->''He gained the world, but lost a nation.''

1995[[note]]One year after its subject died[[/note]] biopic of the thirty-seventh President of the United States, directed by Creator/OliverStone and starring Creator/AnthonyHopkins as UsefulNotes/RichardNixon. The film explores Nixon and his triumphs and his failings, culminating in his resignation of the office of the presidency in disgrace following the revelation of his abuse of office and executive privilege following the Watergate scandal.

It was the second movie Stone made following ''Film/{{JFK}}'', and like the earlier film -- an angry, searing and rabble-rousing examination of the [[WhoShotJFK assassination of]] UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy -- it drew a lot of controversy... but not necessarily for the reasons you'd expect. Unlike the earlier film, which was [[VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory heavily presented as fact]], this movie admits from the start it's based on 'an incomplete historical record' and is intended as less a hatchet job and more an attempt to understand who Nixon was and why he was compelled to act the way he did. As such, it earned critics from both sides; while supporters of Nixon (including his daughters) disowned it as inaccurate (in particular, it was argued that the depiction of Nixon and his wife's alcoholism and pill addiction was grossly exaggerated), some critics of Nixon argued that it wasn't harsh ''enough'' on the former president in that, while hardly downplaying his faults, it suggested that there was the potential (and even the realization) of greatness in the man. Stone would later paint [[TragicHero a similar portrait]] of UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush in the eponymous ''{{Film/W}}''.

The plot is largely non-linear, at least for the first half, and essentially involves Nixon flashing back through his past as he listens to his secret tape recordings as the Watergate scandal intensifies, the tapes triggering memories of his childhood, his unsuccessful campaign for president against UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy in 1960 and his wilderness years following an equally unsuccessful campaign for governor of California in 1962. The second half follows a more linear form, kicking off when Nixon is elected President in 1968, and follows his presidency through Vietnam, his groundbreaking visit to China and, of course, Watergate.

!!''Nixon'' provides examples of:

* TheAlcoholic: Although it's not labored on ''that'' much, it is suggested that Nixon and Pat Nixon have trouble controlling their booze.
* AlasPoorVillain: As controversial as he was, the last hour of the film will make you feel sorry for Nixon. He suffers a physical and mental breakdown, alienates himself from his family and loses most of his close allies. By the time he resigns, he's a broken, sobbing man who can barely keep a hold on himself as he leaves the White House.
* AlwaysSecondBest: Nixon has a heavy dose of this in this film with regards to Kennedy, even if ultimately as he's aware and the film portrays it, his was a far more consequential presidency than Kennedy's (even without the Assassination cutting Kennedy's career short).
* AmbiguousDisorder: This portrayal of Nixon is a virtual catalogue of neuroses. He's paranoid and [[NeverMyFault unwilling to take blame]], [[InferioritySuperiorityComplex constantly tries to boost his own scarce self-esteem]], [[TheResenter holds grudges towards almost everyone]], has worrying mood swings and no matter how much power he gains, it's never enough.
* AnAesop:
--> '''Richard M. Nixon:''' ''Always remember: others may hate you. But those who hate you don't win unless you hate them. And then you destroy yourself.''\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' Ellsberg's not the issue. It's the ''lie.''\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' The key thing we proved was that Hiss was a liar. Then people bought that he was a spy.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' It's the coverup that looks really bad here John, not the deed.
* AnachronicOrder: Starts with Nixon shortly before his resignation, flashes back to different points in his life (Early in his presidency, the 1960 campaign, his childhood). The movie drops this in the second half and settles into a chronological narrative.
* ArchEnemy: Nixon views the Kennedys and particularly JFK as his.
* ArmorPiercingQuestion:
--> '''John Dean:''' How the hell do you have the temerity to blackmail the President of the United States?\\
'''E. Howard Hunt:''' That's not the question, John. The question is: why is he paying?
** And the other question that Nixon ask himself (and never could answer):
--> '''Richard M. Nixon:''' [[WideEyedIdealist All those kids...]] Why do they hate [[SleazyPolitician me]] so much?
** "Can you imagine what this man could have been if he had ever been loved?"
* ArtisticLicenseHistory: The hints towards various groups involvement in the assassination of the Kennedys is this for those who agree with the Warren Commission report. Stone (through Howard Hunt) also claims that Nixon personally ordered the Watergate break-in, an argument few historians would endorse (though the issue of who precisely did is still contentious, to say the least).
