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-> "To sin by silence when we should protest makes cowards of men."
-->-- '''Ella Wheeler Wilcox''', in the first words that appear onscreen

''Film/{{JFK}}'' is a 1991 film directed and co-written by Creator/OliverStone about the assassination of JohnFKennedy and its aftermath, based around the investigation by UsefulNotes/NewOrleans District Attorney Jim Garrison (Creator/KevinCostner). After reading the Warren Report and finding it unsatisfactory, Garrison decides to launch an investigation on his own. After reviewing witness reports and interviewing some people on his own, Garrison becomes convinced Kennedy was killed by a conspiracy, and that all of the suspicious events seem to be circling a Texas businessman named Clay Shaw (TommyLeeJones), who goes by the alias Clay Bertrand. Shaw has connections to Lee Harvey Oswald (GaryOldman), the CIA, the FBI, and others.

After his case gains publicity, Garrison is invited to UsefulNotes/WashingtonDC for a confidential meeting. The man (Creator/DonaldSutherland), who goes only by the name "X", says that Garrison is closer to the truth than he thinks, and gives him background information regarding his suspicions that JFK was killed by a conspiracy involving the CIA, the military, and business interests (the "Military-Industrial Complex") in order to, among other things, stop him from bringing TheVietnamWar and the ColdWar to an end.

Invigorated by this new information, Garrison arrests Shaw for conspiracy and puts him on trial, detailing his entire theory about the assassination and the various inconsistencies with the "official story", most famously the theory of the "magic bullet". Despite his passionate push at the trial (and, as was later revealed, the belief by jury members that there ''was'' a conspiracy) Shaw is acquitted of all charges.

The film was and still is intensely controversial for its liberal use of ArtisticLicense in depicting the events of and around Garrison's investigation, when in reality the movie is ''not'' meant to be the definitive investigation into Kennedy's death, but rather an allegory of the general public's frustration over not knowing the actual truth about the assassination. Or so Stone says, but in other interviews, [[FlipFlopOfGod well...]]

The movie was a major critical and box office success, winning two {{Academy Award}}s (for editing and cinematography), and was nominated for six more, losing Best Picture to ''TheSilenceOfTheLambs''.

Based on the books ''On the Trail of the Assassins'' by Jim Garrison and ''Crossfire'' by Jim Marrs.

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!!This film provides examples of:

