tattoo'') were released in the 1990s, making use of the LiteraryAgentHypothesis to portray two Holmes cases [[{{Kayfabe}} considered "too hot to show"]].
* Since 2002, the company Frogwares has been developing a series of Sherlock Holmes puzzle/adventure games based off the original books as well as including various crossovers with other series. As of 2012, the series includes:
** ''Sherlock Holmes: The Mystery of the Mummy''
** ''Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the Silver Earring''
** ''Sherlock Holmes: The Awakened'' -- a crossover with the Franchise/CthulhuMythos
** ''VideoGame/SherlockHolmesVersusArseneLupin''
** ''VideoGame/SherlockHolmesVersusJackTheRipper''
** ''VideoGame/TheTestamentOfSherlockHolmes''
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