A Soviet comedy movie released in 1973, and still immensely popular in TheNewRussia -- like most Leonid Gaidai movies from that era. Based on a 1935 play by [[RussianReading Mikhail Bulgakov]], with a setting update -- moving the "present day" action from the 1930s to the 1970s -- but generally staying faithful to the original, with most of the funny lines taken directly from the play. One of the most promiment changes in the film was the merge of the Timofeyev character with the protagonist of two of Gaidai's previous films to form the so-called "Shurik trilogy".

Engineer Alexander Sergeyevich "Shurik" Timofeyev (named Koka, from Nikolay, in the play) invents a time machine, which he uses to open a rift to the 1500s Moscow, straight into the palace of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. In the chaos that ensues, the time machine is damaged (in the play, it stays intact but its key is lost, forcing Timofeyev to seek a keymaker for a replacement), leaving the Tsar stranded in the present day while his namesake and look-alike, Soviet bureaucrat Ivan Vasilievich Bunsha, is stuck in the past with GentlemanThief George Miloslavsky. The two are forced to dress as the Tsar and a noble, until their ruse is eventually exposed and they are rescued into the present just in time when Timofeyev fixes the time machine.

[[SanDimasTime Meanwhile, back in the 20th century]], Ivan IV hides in Timofeyev's apartment until he encounters the inventor's wife Zinaida, an actress who had left Timofeyev for her director Yakin, and later Bunsha's wife, who mistakes him for her husband. She and Timofeyev's neighbor Shpak (previously robbed by Miloslavsky) call the police and ambulance, resulting in the two Ivans and Miloslavsky being taken away -- although the Tsar escapes and returns to his time with Timofeyev's help.

In the end, it is revealed that the it was AllJustADream. Zinaida returns to Timofeyev, saying that she didn't even have a director named Yakin, and while the time machine didn't work in reality, the two reconcile. In the play, it further turns out that Shpak was robbed in reality, not just in the dream.

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!!Provides examples of:

