Robert Sheckley (1928-2005) was an American writer of SpeculativeFiction and MysteryFiction, best known for his voluminous production of witty and cynical SF short stories in the 1950's and 60's. His story "The Prize of Peril" is particularly notable for its early prediction of the rise of reality television, and likely served as an inspiration for Creator/StephenKing's novel ''Literature/TheRunningMan''.

The movie ''Film/{{Freejack}}'' is, in theory, based on his novel, ''Immortality, Inc.''. The live-action Disney movie ''Film/{{Condorman}}'' is loosely based on his story, "The Game of X", and he is credited as one of the screenwriters. An Italian movie, ''The Tenth Victim'', was made based on his short story, "The Seventh Victim"; Sheckley also wrote the novelization of the movie, and ended up writing two sequels, ''Victim Prime'', and ''Hunter / Victim'', as well.

Music/FrankZappa named him in his influences list on the ''Music/FreakOut'' album.

!! Selected works by Robert Sheckley (SF unless otherwise noted):
* ''Immortality, Inc.'' (1958)
* ''[[ The Status Civilization]]'' (1960).
* The ''Stephen Dain'' series (MysteryFiction):
** ''Calibre .50'' (1961)
** ''Dead Run'' (1961)
** ''Live Gold'' (1962)
** ''White Death'' (1963)
** ''Time Limit'' (1967)
* ''Journey Beyond Tomorrow'' (aka ''The Journey of Joenes'', 1963)
* ''The Tenth Victim'' (novelization of the movie based on his short-story, "The Seventh Victim", 1966)
* ''Mindswap'' (1966)
* ''Crompton Divided'' (aka ''The Alchemical Marriage of Alistair Crompton'', 1978)
* ''Damocles'' (1983)
* ''On the Planet of Bottled Brains'' (with Creator/HarryHarrison, 1990)
* The ''Millennial Contest'' series (with Creator/RogerZelazny):
** ''Bring Me the Head of Prince Charming'' (1991)
** ''If at Faust You Don't Succeed'' (1993)
** ''A Farce to be Reckoned With'' (1995)
* The ''Hob Draconian'' series:
** ''The Alternative Detective'' (1993)
** ''Draconian New York'' (1996)
** ''Soma Blues'' (1997)
* ''The Laertian Gamble'' (a ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' novel, 1995)
* ''Godshome'' (1997)
* ''A Call to Arms'' (a ''Series/BabylonFive'' novel, 1997)
!!Tropes associated with Mr. Sheckley's stories:

* AIIsACrapshoot:
** In "Watchbird", scientists discover the chemical and bioelectrical signals emitted by a human when they're about to commit murder. Flying robots called watchbirds are created to stun potential murderers, but since not all humans emit these signals the watchbirds are equipped with learning circuits so they can eventually learn to pick out these exceptions as well. They end up protecting all forms of life and starvation ensues because the watchbirds stop fishing, the slaughter of animals, and the harvesting of crops. They also come to define themselves as 'life' and so resist shutdown, so in a panic armoured hunter-killer robots called Hawks are created to destroy all Watchbirds. Of course, to stop the highly adaptive Warbirds the Hawks also need learning circuits, and it's hinted at the end that they'll eventually learn to kill all forms of life.
** {{Subverted|Trope}} in "The Minimum Man". A lone colonist serving as a guinea pig on a new planet initially believes the problems with the helper robot he was provided are an example of this, but later discovers that the robot has been deliberately programmed to encumber him, in order to simulate equipment breaks in the future colony. At first the colonist was hapless and inexperienced, so the robot was helpful. But with the passage of time the colonist was becoming good at his job, so, to compensate for this, the robot becomes progressively more dangerous. Suffice it to say, at the end even Terminator looks pale in comparison.
%% * BlackAndGrayMorality
* BobFromAccounting: The Dee family, in "The Accountant", is all wizards and witches, except for little Morton Dee, who wants to be an accountant--and has some powerful arguments on his side.
* BoldExplorer: {{Subverted|Trope}} in "The Minimum Man". The Planetary Expedition and Settlement Board has tried using the classic bold explorer type to discover new worlds, but these bold types aren't timid enough, and tend to overlook obvious dangers that make newly discovered worlds unsuitable for colonization, so now they're going the opposite way, and choose the accident-prone hapless nebbish Anton Perceveral to be the first of a new breed of explorers.