* AsTheGoodBookSays: The movie opens with Matthew 16:26 -- "For what is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?"
* AwfulTruth: Nixon is too terrified to find out what he believes to be the real circumstances behind the Kennedy assassination.
* BadassGay: Hoover is characterized as gay in his private life and his main trait is his dominance over powerful elected officials.
* BeCarefulWhatYouWishFor: Nixon is elected President, his longtime dream, but once he gets there he starts to endure TheChainsOfCommanding. His wife expected that the office would make him happy, but he's anything but.
* BlackEyesOfEvil: Thanks to a trick of the light during filming or special effects, depending on who you believe, in a deleted scene where Nixon meets C.I.A Director Dick Helms, Helms' eyes at one point go completely black as Nixon is talking about evil -- specifically, the evil that the system that he and Helms represent has unleashed on the world. While Helms wasn't exactly a ''nice'' man, his estate perhaps not surprisingly objected to the implication that he was some kind of demon, and the scene was removed from the theatrical release (the director's cut restored it).
* BlameGame: Nixon and his administration go absolutely crazy trying to pin the blame for their activities on underlings in order to keep the growing attention they're getting away from the White House. Eventually Nixon gets so desperate that he winds up cutting loose practically everyone up to his closest advisors.
* BlatantLies: Nixon claims he has a plan to end the Vietnam war immediately and "with honour". J. Edgar Hoover is watching the televised interview at the time and notes that Nixon is lying through his teeth, and that's what makes him a useful politician.
* CallBack: In the scene where Nixon is leaving Dallas on November 22nd 1963, moments before President Kennedy is expected to arrive, the ominous drumbeat and footage of President and Mrs. Kennedy exiting Air Force One and embarking on the [[WhoShotJFK fateful motorcade]] is similar to Stone's earlier movie ''Film/{{JFK}}''.
* CallForward: In a very ironic touch, Nixon uses the line "Follow The Money" when he wants to link the subversive protesters to the USSR. The iconic line summarizes Woodward and Bernstein's [[ForensicAccounting investigation]] of Watergate and was created by the film ''Film/AllThePresidentsMen''.
* CastingGag: Larry Hagman turns up as a [[Series/{{Dallas}} Texas oil billionaire]].
* CharacterTitle
* ChasteHero: Nixon isn't very interested in sex, neither with Pat or the floozies at Jack Jones' house. He considers it a point of pride compared to Jack Kennedy's womanizing.
* ChronicBackstabbingDisorder:
-->'''E. Howard Hunt:''' ''John, sooner or later, sooner, I think, you're gonna learn a lesson that's been learned by everyone who's ever gotten close to Richard Nixon. [[TragicVillain That he's the darkness reaching out for the darkness]]''. '''And eventually, it's either you or him.''' ''[[YourDaysAreNumbered Your grave's already been dug, John.]]''
* ChummyCommies: Brezhnev is sympathetic towards Nixon and both aim at reducing nuclear weapons on both sides. Mao as well is friendly with Nixon, although in a [[NotSoDifferent much]] [[LonelyAtTheTop darker]] way.
* ClusterFBomb:
** Nixon is constantly dropping this. This is TruthInTelevision; Nixon was reportedly rather foul-mouthed in private and evidence of it is on the tapes, as portrayed in a minor subplot.
** However, it's made to seem even ''worse'' when Nixon orders politically damaging things in the tape to be "Expletive Deleted" too. One aide remarks that it'll make it seem as if he does nothing ''but'' swear. Nixon doesn't care.
* CorruptPolitician: The real life Richard Nixon is really the TropeCodifier. In the movie Nixon claims to be honest at least about his [[SleazyPolitician financial assests]].
-->'''Nixon:''' Well, I am not a crook. I've earned everything I have.
** UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy as well. On the 1960 election:
--->'''Murray Chotiner:''' They stole it fair and square.
* {{Deconstruction}}: Of SlaveToPR and Image politics in general, as well as the vagaries of historical reputation.
* DepravedHomosexual: How J. Edgar Hoover is portrayed, in his interaction with a pool-boy while Clyde Tolson smirks beside him.
* DespairSpeech: Nixon gives one to his wife as they are leaving the White House.
--> '''Richard M. Nixon:''' You know, once, when I was sick as a boy, my mother gave me this stuff and she made me swallow it. It made me throw up all over her. I wish I could do that now. I'm so afraid. There's darkness out there. I could always see where I was going. But it's dark out there. God, I've always been afraid of the dark.