* ActingForTwo: Yuri Yakovlev as Bunsha and Ivan the Terrible.
* AllJustADream
* AnachronismStew: Also courtesy of CriticalResearchFailure:
** The Tsar sells his date of birth as "1533 since the birth of Christ", while a more historically accurate answer would be "7038 since the creation of the world". Russia only adopted the BC/AD calendar in Peter the Great's time.
*** And Ivan IV was born in 1530, not in 1533. Actually, in 1533 he became the Grand Prince of Moscow.
** The eggplant caviar that's shown before the fest has actually been brought to Russia from Iran in the seventeenth century, that is, the next century prior to the events of the movie.[[note]]Even better, the caviar shown on the table is actually made of zucchini.[[/note]] Same can be said about the sceptre Bunsha holds while he's on the throne.
** Ivan the Terrible's wife Marpha died on November 13, 1571, two weeks after the wedding from an unknown sickness (or poison). In the film, she is shown to be alive and well, and the weather outside clearly doesn't look like it's November.
*** Additionally, the presence of Marpha means that Moscow was recently sacked and burned by the Crimean Tatars. So the minstrels would not be singing about the victory over the Crimeans until the following year.
** In the tsar's elevator scene, where he thinks the demons have entombed him, he crosses himself with three fingers. However, until 1653, those of the Russian Orthodox faith only used two fingers.
** When being interrogated by the cops, Ivan the Terrible lists his major conquests, including Kazan, Astrakhan, and Reval (modern-day Tallinn, the capital of Estonia). However, in RealLife, Ivan besieged for two months but never took Reval. It's also strange that he fails to mention his conquest of Polotsk, an achievement the real Ivan was extremely proud of.
*** Technically he was not wrong about Reval: he says "Брал" [Bral], so his statement can be translated as "I have taken (successfully)" OR "I was trying to take (successfully or unsuccessfully)".
** Deacon Theophan hands the faux-tsar Bunsha a decree to sign. However, tradition forbade Russian royalty from using quill and ink, and the tsar would usually only apply his seal.
** The tsar's army is shown to consist of clean-shaven men, but it was against the law in those days for a commoner to shave. Most of the male servants in the palace are also clean-shaven.
** Miloslavsky puts on a heavy suit of armor ridiculously quickly, even though it was a very time-consuming and complex process. Then again, this is clearly the RuleOfFunny.
** The triangular balalaika is a 19-century invention.
* {{Adorkable}}: Shurik
* BlackComedy: Ivan IV finds creative punishments/executions really funny. Modern characters think he is just cruel.
--> '''Ivan IV:''' You are the one who made this machine?
--> '''Shurik:''' Yes, I did.
--> '''Ivan IV:''' I also had someone like that - made wings.
--> '''Shurik:''' (''interested'') Well-well-well.
--> '''Ivan IV:''' Well what? I had him put on a barrel of gunpowder - let him fly!
--> '''Shurik:''' (''chokes'') Why so harsh!?
* CelebrityParadox: Yakin initially thinks Ivan IV is an actor, and in the film, makes guesses at his identity -- naming three real Soviet actors of that time, but not the one who actually played him.
** [[DevelopmentGag Those actors were tried for the roles of Ivans Vasilieviches before director chose Yuri Yakovlev.]]
* CoatFullOfContraband: The only place where Shurik can get triodes.
** The only place he can get them at ''lunchtime'', as all the electronic stores in the neighborhood are closed.
* DeletedScene: Several scenes were removed from the final product, but apparently, someone on Mosfilm made a 8-mm short-length silent movie roll featuring said cutouts, named ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFCRE1Mxnog The Black Gloves]]'', focusing on Miroslavskiy's misfortunes, not to mention his later fate that happened roughly at the same time Ivan the Terrible was sent back to his time.
* DeliberatelyMonochrome: The "real life" segments in the beginning and end, as opposed to Shurik's extended dream scene that takes most of the film, which is in color.
** It's also a {{Homage}} to ''Film/TheWizardOfOz''.
* DeliberateValuesDissonance: See the entry under BlackComedy.
* DisproportionateRetribution: although not too surprising for the Dark Ages, but boiling the interpreter alive for being drunk on duty is rather harsh.
* EmergencyImpersonation: The two Ivans Vasilieviches.
* [[EternalEnglish Eternal Russian]]: Bunsha and Miloslavsky have no problems communicating with 16th-century Russians, save for a few archaic words thrown in for no good reason. They also have no problem ''writing'' in Old Russian, which used a somewhat different Cyrillic script, the Old Church Slavonic, and a different system of spelling. By the same token, most people understand Ivan IV in the 20th century. Even his use of [[GratuitousRussian Gratiutous Old Russian]] is just treated as a quirk.
** Some people just assume he's a method actor preparing to play Ivan IV.
** The tsar also quickly learns criminal slang, despite not being exposed to it, unless he heard "busted by the cops" ("в милицию замели") somewhere else.
* EurekaMoment: The original play has one, when Bunsha's rant causes Timofeyev to realize that he was operating the time machine with its mechanism locked, and he subsequently fixes it.
* FishOutOfTemporalWater: Ivan IV, Bunsha and Miloslavsky.
* GiveGeeksAChance: Shurik and Zinaida.
* [[GratuitousRussian Gratuitous Old Russian]]: Ivan IV tends to switch between modern and 16th-century Russian. When he finds out the truth, Yakin tries to use archaic Russian words (which most modern Russian would never understand) but gives up quickly.
* ImpaledWithExtremePrejudice: When Miloslavsky tries to pass himself off as a prince, he's told that Prince Miloslavsky was recently executed in this manner by order of the tsar. Miloslavsky turns to Bunsha (impersonating the tsar) and quietly (and in a menacing tone) asks why he did that.
* InThePastEveryoneWillBeFamous: The time machine connects Timofeyev's apartment to the Tsar's throne room.
** Although it's [[JustifiedTrope justified]] - Shurik was inspired to travel to Ivan IV's throne room after seeing a film about him on television.
** Also, Miloslavsky claims to be Prince Miloslavsky in the past, not realizing that there really was a Prince Miloslavsky, except he was recently executed by the order of Ivan IV.
* ALittleSomethingWeCallRockAndRoll: Miloslavsky singing a popular 70s Russian song during a feast with the minstrels playing along. Naturally, everyone gets on the floor and starts dancing.
** Nobody thinks it strange when he pulls out a pack of Marlboro while singing.
* IdenticalStranger: Bunsha and Ivan IV.
** Somewhat explained on the play, as Bunsha is mentioned to be the son of a prince (although he denies it with a passion)
* JerkAss: Yakin.
* LovableRogue: Miloslavsky.
* NamesTheSame: Technically, Shurik is not the same person as Shurik from ''Operation "Y"'' and ''Kidnapping Caucasian Style''. But it may be averted since both roles are played by the same person.
** Except ''that'' Shurik isn't an inventor and doesn't show any scientific inclinations. In fact, in ''Kidnapping Caucasian Style'', his aims in life appear to be literary in nature.
** In ''Operation "Y" and Other Adventures'' he ''is'' a physics student. Maybe collecting folklore tales was his hobby.
* NobodyHereButUsStatues
* OnlyElectricSheepAreCheap: Sturgeon caviar and salmon roe are available in the Tsar's court in great amounts, which is realistic given that back then they weren't scarce. However, the eggplant caviar, a commonplace food for the Soviets, is treated as something very rare in the XVI century, something even the tsar can eat only in small amounts.
* RoyalWe: Averted, for the most part. However, when the tsar is being interrogated by the cops and asked for his last name, he replies "We are Rurikids" (i.e. of the Rurik dynasty).
* SanDimasTime and MeanwhileInTheFuture: The present day events take place "simultaneously" with the old Moscow.
* SettingUpdate: The play takes place in the [=1930s=], the movie is set in the [=1970s=].
* SpiritualSuccessor: To ''Operation "Y"'' and ''Kidnapping Caucasian Style''
* TechnicolorScience: The liquids in the time machine.
* {{Zeerust}}: The lamp-and-transistor-driven time-machine.
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