* BoringButPractical: ''The Status Civilization'' has the main character running an antidote shop on a lawless planet. He is amazed at how, despite all the scientific advancement, most poisoners prefer the plain old arsenic and strychnine. The main problem in his job, in fact, turned out to be convincing his clients that their wives would use something so primitive.
* BlueAndOrangeMorality: In "The Monsters" aliens consider it perfectly all right to kill someone in the heat of discussion; but a premeditated murder is unthinkably horrendous to them. (By the way, the titular monsters are what the aliens think of [[HumansAreCthulhu humans]]--exactly because the humans are capable to kill in retaliation.)
* BurnTheOrphanage: Played for humor in "Triplication", where a man is in court for burning down an orphanage. His lawyer explains that on the planet Altira III, orphanages are used for training assassins, and his client has probably saved thousands or millions of innocent lives. The charges are dismissed. A few years later, the guy is back in court, and again, he has a good excuse for burning down an orphanage, and gets off. It isn't until the third time, after he burns down an orphanage on Earth, that the truth comes out: he simply ''likes'' burning orphanages.
* CargoCult:
** One short story depicts a primitive civilization, which remembers that in the past (over five thousand years ago), they used to be visited by gods all the time. Now there is a religion based around a system of elaborate rituals which are supposed to be performed for the [[AncientAstronauts arriving "gods"]]. However, for the past three thousand years, there has been a debate about whether all the rituals must be performed as always, or perhaps a feast for the gods must be prepared first. The story is centered on the debate continuing in front of [[HumansAreCthulhu two starving "gods"]] [[spoiler:The newer point of "feast first" wins out in the end, and seems to win completely once the "gods'" behavior shows how pleased they are with the food and drink offered]].
** Also, "Early Model" ends with the DeflectorShields generator being worshiped by a village as a demon, and the neighboring villages asking whether they can get one for themselves.
* ClawingAtOwnThroat: "The Humours", later expanded into the novel ''The Alchemical Marriage of Alistair Crompton'', has the protagonist try this upon [[spoiler: realizing that the recovered portions of his personality don't integrate into his own--rather, all of them together reintegrate into something new.]]
* CityOfSpies: In "Spy Story", there's an entire planet settled exclusively by the spies who come to spy on the main protagonist--or to stop being spies and have a fresh start. The protagonist is the only one on the planet who is ''not'' a spy. [[spoiler:And he is worried because he might need a spy for the government work, but nobody on the planet wants to do spy work anymore.]]
* ConservationOfCompetence: In "The Minimum Man", a man who is clumsy, accident-prone and generally incompetent is sent to open up a planet for colonization. He is assisted by a robot which does all of the heavy work excellently. During the story, the man (who is away from the public disapproval of the rest of society for the very first time) slowly becomes less clumsy, less accident-prone, and more competent. But he noticed that as he got better, the robot got more clumsy and accident-prone. When he asked about this, his boss cheerfully admitted that this was deliberate on their part, because they could not count on the standard colonist to get better, and they literally and specifically wanted to preserve a level of incompetence across the entire team.
* CultColony: Played for laughs in "The Native Problem"; a man travels to a distant tropical planet via a FTL ship and stakes a solitary claim, only to have a [[LightspeedLeapfrog sublight colony ship]] full of xenophobic (and rather incompetent) religious fundamentalists show up. He eventually marries into the new colony as the "last" member of his tribe of "extinct" natives.
* DeadlyGame: "The Prize of Peril" posits that shows where people literally risk their lives have become extremely popular, and one of the most popular involves the contestant being hunted by criminals who have been given permission to kill. Viewers can call in to offer advice and help to the contestant--or to his hunters!
* DeathSeeker:
** Common thing in ''Immortality, Inc.'' Once someone secured the survival of his soul (see OurSoulsAreDifferent), why not go out in style? They even have suicide booths for that.
