[[quoteright:296:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/The_Man_Who_Shot_Liberty_Valance_1729.jpg]]

->''"When the legend becomes fact, print the legend."''
-->-- '''Maxwell Scott'''

Directed by Creator/JohnFord in 1962, the film opens with the return of Senator Ransom Stoddard (JamesStewart) and his wife, Hallie (Vera Miles), to the small frontier town of Shinbone. Stoddard is an influential and well-liked political figure, but nowhere is he more revered than in Shinbone, the place where his career started. On this sad day, however, Ransom has returned to pay tribute to an old friend, Tom Doniphon (JohnWayne), who has died. Initially, he intends to slip in and out of Shinbone with little fanfare, but, when a newspaper reporter corners him, he decides to reveal the true story about how his life in politics began.

We see in flashback when years earlier, Ransom arrives in Shinbone broken, bruised, and bloodied after being robbed and beaten by the notorious outlaw, Liberty Valance (Creator/LeeMarvin, dripping malice and paranoia). With the help of Hallie and her parents, he recovers his health and vows to bring Valance to justice. For Ransom, a book-learned attorney with little knowledge of the real world, "justice" means "arrest and jail." But in Shinbone, where the marshal (Andy Devine) is completely spineless and almost everyone else is afraid of Liberty, justice is a bullet. This is the lesson that Tom tries to impress upon Ransom, that in Shinbone, enforcing the Law requires a gun, not a book. Tom is one of the most respected men in Shinbone because of his prowess with a gun and because he is the only one who can, and will, stand up to Liberty and make him back down. The two become rivals for Hallie's affections, but each earns the other's grudging respect.

By the way, this is the film responsible for introducing John Wayne's famous CatchPhrase of calling someone "pilgrim".

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!!Tropes:

* AdaptationExpansion: Understandable, since it's based on a short story. The movie adds Pompey and Link Appleyard as major characters, and it expands Ranse's efforts to start a school into a major subplot. The territory becoming a state (which was only alluded to in the short story) also becomes a pivotal plot point.
* AdaptationNameChange: Ransom Stoddard and Tom Doniphon were named Ransome Foster and Bert Barricune in the original short story.
* AdaptationalHeroism: Ranse is far more sympathetic than in the original short story. His literary counterpart is a naive, arrogant, somewhat weaselly man who goes West for lack of anything better to do with his life, and the story largely focuses on how his pointless quest for revenge against Valance ends up consuming him. In the movie, he's a mild-mannered lawyer-turned-schoolteacher who's dedicated to bringing education and progress to the West, and his showdown with Valance is presented in a much more sympathetic light (since Valance is actually shown to be a menace to the town, instead of just a random thug that Ranse has a grudge against).
* TheAlcoholic:
** What happens to Tom. In the flashback, Tom had given up the demon drink to stay sober for Hallie's sake. When he loses her...
** Ransom's flashbacks reveal half the civic leaders of Shinbone - Newspaperman Peabody, Doc Willoughby for examples - were drunk most of the time too.
* [[spoiler:BasedOnAGreatBigLie: the whole point of the movie.]]
* BeingGoodSucks: Ransom gets this in the start: being an upstanding paragon of civilization gets him beat, threatened, and ridiculed in TheWildWest. [[spoiler:Tom gets it in the end. By secretly helping Ransom and letting him take the credit, Tom loses his girlfriend, turns into a drunk, and ultimately winds up forgotten, broke, and buried in a simple pine box.]]
* BittersweetEnding: [[spoiler:Tom, just as much a hero as Ransom (in his own way), dies drunk and alone. Ransom hasn't gotten over his guilt that Tom never got his credit, and that he took Tom's happiness away when Hallie fell for him. Worse, the legend that Ransom killed Liberty Valance - a total lie - remains. The only good thing at the end is that Ransom lived up to Tom's hopes of using that lie to give Hallie - and the residents of Shinbone and the West - a better life.]]
* TheCameo: JohnCarradine shows up as an ex-Confederate orator representing the cattle barons during the convention for statehood.
* ClearMyName
* [[YoureCuteWhenYoureAngry You're Cute When You're Angry]]: Tom to Hallie at least twice.
* DarkerAndEdgier: This is one of the harshest Westerns John Ford ever made. It mocks his earlier works like ''Film/MyDarlingClementine'', which wholeheartedly embraced the need for heroes. Only ''TheSearchers'' can top this film's dark mood. This film does echo ''FortApache'' with the theme of [[BasedOnAGreatBigLie needing our heroes more than the truth]]. But where the earlier film ended on an uplifting [[BittersweetEnding note]], the later film holds no such illusions.
* [[spoiler:DeadMansHand: The titular character Liberty draws this hand right before being shot.]]
* DidNotGetTheGirl: Tom never does a formal proposal to Hallie and eventually misses his window when Ransom steps up. This makes Tom an embittered, tragic man in his old days.
* TheDogBitesBack: "I don't like tricks, myself!"
* {{Eagleland}}: Played with. The movie suggests that our ManifestDestiny of moving Westward was not as clean and heroic as the school books want us to think.
* EvenEvilHasStandards: Valance's flunkies Reese and Floyd occasionally seem shocked by their boss's bloodlust. Floyd tries (unsuccessfully) to diffuse the confrontation between Liberty and Tom in the restaurant, and both men prevent Valance from actually killing Ranse and Peabody.
* ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin: The title.
* FlowerMotif: the cactus blossom that Hallie places [[spoiler: on Tom's coffin.]] [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saguaro Saguaro blossom]] is the state wildflower of Arizona, hinting at which territory the film depicts.
* ForegoneConclusion: Liberty Valance is going to get shot. By a man.
* {{Foreshadowing}}: Liberty is playing poker when Ransom calls him out for his lynching of the newspaper editor Peabody. He tosses down [[spoiler:Aces and Eights - The infamous "Dead Man's Hand"]]. John Ford uses this often.
* FramedForHeroism: Former TropeNamer, Ransom gets a heroic reputation for killing a man, and that reputation can propel him into the White House if he wants. [[spoiler:He didn't commit the killing in the first place. He gets rewarded for something he didn't do. On the other hand, his ''real'' heroism is being willing to make a stand and face Valance rather than fleeing.]]
* GrammarNazi: Ranse frequently corrects others' speech errors.
* TheGunslinger: Both Liberty and Tom are feared gunmen. Tom is the only one Liberty fears.
* HamToHamCombat: Every major character is chewing the scenery like nobody's business. And the one-scene cameo by JohnCarradine tops them all in the LargeHam category. It's amazing by film's end that the soundstage they filmed on is left standing.
* TheHero: Left open to interpretation.