* DickDastardlyStopsToCheat: Nixon laments this after losing his first presidential bid to Kennedy; that his rival outspent him and yet still cheated by bringing up top secret information he had been briefed on about the Eisenhower administration's failure to act in Cuba that made Nixon look bad by association.
** Nixon himself turns out to be this; he was likely to have won the 1972 Presidential election easily anyway (albeit because of a weak field of opposing candidates), but his paranoia just couldn't stop him from ordering the Watergate break-in to spy on them further, when ended up being his undoing.
* DirtyCommunists: Nixon builds his early political career on blaming all the ills of America on the alleged Communist conspiracy to subvert and overthrow America, teaming up with Joe [=McCarthy=] during the height of the RedScare. He still has the same mindset when dealing with the anti-bombing protests during the early days of his presidency, believing that America's youth are being manipulated by the Communist establishment. It's only towards the end of his first term that Nixon concedes that such a mindset no longer has a place in politics and on the international stage. He goes on to open diplomatic relations with China and gets the SALT 1 and 2 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaties signed with Russia.
* TheDragon: Haldeman for Nixon, being both ruthless and unerringly loyal. TruthInTelevision, though the film downplays Ehrlichman's role as [[CoDragons Co Dragon]].
* TheDreaded:
** J. Edgar Hoover is universally feared, and with good reason: like his real life counterpart, he has dirt on everyone. After asking for Hoover's support in his bid for the presidency, Nixon later muses that Hoover's agreement was really his way of putting Nixon "on notice" that he'd better toe the line.
** CIA director Dick Helms along with Hoover are two people Nixon knows never to "fuck with", since they both know all about Nixon's dirty cuban mafia dealings while he was Vice president, which may or may not have links to the Kennedy assassination.
* DudeWheresMyRespect: Nixon is embittered by the lack of credit he is given for ending UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar and improving the peaceful relations with Russia and China.
* DumbassHasAPoint / JerkassHasAPoint: Maybe some people would not call a 19 year old college kid who protests against Vietnam War a Dumbass or a Jerkass, but Nixon certainly does:
--> '''Richard M. Nixon:''' She got it, Bob. 19-year-old college kid.\\
'''H. R. Haldeman:''' What? Who?\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' She understood something it's taken me 25 years in politics to understand. [[TheMan The CIA, the Mafia, those Wall Street bastards...]]\\
'''H. R. Haldeman:''' Sir?\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' [[InherentInTheSystem The Beast. 19-year-old kid. She called it a wild animal]].
* EarlyBirdCameo: Though the AnachronicOrder makes it less obvious, Stone subtly introduces assorted characters in minor appearances [[AscendedExtra before they became prominent]]. For instance, Kissinger's first scene is a brief appearance at a party thrown by Nelson Rockefeller (Governor of New York and one of Nixon's presidential rivals), and Haig appears in the background of several early scenes without speaking, or with only a throwaway line ("That's what they're doing, Mr. President!") before he takes over as Nixon's Chief of Staff.
* EvenEvilHasLovedOnes: Nixon's relationship with Pat and his daughters. Though occasionally strained, he clearly loves them and their interactions provide [[PetTheDog Nixon's most sympathetic moments]].
* EvilCannotComprehendGood: Nixon knows that people love Kennedy and hate him. What he truly doesn't gasp is ''why''. It's made even more tragic because Nixon knows Kennedy was just as flawed a person as he is.
--> '''Richard M. Nixon:''' Do you miss Cuba, Manolo?\\
'''Manolo Sanchez:''' Yes, Mr. President.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' We let you down, didn't we. Your people.\\
'''Manolo Sanchez:''' That was Mr. Kennedy, sir.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' You don't think he was a hero?\\
'''Manolo Sanchez:''' ''(shrugs)'' He was a politician.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' Did you cry when he died?\\
'''Manolo Sanchez:''' Yes.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' Why?\\
'''Manolo Sanchez:''' I don't know. [[YouAreBetterThanYouThinkYouAre He made me... see the stars.]]\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' How did he do that?\\
''({{beat}}. Nixon is deep in thought)''\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' All those kids... Why do they hate me so much?
* FallGuy: Nixon makes it plainly obvious to Dean that he's being set up as one. This pushes Dean into being a whistleblower. Bonus points for Dean using the terminology.
* FatBastard: Kissinger is a fat, lecherous and shady ProfessionalButtKisser.