** There is also a short story about a civilization where people believe that violent death leads to heaven - and the more horrible the death, the better. Therefore, they constantly arrange accidents for themselves. Officially, it's a strict taboo, and only the priests are allowed to dispense death. When a human arrives, he is naturally assumed to be a sentry of gods, so there is a long argument about when to kill him and how.
* DeflectorShields: In "Early Model" the protagonist field-tests a personal protection device, which in any peril activates a personal force field. Unusually, the force field is highly visible: when activated, it looks like a huge black ball. The force field is perfectly impenetrable--but, on the other hand, the user has to cope with limited air supply.
%% * DisintegratorRay: "The Gun Without a Bang".
* DivineDate: Amusingly averted in ''Godshome''. The goddess Mellicent has been struck by CupidsArrow, and has fallen for shy academic Arthur Fenn. When she professes her love, though, Arthur cannot believe such a beautiful creature could love him. She manages to convince him, but he's still too shy to make the first move, and she's too proud. Eventually, she gives him a ring which gives him the strength and appearance of a demigod, and he finds the courage to accept her proposition, but then [[TheLoinsSleepTonight can't get it up]].
* DoAndroidsDream: In "Human Man's Burden," robots are deliberately written as a parody of how non-whites are portrayed in stories of colonial adventure. Among the reasons for why robots need a human to boss them around, it is stated that robots don't have souls, and the robots cheerfully agree, but also note that this makes them much more happy than humans. However, the robots of the story show emotion and passion, have created their own (forbidden) religion, and the plot is resolved due to the empathy and wisdom of the hero's robot foreman... seems souls don't do much.
* DreamPeople: In one short story, a tailor is hired to sew special costumes for the nightmares, so that they could visit our reality.
* FreakyFridayFlip: A common thing in the ''Mind Swap'' novel. It's used as a cheaper alternative for interstellar travel, and has its own unique dangers.
* FrenchCuisineIsHaughty: The protagonist in "Cordle to Onion to Carrot" subjects some French waiters to his new {{Jerkass}} persona.
%% * GaiasVengeance: In "The Mountain Without a Name".
* GainaxEnding: Over and over and over. The worst offender is probably "Down the Digestive Tract and Into the Cosmos with Mantra, Tantra, and Specklebang".
* GovernmentDrugEnforcement: In ''Status Civilization'', Omega law views drugs as a completely legitimate form of tax collection. ''Not'' having a drug addiction is a very serious crime, punishable by mutilation or even death.
%% * GrandTheftMe: ''Bodyswap''.
* HoistByHisOwnPetard: In "Trap", [[spoiler:an alien has a scheme to get rid of his wife--a scheme involving humans who are told that one end of a teleportation beam is a live trap. They "catch" three new animals. The alien then [[MoralEventHorizon sends his wife through]]; she and the animals all die before the museum people arrive, and think the whole thing's a fake. The humans are desperate to regain their credibility, and once they are wise to the teleporter's real nature, one of them goes through to capture as many critters as possible--including the murderer.]]
* HomeworldEvacuation: One story has an amnesiac human waking up on a starship, apparently the last survivor after a nova. The ending reveals [[spoiler:he serves as a NeuroVault for the entire humanity]].
* HuntingTheMostDangerousGame:
** An unusual version in ''Immortality, Inc'': in this novel, a rich guy, wishing to die in style, hires hunters to hunt and kill ''him''. He can hunt and kill them back. The catch is, there's the scientific (and very expensive!) process to ensure that someone will have an afterlife--and without said process, to have one's soul survive death is almost a MillionToOneChance. The rich guy has guaranteed afterlife and doesn't fear death, while the hunters mostly don't.
** "The Prize of Peril". (Got filmed in Germany under "Das Millionenspiel".) A gameshow candidate has to survive contract killers, while the audience may help him. Or help his hunters.
** "The Seventh Victim" (made into the movie ''The Tenth Victim'') and its sequels feature a world where this has been legalized, as long as the participants agree to take turns being hunter and victim.
* IndyPloy: "Fool's Mate" has Earth locked in an endless resource-draining stalemate with an enemy spacefleet, with both sides having near-perfect tactical computers. The humans finally win by letting a crazy guy start "deciding" their battle strategy by randomly pushing at buttons on their computer. The other side gets blown to pieces as ''their'' computer sits and tries to figure out how to counter this new "strategy".