* HeroicBSOD: Played straight, both ways. Ransom feels guilty enough about shooting a man, even if it was a monster like Liberty Valance. [[spoiler:Tom doesn't feel guilty about ''really'' shooting Liberty, but his life falls apart anyway when Hallie switches her affection to Ransom, whom Tom despises AND respects.]]
* HeroicSacrifice: [[spoiler:Tom refuses to take credit for killing Liberty Valance because Hallie loves Ransom now, and because Tom knows that Ransom can do better - and provide for Hallie better - with that reputation than Tom can.]]
* HypocriticalHumor: The orator arguing for the cattle barons' desire that the territory remains a territory (that they can control) denounces the settlers' attempt to promote Ransom as the Congressional representative to get them statehood. He argues - while wearing the Confederate officer's uniform no less - they shouldn't send the man who killed Liberty Valance to the same place where AbrahamLincoln died like a saint.
* IJustWantMyBelovedToBeHappy: [[spoiler: Tom Doniphon shoots Liberty Valance and saves Rance because Hallie would have been sad if he had died. He also bows out when he finds that Hallie has fallen deeply in love with Rance and not with him, and ends up miserable and alone as a result.]]
* IronicEcho: "Nothing's too good for the man who shot Liberty Valance!"
* {{Jerkass}}: Liberty Valance.
* KnightInSourArmor: Tom Doniphon is a much better man than he'd like to be, and does he ever pay the price for it.
* LoveTriangle
* MeaningfulName: Liberty Valance embodies the dark side of the freedom offered by the Old West, where the strongest always emerge on top. Ransom Stoddard embodies the trade-off of freedom for education and progress (to "ransom" something means to exchange it for something else).
* NeverLiveItDown: In-universe; Ransom's life is forever defined by the demise of Valance, and years later people keep bringing it up cheerfully. However, deep down he's haunted by this association.
* TheObiWan: Peabody, to Ransom. Although Peabody is too drunk too often, he helps Ransom start a law office and eventually grows enough of a spine denouncing Liberty Valance in print. Liberty's violent reprisal is what drives Ransom to get his gun...
* PoliticallyCorrectHistory: Averted. When Pompey (Doniphon's black farmhand) enters the town saloon, he is bluntly told that he can't come in.
* {{Rancher}}: Tom Doniphon had a small ranch. He was going to marry his sweetheart and grow [[strike:roses]] cactus blossoms. [[spoiler:She falls in love with Ransom instead.]]
* [[spoiler:{{Retcon}}: In-universe. "This is the West, sir. When the legend becomes fact, print the legend."]]
* SensitiveGuyAndManlyMan: One of the leads is JimmyStewart, the other is JohnWayne. [[SarcasmMode Take a guess who is who]].
* SettlingTheFrontier
* ShadowArchetype: Liberty to Tom, oh so very much. A great deal of the film's conflict comes from that fact that, in Ranse's eyes, they're really NotSoDifferent: they're both cynical, tough-as-nails Western gunfighters who love the freedom of the Old West above all else, and believe that [[MightMakesRight justice can only be dealt out with a gun]]. The only difference is that Tom has a CodeOfHonor that compels him to defend the innocent, whereas Liberty is an amoral thug who simply lives to take what he wants.
* SmugSnake: Liberty Valance knows enough of the law to figure out how to get away with murder, even though everyone in Shinbone knows he and his pack are involved.
* SpoilerTitle: Only halfway.
* TechnicalPacifist
* TemptingFate: When Doc Willoughby works up the nerve to denounce Liberty for all the harm he's done, and notes how happy he'll be when the day comes for him to perform his physician's duty of declaring the gunman dead, Valance laughs and tosses a stolen gold coin at the doctor. "Payment in advance!"
* ThrowingOutTheScript: Subverted. The pro-rancher candidate claims to do this. However, when the "notes" he so dramatically screwed up and threw away are examined they turn out to be blank paper. The "words from his heart" was the speech he had memorised all along.
* TrailersAlwaysSpoil: While the title gives us [[ForegoneConclusion a hint that Liberty won't make it to the final credits]], and we ''see'' [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CA2JgS6zycQ him being shot in the trailer]]--the left half of the screen is blacked out, so you can't see who's firing the shot.
** [[spoiler:Which is actually misleading, because when the scene comes, and Rance shoots him, we find out that Tom was standing in an alley across the street and ''he'' fired the fatal shot. Although, to be fair, it looks like they both nailed him. So really, the title should be "The ''Men'' Who Shot Liberty Valance"...]]
* TheSoCalledCoward: Its not that Ransom isn't brave, he just doesn't think a steak is worth dying for.
* TwilightOfTheOldWest: Peabody's RousingSpeech points out the changing norms of the territory: cowboys and gunmen of a lawless frontier giving way [[SettlingTheFrontier to settlers and civilization]] in need of statehood.
* TheWestern: Deconstructed. A man's heroic deeds in taming the West, which involve killing a killer, [[spoiler:prove to be a sham]], and worst of all [[spoiler:when he finally tells the truth about how it happened, the people he tells it to refuse to accept the truth.]]
* WholeEpisodeFlashback: Which itself has a {{Flashback}} embedded in it.

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