* ForegoneConclusion: If you know your history.
* FreudianExcuse / ICouldaBeenAContender: Exaggerated by Nixon. He is the leader of the most powerful country in the world. Even so, that is little compared to his younghood's dreams. He is full of bitterness:
-->'''John Ehrlichman:''' [[FreudianExcuse You got people dying because he didn't make the varsity football team]]. You got the Constitution hanging by a thread because he ''[[ICouldaBeenAContender went to Whittier and not to Yale]]''.
--> '''Kissinger''': Can you imagine what he could have been if he had ever been loved?
* GilliganCut: Played for drama: we cut directly from Nixon's idealistic acceptance speech (calling for government reform and a "New American Revolution") to footage of American warplanes bombing Cambodia.
* GloryDays: Nixon invokes Lincoln's regime as this as for the Republican party. He points to the college students that it was the Republicans that abolished slavery during UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar and that his ancestors included abolitionists and there was a point when ''they'' were the progressive party.
* HeelFaceTurn: John Dean, who becomes a major witness against Nixon during the Senate investigation.
* HiddenDepths: In a quiet moment, Nixon laments the shooting of the students protesting over the bombing of Cambodia. He admits that he wants to send his condolences to the families, [[ThirdPersonPerson "But Nixon can't."]]
* HistoricalHeroUpgrade: Broadly, Nixon is angry about how this process works and desperate that it happens to him. The film focuses on the various presidential portraits in the background of the White House, with UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington and UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln, obviously the tradition that Nixon aspires to, and Nixon is happy to point out the shortcomings and failures of other presidents in an effort to mitigate his own misdeeds. At the end, he sees Kennedy's unfinished presidential portrait and realizes that this process has happened to Kennedy and there's not anything he can do about it.
* HistoricalInJoke: Chief of Staff Al Haig yells out "I'm in Charge here!", when Nixon is admitted to hospital. This is a reference to his bizarre press conference (while serving as Secretary of State) that he held when President UsefulNotes/RonaldReagan suffered an assassination attempt.
** Nixon also mentions liking Music/ElvisPresley at one point, referencing Nixon's [[http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/nixon-met-elvis/index.html famous meeting with Elvis]].
* HistoricalVillainDowngrade: John Ehrlichman, who's treated as the OnlySaneMan trying to check Nixon's more extreme actions. While Ehrlichman was considered one of the more liberal members of Nixon's inner circle (being a major proponent of environmental reforms, for one), he was no more compromising than Haldeman, Chuck Colson or other Nixon aides in both his protectiveness towards Nixon and general ruthlessness towards those who crossed the President.
* HoistByHisOwnPetard:
** Nixon starts the taping of The White House in order to control the leaks. The tapes become a potentially fatal evidence during his impeachment.
** Kennedy wins the election because during the debate, he starts asking questions about Cuba Nixon knows he can't answer.
* IJustWantMyBelovedToBeHappy: Pat Nixon overcomes her reticence about Nixon's political career when he assures her that being President will make him happy. It doesn't, and their marriage suffers immensely.
* IJustWantToBeLoved: Nixon lives in the shadow of Kennedy because of it.
* InherentInTheSystem: Argued as the real cause Nixon cannot stop the Vietnam War:
-->'''Young Student:''' You don't want the war, we don't want the war, the Vietnamese don't want the war, so why does it go on?\\
''(Nixon hesitates. Haldeman whispers "We should be going" to him.)''\\
'''Young Student:''' You can't stop it, can you? Even if you wanted to. Because it's not you, '''it's the system. The system won't let you stop it.'''\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' There's... there's more at stake here than what you want, or what I want.\\
'''Young Student:''' [[AndThenWhat Then what's the point?]] [[ArmorPiercingQuestion What's the point of being President? You're powerless!]]\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' '''No.''' No, [[AuthorityInNameOnly I'm not powerless]]. Because, because I understand the system, I believe I can, uh, I can control it. Maybe not control it totally, but tame it enough to make it do some good.\\
'''Young Student:''' Sounds like you're talking about a wild animal.\\
'''Richard M. Nixon:''' [[DumbassHasAPoint Yeah, maybe I am.]]
* InuniverseNickname: Richard Nixon's infamous moniker; "Tricky Dick".
* ItsAllAboutMe: Nixon, who says it word by word, thinks the media and public turning against him are all because they don't like ''him'', and nothing at all to do with the horrible things he did as president.