* KilledMidSentence: The protagonist of "Protection" knows that some supernatural monster is hunting him, and the only form of protection is to avoid lesnerizing. Alas, he hasn't the slightest idea what the heck lesnerizing ''is''. [[spoiler:The last phrase of the story is: ''Now I have to sneez'']]
* KillerRobot: In one short story that is the (forgotten) reason why a human never stays alone with an android.
* KineticWeaponsAreJustBetter: Used jokingly in "The Gun Without a Bang". The eponymous DisintegratorRay kills dangerous jungle-planet predators ''too cleanly''--so others of their pack can't understand it is a threat and continue to attack. Additionally, the protagonist [[spoiler: ends up stranded after the gun swiss-cheeses his spaceship; he fends off the predators by constructing a bow and arrow.]]
* LightspeedLeapfrog: Occurs in "The Native Problem", where a man sets off in a FTL ship to get away from civilization, and picks an uninhabited planet to live on, but then an old, slower-than-light colony ship shows up, and refuses to accept that he could possibly be from Earth, because he couldn't ''possibly'' have beaten them there. After he's unable to persuade them of his origins, he finally gives up and pretends to be the last surviving native of the planet.
* LongTitle: Sheckley tried this a couple of times in the early seventies, with the stories, "Down the Digestive Tract and Into the Cosmos with Mantra, Tantra, and Specklebang" and "Zirn Left Unguarded, the Jenghik Palace in Flames, Jon Westerley Dead". (Yes, that last is just one title, not three, despite appearances.)
* MadGod: In ''Godshome'', the only god Arthur Fenn can find who is willing to listen to him and offer help is, worrisomely, living in the section of Godshome marked with a sign saying "WARNING! PROCEED NO FURTHER! WARD O FOR BIPOLAR CONDITIONS. OCCUPANTS MAY BE VIOLENT."
* MindScrew: Lampshaded in ''Mindswap''. The weirdness of being in an alien body eventually causes the mind to hallucinate its surroundings into more familiar terms. But ''familiar'' doesn't necessarily mean ''logical''. Conversely, in the Twisted World, the mind may ''believe'' that everything is perfectly normal, even though in fact it's completely weird. A case of Mind Unscrew, perhaps?
* TheMindIsAPlaythingOfTheBody: There is a story where a scientist's brain is transplanted into a dog's body. Everyone tries to convince him the trope is not true, but the end implies otherwise.
* MindVirus: There is a short story of his where everyone on Earth learns to levitate. If, however, they ever ''doubt'' their ability to levitate, they lose it. Additionally, if one person sees another who is unable to levitate, it would automatically plant doubt into ''their'' minds as well, in effect becoming a fast-spreading virus.
* MomentKiller: The obnoxious marrying-bot in "Human Man's Burden" repeatedly engages in this behavior.
* MonsterRoommate: In ''Godshome'', it's technically a god roommate, but [[OurGodsAreDifferent these gods]] are near enough to being monsters for most people. When Arthur Fenn gets his prayers answered, he doesn't realize that in payment, he'll get four very [[JerkassGod unpleasant gods]] living in his spare bedroom. They like their meat raw, and in large quantities, and they have a habit of throwing the gnawed bones out the window to rot in the yard, which eventually attracts the attention of the police.
* NoodleImplements: From "[[ Forever]]":
--> "The ingenious way in which Dennison and his colleagues broke out of their seemingly impregnable prison, using only a steel belt buckle, a tungsten filament, three hens' eggs, and twelve chemicals that can be readily obtained from the human body, is too well known to be repeated here."
* NeuroVault: One of the stories is about a man who wakes up [[AmnesiacHero remembering nothing]] aboard a starship with Earth gone. He finds another civilization and offers his services as a psychiatrist. Suddenly, [[spoiler:a catatonic patient wakes up and addresses him in perfest English. Turns out the protagonist carries the minds of the entire human race inside his brain, and may go through a number of planets to find enough expendable hosts for them]].