* ARiddleWrappedInAMysteryInsideAnEnigma: Ferrie uses this exact Churchill quote when trying to convince Garrison to drop his investigation in a [[ParanoiaFuel paranoia fueled]] rant.
* ArcWords: "Operation Mongoose"
* ArtisticLicenseHistory: It would be easier to list what the film didn't get wrong, and that's just considering information ''not'' tied to the JFK assassination. Even Oliver Stone has stated regret at not making the film's fictional status clearer.
* BayOfPigsInvasion: According to the film, the failure of this and the political fallout that followed may have been first push in what eventually became a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy.
* BeQuietNudge: More like a GroinAttack punch by Clay when David starts to describe the JFK assassination.
* BreakingTheFourthWall: The final line of Garrison's closing statement at the trial of Clay Shaw ("It's up to you") is delivered directly to the camera.
* BuryYourGays: David Ferrie.
* CampGay: Clay Shaw. Mrs. Garrison even [[LampshadeHanging questions whether Jim is going after Shaw]] ''[[LampshadeHanging because]]'' [[LampshadeHanging he is gay]] at one point. [[CaptainObvious He denies this.]] However, Shaw only behaves this way during the party. Otherwise, he's StraightGay, if a little upper crust effete.
* CastingGag: The real Jim Garrison plays Chief Justice Earl Warren (a.k.a. the man who created the Warren Report officially referring to Lee Harvey Oswald as the lone shooter).
* ClusterFBomb: Creator/JoePesci, [[SirSwearsAlot naturally]].
* ColdWar
* CompositeCharacter: Several, including Willie, the male prostitute played by Kevin Bacon. (See [[http://www.jfk-online.com/jfk100okeefe.html here]] for details.)
* CorruptCorporateExecutive: Another part of the alleged conspiracy. Clay Shaw is a literal example.
* FlameBait: Both the film itself and the in-universe subject matter.
* GovernmentConspiracy: "X" and (eventually) Garrison, believe this is part of what killed Kennedy.
* HistoricalHeroUpgrade: The real Jim Garrison tried to railroad an innocent man, Shaw, after his investigation came up empty. The trial was a fiasco.
** Arguably, JFK is given one of these so that Stone can portray Lyndon Johnson as a manipulative super-villain who rams the Tonkin Gulf resolution through Congress to get elected. In fact, Kennedy had ''de facto'' committed the US to South Vietnam by the time he was assassinated, and the CIA-backed coup that killed Ngo Dingh Diem and plunged South Vietnam into chaos had already taken place.
* HistoricalVillainUpgrade: Lyndon Johnson is given one of these.
* ItsAlwaysMardiGrasInNewOrleans: One of Garrison's investigators interviews an informant during a Mardi Gras parade.
* LeaningOnTheFourthWall: Near the end of his monologue, Mr. X says "Don't take my word for it--don't believe me. Do your own work, your own thinking."
* LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters: And even more in the DirectorsCut.
* TheMafia: Another possible contributor to the assassination and cover-up.
* MrExposition: "X" and Garrison. [[http://www.metacafe.com/watch/9297295/oliver_stones_1991_movie_jfk_mr_x_speaks_with_jim_garrison/ X's monologue]] lasts over 15 minutes, and Garrison's closing statement at the trial lasts over 20. And yet, thanks to Oliver Stone's direction, it ''never feels slow''.
* {{Narrator}}: Martin Sheen narrates the opening montage.
* NoExceptYes: One clip of an interview with Oswald about three months before the events in Dallas[[note]]He was arrested in New Orleans for a brawl with a gang of anti-[[FidelCastro Castro]] Cuban militants and somehow got into a television debate as a result.[[/note]] has him stating about his political beliefs: "I am not a Communist. I am a Marxist-Leninist."[[note]]There is a clear difference between the two, but in 1963, most people would think it's semantics.[[/note]]
* OffOnATechnicality: Much of the information about Clay Shaw is thrown out (particularly the fact that he used the alias "Clay Bertrand" while participating in his shady deals) because he didn't have a lawyer present while he was being booked.[[note]]In fact, his lawyer ''was'' in the police station but was involved with other officials, while Shaw was at the booking desk.[[/note]] The movie says this wasn't legally sound, and then implies that it may have been part of the GovernmentConspiracy to keep Shaw from being convicted. In real life, the judge took over questioning when the booking officer was called in and determined that he had badly violated procedure; in turn, the jurors reported in their statements that they were disgusted by Garrison's lack of evidence (their deliberations, including bathroom breaks, lasted a ''half-hour'').
* PoliticallyCorrectHistory: Averted. The film makes it quite clear that Kennedy was ''not'' popular in the South. Some gentlemen in the bar are actually seen ''cheering'' when they hear that he has been assassinated.
** In addition, the movie doesn't portray Kennedy as being a saint, either. He's said to fund military development only in districts he needs to win his next election.
* PosthumousCharacter: Oswald dies soon after the movie begins, but that doesn't prevent him from appearing in a large number of flashbacks and faux documentary footage.
* ProperlyParanoid: Jim Garrison starts feeling paranoid about what he's getting into even ''before'' he finds bugs planted in his offices.[[note]]For the record, his office was never bugged in real life.[[/note]] Possibly David Ferrie, too.
* RealityIsUnrealistic: When shooting a flashback to visualize a character seeing smoke come from a rifle at "the grassy knoll" during the shooting, Oliver Stone had to use a smoke machine because modern rifles don't emit enough smoke, ironically disproving some of the claimed evidence for a second gunman there in doing so.
** Unintentional example: One scene features Garrison and one of his staff in the Depository with a gun identical to Oswald's. The staffer quotes the supposed time stated by the Warren Report for Oswald's shots, 5.6 seconds,[[note]]The report actually gives Oswald closer to eight seconds.[[/note]] and then goes through the motions of firing three shots while Garrison times him. Garrison then announces his time as "Six, seven seconds." As numerous people who've timed the scene have reported, Garrison's staffer actually ''makes the shots in 5.6 seconds''.
* RewindReplayRepeat: One of the most famous examples during Garrison's closing statement, when he puts the shot of Kennedy being shot in the head on a loop to emphasize the direction:
-->"Back, and to the left. Back, and to the left. [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment Back, and to the left]]."
* SanitySlippage: David Ferrie, [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDo78gP5Zf4 in spades]].
* ShoutOut: Sir Walter Scott: "Oh! what a tangled web we weave / When first we practice to deceive!"
** Lee Harvey Oswald's capture at the theater is compared to Josef K's from ''[[Creator/FranzKafka The Trial]]''.
** Alfred Lord Tennyson: "Authority forgets a dying king."
* ShoutOutToShakespeare: [[{{Hamlet}} "One may smile, and smile, and be a villain."]]
** "Like [[Theatre/JuliusCaesar Ceasar]], he is surrounded by enemies "
* SpiritualSuccessor: To ''Executive Action'', the first film to outline a conspiracy to kill Kennedy, using the exact same "triangulated fire" theory, complete with the third shot hitting Connally but not Kennedy.
* StraightGay:
** David Ferrie.
** Willie O'Keefe. He swishes when walking to meet Garrison, but becomes a stereotypical Southern racist railing against JFK at one point.
** Clay Shaw, according to O'Keefe, calling him a "butch john", saying that he wasn't a limp wrist, and wouldn't snap in a million years.
* ThoseTwoGuys: The fifth movie to feature both Jack Lemmon and Walter Matthau, but the only one where they never share a scene.
* TotallyRadical: Dean Andrews.
* TheVietnamWar
* WhatMightHaveBeen: Creator/HarrisonFord and Creator/MelGibson were Stone's first choices for the role of Jim Garrison.
* WhoShotJFK: TheMovie.
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