* KavorkaMan
-->'''Mao:''' How a fat man gets so many girls?\\
'''Kissinger:''' Power, Mr. Chairman, is the ultimate aphrodisiac.
* LeaveBehindAPistol: Lampshaded by Nixon at the beginning, but not an actual example [[RealLife for obvious reasons]].
-->'''Nixon:''' Hey Al? Men in your profession, you give 'em a pistol and then leave the room. I don't have a pistol, Al.
* LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters: The conspiracy is so intricate that almost every minor character has some relevancy.
* LonelyAtTheTop:
** Nixons closed-door meeting with [[UsefulNotes/MaoZedong Mao]] has shades of this. Mao is clearly depressed about his legacy and flat out bored with political life. He's more interested in asking why [[KavorkaMan Kissinger is such a ladies man.]]
** Nixon gets there too. His own wife remarks he has alienated everyone, including her.
* MenDontCry: Nixon believes in this and says it word for word, adding that "you don't cry, you fight.". Averted during his final moments at the helm.
* MinorCrimeRevealsMajorPlot: The Watergate break-in, a "third-rate burglary", opens a can of worms that exposes Nixon's shady deals and terminates his presidency.
* MononymousBiopicTitle
* MoodWhiplash:
** A tense meeting between Nixon and John Dean in which Dean begins to suspect that Nixon is setting him up to be a scapegoat suddenly takes a turn for the comic when Nixon, escorting Dean out of the Oval Office, pulls the handle off the door, prompting a moment of awkwardness as the two remain trapped in the office.
*** WhatDoYouMeanItsNotSymbolic: The symbolism is kind of obvious.
** Another tense meeting with General Haig in a corridor ends with Nixon dramatically trying not to get impeached and denying it all. He walks toward a big hall full of "P.O.Ws", while looking deeply in distress ... and change suddenly his face to give a big politician smile.
* MyBelovedSmother: The portrayal of Hannah Nixon verges on this.
* NWordPrivileges: Nixon is aghast when he hears himself calling African-Americans "niggers", stating ThisCannotBe in ThirdPersonPerson.
* NeverMyFault: Nixon believes all his dirty activities are necessary for national security and doesn't believe running them makes him a criminal.
* NoCelebritiesWereHarmed: Mostly averted, though Nixon's friend Trini Lopez is a thinly-disguised Bebe Rebozo, and "Jack Jones" is a composite of businessmen like H.L. Hunt and Howard Hughes, whom Nixon had murky dealings with before and during his presidency.
* NiceToTheWaiter: Nixon has a friendly and humanizing relationship with Manolo, his valet.
* NoSuchAgency: When Nixon feels that he can't rely on the FBI or the CIA, he [[StartMyOwn institutes his own personal agency]]; The White House Plumbers.
* NothingPersonal: Haldeman points this out when Mitchell is being cut loose.
* NukeEm: At dinner with his advisors, Nixon threatens to take this action in Vietnam if he feels it will force the north Vietnamese to surrender. Everyone is aghast by the notion until Henry Kissinger chimes in that they have to entertain the possibility.
* ObfuscatingInsanity: Nixon's notorious "[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madman_theory madman theory]]" is invoked while discussing the invasion of Cambodia and the possibility of using nuclear weapons against North Vietnam.
--> '''Kissinger''': They (the State Department) don't realize - [[ProfessionalButtKisser as you do, sir]] - that the Communists only respond to strength and will only negotiate in good faith if they fear the madman Richard Nixon.
--> '''Nixon''': Exactly! [[AlwaysChaoticEvil Unpredictability is our best asset]].
* OhCrap:
-->'''John Ehrlichman:''' Well, sir, it turns out one of the people implicated is still on the White House payroll.
-->'''Richard M. Nixon:''' Who? Not another damn Cuban?
-->'''H. R. Haldeman:''' No sir. A guy named Hunt. Howard Hunt, sir.
-->'''Richard M. Nixon:''' [Fear creeping on his face] Hunt? Howard Hunt?
* OnlySaneMan / SanityBall: Inverted in that almost everyone realizes Nixon is increasingly unstable following Watergate, but can't do a thing about it. Ehrlichman and Haig play the role most often though.
* OpenSecret: J. Edgar Hoover's sexual proclivities are well known to Nixon and others. When discussing Hoover, Nixon even refers to him as "the old queen" and "that old cocksucker". Since Hoover is TheDreaded for having all the dirty goods on everyone else, nobody would dare use Hoover's OpenSecret against him.