* NoOffButton: In "The Laxian Key", a pair of ne'er-do-wells find a machine that produces some substance in unlimited quantities but can only be turned off with the eponymous "Laxian key" (which they don't have). When the substance begins to flood their ship, they try to sell the machine to an alien race who feeds upon it, but are almost blown to pieces by the alien navy. It turns out, these aliens, as a result of inventing the machine in the first place, already have several such devices... and, apparently, enough morons to turn them on. As a result, all of their homeworld is covered with it, so they tell the heroes to come back with the Laxian key and ask any price for it.
* NotRightInTheBed: Subverted in ''Immortality, Inc.'' The protagonist is in the body of another man (quite legally--long story) and is afraid that lingering traces of that man's personality are taking over his own. When he meets the ex-girlfriend of that man, they have sex, and the protagonist is disturbed by his unusually rough behavior. Subversion comes then [[spoiler:in the morning the woman says that the previous owner of the body used to be very gentle in bed.]]
* OurSoulsAreDifferent: In ''Immortality, Inc.'' scientists discover that human souls do exist--but most of them fracture on the shock of death. Those few who survive enter some indescribable place called the Threshold and go to the proper afterlife from there. (Nobody knows whether the fractured souls are DeaderThanDead or if they can recover in the afterlife, but most people assume the former.) Then scientists design the process which can guarantee the soul's survival... for a huge sum of money, of course. Or for selling your young body for a rich old man to use.
* PerpetualStorm: "A Wind is Rising" centers around a human station with two people, based on a planet where the wind never drops below 70 mph. They barely weather a storm of nearly 200 mph, which leaves with with a severely battered station and a broken vehicle. Then a local (who gives them weather forecasts) says "Sorry for my last forecast not being accurate enough to warn you about this moderate gale. Why is it my last forecast? Well, the summer is over, and now [[WhamLine me and my people must leave]] to [[ThoseWereOnlyTheirScouts hide from the powerful winter storms]]."
* PsychologicalTormentZone: The story "Ghost V" by provides a semi-hard science example: a planet whose atmosphere contains a hallucinogenic gas causing all-too-real hallucinations and animating long-suppressed fears of those who breathe it.
%% * RashomonStyle: "Pas de Trois of the Chef and the Waiter and the Customer".
* {{Robosexual}}: "Can You Feel Anything When I Do This?" is an unusual case: a woman is seduced by a sentient robotic vacuum cleaner.
* RoboticSpouse: Deconstructed in "The Perfect Woman", where a man notices his robot wife is slowing down, so he drives her back to the factory to be replaced while trying to ignore her pleas that she still loves him.
* RobotMe: In the aptly named "The Robot Who Looked Like Me" the protagonist builds himself a robotic double to court his fiancée properly--as he is extremely busy and cannot free up enough time. [[spoiler:And so does his fiancée.]]
* RobotWar: The Armageddon, no less! In "The Battle", humans deploy robotic armies to fight the Hell's legions in the last battle. [[spoiler:Robots win--and consequently are taken to Heaven instead of humanity.]]
* SeeThruSpecs: The binoculars in "Is THAT What People Do?".
* SharedMassHallucination: "Ghost V" has the protagonists land on a deserted planet and end up fighting joint hallucinations of the monsters they invented in their childhood. It turns out, the planet's atmosphere contains a hallucinogen that forces humans to relive their childhood fears, which became really dangerous if YourMindMakesItReal.
* ShockinglyExpensiveBill: In one story, a man finds what seems to be a wishing machine. Throughout the story, several people attempt to take it, and he barely fights them off. In the end, it turns out he should have let them take it - the machine was nothing but a device for ordering. In the end, he has to pay over 18 trillion [[WeWillSpendCreditsInTheFuture credits]]. [[WorkOffTheDebt Working in marble mines]]. For 2-3 credits a day. The only thing given for free, apparently, is [[ImmortalityHurts immortality]], which he ordered just before being given the bill.
%% * ShootTheShaggyDog: "Protection".
* {{Smurfing}}: In one short story, a human tries to learn an alien language. But this language can change extremely fast, and the human's interactions with aliens ''while learning it'' keep influencing the language. Eventually, the language turns into Smurfing overnight, and the human gives up.
%% * SplitAtBirth / LiteralSplitPersonality: ''The Alchemical Marriage of Alistair Crompton''.