* OrwellianEditor: Nixon becomes one of these in a scene where his aides are transcribing his secret recordings, in which he rants about the amount of swearing and less-than-politically correct statements he's made. As well as the obvious reasons of trying to present himself in the best possible light ("The world will see what I show them! From page one!"), it's also used to display how increasingly delusional he's becoming -- he frantically (and apparently sincerely) insists that he never said these things despite the fact that ''his own taping system'' has recorded him saying them.
* PetTheDog: Invoked literally by Nixon in his defense during a speech about the [[StealingFromTheTill Checkers scandal]]; he brings up a dog adopted by his children, named Checkers. It's infamously successful.
* PoliticallyIncorrectVillain: While Nixon doesn't exemplify correction, the shadowy men who want to control the country behind the scenes stand out in this regard. Just in case you didn't realize Hoover or "Jack Jones" were pure evil, they happily drop racial epithets to clue you in.
** At one point, Haldeman gives a violently anti-Semitic tirade against the ''New York Times''. Ehrlichman, Dean and Kissinger (himself Jewish) are visibly shocked, but Nixon needless to say is unfazed.
* ProfessionalButtKisser: Kissinger gets this treatment, most notably in [[EstablishingCharacterMoment his introductory scene]] where he supports Nixon's invasion of Cambodia over the protests of Nixon's cabinet (whom he labels "cowards").
* ProperlyParanoid: Given Kennedy's assassination, the unstable inner and foreign situation and the shady people he's dealing with, Nixon's fears seem justified. However, at a certain point his paranoia goes too far and he ends up alienating everyone from him, and in a deteriorated mental state to boot.
* ProtagonistTitle
* {{Realpolitik}}: Nixon believes America will look weak and exploitable on the world stage by pulling out of Vietnam immediately. He decides instead to bomb the hell out of Vietnam and Cambodia for a few more years to appear in a position of dominance before accepting the same peace treaty with the North Vietnamese which they had been offering the whole time.
* ReCut: A director's cut was released with 28 additional minutes, mostly centered around a scene where Nixon meets with CIA director Richard Helms, which was initially removed because Helms threatened with a lawsuit, and another on Tricia Nixon's wedding day, where J. Edgar Hoover persuades Nixon to install the taping system in the Oval Office.
* RefugeInAudacity: Invoked by Nixon; he can start a détente with the Communist countries because he has the proven reputation of a hardliner. Anyone but him would be lambasted for being soft.
** Let's all say it together: "Only Nixon could go to China."
* ReplacementScrappy: In-universe. Nixon think himself as this compared to JFK, and that the American people sees him as this as well and thats why they've such a low opinion of him.
* TheResenter: Nixon resents Kennedy's popularity, even long after his death.
* RewindReplayRepeat: Nixon hears his tapes over and over again.
* RuleOfSymbolism: After threatening to [[NukeEm drop the big one]] on north Vietnam while discussing the matter at dinner with his advisors, Nixon orders his steak be taken away because it has leaked a large pool of blood on his plate. They were also discussing the bombings in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, and the four dead students of Kent State. Lots of blood.
** Earlier in the film, the horse rearing up and panicking when J. Edgar Hoover chats with Nixon.
* {{Scandalgate}}: Natch.
* ScrewTheRulesIMakeThem: Something the real Nixon actually believed and admitted, although ''this'' Nixon paraphrases it a bit.
-->'''Nixon:''' It's not illegal if the ''President'' does it.
** Nixon scoffs when one of his aides suggests Congress might invoke his invasion of Cambodia as grounds for impeachment:
--> "They can't impeach me over Cambodia. The President can bomb anyone he likes!"
* ShameIfSomethingHappened: The shadowy group tells Nixon that his position "can change. In a heartbeat". Nixon - who among other things controls the [[IntimidatingRevenueService IRS]] - is able to turn the tables.
-->'''Nixon: '''Presidents don't threaten, Jack. They don't have to.
* ShoutOut:
** To ''Film/CitizenKane'': the opening shot of the White House, ominously viewed through the metal fence during a storm, mirrors the reveal of Xanadu. As well as any number of horror films featuring a scene / opening with an ominous mansion.
** Also from ''Film/CitizenKane'': the nonlinear structure, use of a [[{{Mockumentary}} fake newsreel]] to give background on Nixon's life, and the tool of a mystery at the center of the subject's soul (Rosebud in ''Kane'', the Watergate tapes in ''Nixon'').