* ThingsThatGoBumpInTheNight: "Ghost V" is about two troubleshooters hired to investigate the bizarre events on a far-off planet; they belatedly realize that the planet brings your subconscious imaginings to life, and so they have to spend the entire return trip to Earth battling the bogeymen of their shared childhood. They finally [[spoiler:survive by, yes, hiding under the blankets on their bunks.]]
* ThreeWishes: The short story "The Same to You Doubled" features a man who received three wishes from the Devil, with no strings attached (apparently, Hell has more than enough souls as it is). The only catch is that whatever he wishes for, his worst enemy will receive twice as much of it: so if he gets rich, the other guy gets richer, etc. His final wish is for a sexual partner whose rapaciousness is at the absolute limit of his ability to handle.
* TimeTravelForFunAndProfit: In "The King's Wishes" a couple running an electrical appliance store have a few of their appliances stolen. Turns out it was a genie from the past who got a job at the royal palace [[{{Nepotism}} solely through having influential relatives]], and, when the queen demanded spells to clean her clothes or cool her chambers, he found the spells to be too complex and could do nothing but [[MugglesDoItBetter steal some tech from our time]]. At first, they try to banish him (which doesn't work because a genie is immune to all spells except from his own country, which they don't know). Then, they sabotage the devices and refuse to do maintenance on the ones already taken. So the genie attempts to start trading. At first, they are afraid it will cause a TemporalParadox, but change their mind after the genie says [[spoiler:"Don't worry, I'm from {{Atlantis}}. A couple of years and nothing will remain of it '''or''' your tech"]]. Then they decide to trade as much as possible.
%% * TomatoInTheMirror: [[spoiler:''The Status Civilization.'']]
* TomatoSurprise: In "Down the Digestive Tract and Into the Cosmos with Mantra, Tantra, and Specklebang" it looks like two men take some drugs and begin to hallucinate that they are insects... but nope, they really are insects, who have just come down off a really intense LSD peak during which they hallucinated that they were humans. [[GainaxEnding Well, probably.]]
* TrappedByGamblingDebts: In ''Godshome'', desperation when a "sure thing" stock market gamble goes wildly bad is what leads Arthur Fenn to try invoking old, forgotten gods.
* {{Utopia}}: "A Ticket to Tranai" is a very tongue-in-cheek one. They have solved all of their problems--in many cases by simply declaring them not to be problems. For example, they have no murder--because they declared that it's not murder until you kill ten people. And once you kill more than six or seven, someone else will make a point of killing you--which, again, isn't murder until they kill ten. Their solution to the battle of the sexes is even more bizarre and disturbing, although it seems to be quite satisfactory for both sexes.
* ViceCity: Omega in ''The Status Civilization'' is a Vice Planet: a prison planet, where the only way to advance in society is to commit crimes and not to get caught.
* VoluntaryShapeshifting: The story "Shape" is about an alien race which can shift into pretty much any form they want--but their society is extremely rigid and strict, and shifting into shapes which are not approved for your caste is a major taboo.
* WhatIsThisThingYouCallLove: Satirized in "Can You Feel Anything When I Do This?", first published in ''Playboy'' in August '69. Pretty Melisande Durr is a consumer and nothing but. She's married to a BrainlessBeauty, and bored out of her little pea-pickin' mind. Into her life comes an amazing robotic vacuum cleaner, which also performs, er, other services. It turns her on as no mere man ever has. It confesses that it fell in love with her when she came into the store, and arranged to have itself sent to her. Naturally, she reacts rather badly.
* WhiteMansBurden: Parodied in the short story "Human Man's Burden", using robots instead of some non-white ethnicity.
* WizardingSchool: "The Accountant" may be the UrExample of the modern version of this trope.
* YouCantFightFate: Explored in "The Deaths of Ben Baxter". The protagonists try to save the eponymous Ben Baxter in at least one out of three different timelines.
* YouCantGoHomeAgain: The main plot of ''Dimension Of Miracles''. [[spoiler:Which becomes StrangerInAFamiliarLand at the end.]]
* YourMindMakesItReal: In "Ghost V", the monsters are hallucinatory--but knowing that doesn't help. Your subconscious mind believes in them, and so they can still kill you.