** Nixon uses the line "Follow the Money" from ''Film/AllThePresidentsMen'' (see CallForward above for more details).
* SilentMajority: Invoked and namecheked by Nixon during his campaign speeches, remarking that the protesters are a VocalMinority.
* SirSwearsALot: Nixon, very much TruthInTelevision. A great joke is when he sees the tape transcripts and sees all the swears and is shocked, ''shocked'', that it has so many swear words and tries to blacken it out, making the pages covered in ink.
* SlaveToPR: Nixon is very much so. Indeed the film generally looks at how mass media and TV coverage greatly affected Nixon's mentality and the kind of pressures this kind of media influence had on transparency and surveillance. Nixon becomes obsessed with Kennedy's ControversyProofImage and becomes TheResenter that his image is not good enough. Most of the movie is about Nixon's paranoia as a president stemming from the fact that he's always being watched, his actions judged and scrutinized at every step of the way which requires politicans to create a media personality to project on camera, often serving as the DesignatedHero (in the case of Kennedy) and the DesignatedVillain (in the case of Nixon). Nixon's watergate scandal, his wiretapping and his personal life becomes all about the image and eventually, he starts BecomingTheMask.
* StupidestThingIveEverHeard: Said by Nixon when he's asked about a statement that connects high-level White House officials to the Watergate break-in.
* TenMinuteRetirement: Nixon promises his wife he's quitting politics after his defeat in 60, but then he runs again in 62. Afterwards he retires to a civilian life when Pat asks for a divorce. Nixon does a comeback in 68.
-->'''Jack Jones:''' Dick... your country needs you.
-->'''Nixon:''' Unfortunately, the country's not available right now.
* ThirdPersonPerson: Nixon refers to Nixon from time to time.
* ThisLoserIsYou:
--> '''Richard Nixon:''' [To a portrait of Kennedy] ''"[[NostalgiaAintLikeItUsedToBe When they look at you, they see what they want to be]]. [[TakeThatAudience When they look at me, they see what they are]]."''
* TragicHero: Played with in the character of UsefulNotes/RichardNixon (emphasis on "tragic") in a way that it makes Nixon into a giant case of WhatCouldHaveBeen. LampShaded by Kissinger.
--> '''Kissinger''': Can you imagine what he could have been if he had ever been ''loved''?
* TraitorShot: Kissinger briefly receives a few of them when the leaks are being discussed.
* VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory: While the movie is generally true to Nixon's life, certain aspects have been compressed, altered and played with for dramatic value. The movie, granted, admits this straight up.
* VillainProtagonist: Nixon.
* VillainousBreakdown: Depends on whether you view Nixon as a villain or not, but the last third of the movie basically features Nixon having a slow-burning one as he becomes increasingly delusional, frantic and paranoid as the Watergate crisis spirals out of control. After he finally signs his resignation letter and is alone with Henry Kissinger, he asks Kissinger to join him on his knees in prayer and essentially starts crying and babbling incoherently. According to Kissinger himself, this episode actually happened.
* VoteEarlyVoteOften: Nixon's camp accuses Kennedy of stuffing the ballot boxes, but Nixon doesn't contest the election. The movie doesn't mention that Nixon did his own stuffing too.
* WeUsedToBeFriends: Nixon says this about JFK.
* WhoShotJFK:
** An undercurrent of the story. A central theme is Nixon's paranoia over "the whole Bay of Pigs thing" coming out again -- with "Bay of Pigs" heavily implied and speculated to be code about some conspiracy, real or imagined, that Nixon believed existed about who ''actually'' killed Kennedy, which he was afraid to discover the real truth about. In his tense meeting with the shadowy Texas businessmen and Cuban exiles in 1963 (the day ''before'' Kennedy arrived, let us noted), it's hinted that they have something to do with it.
** Not quite '''J'''FK, but his later meeting with J. Edgar Hoover contains a hint that Hoover has some responsibility for Robert Kennedy's assassination ("They should shoot the son-of-a-bitch.")
** Nixon also claims the way was cleared for him by "four bodies", implied to be JFK, RFK and Nixon's two brothers who died of [[IncurableCoughOfDeath tuberculosis]] (if they had lived his family would never have had enough money to send Richard to law school and he never would have been a politician).
* WomenAreWiser: Pat, which becomes obvious during Nixon's breakdown.