->''"Money and muscle, thatís what I want; to be able to do any damned thing I want and get away with it. Money wonít do that altogether, because if a man is a weakling, all the money in the world wonít enable him to soak an enemy himself; on the other hand, unless he has money he may not be able to get away with it."''

Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 - June 11, 1936) was a writer and poet from Texas.

He wrote short stories and poems spanning several genres, including HeroicFantasy, {{Western}}, CosmicHorror and historical fiction. He was the TropeMaker for the genres LowFantasy, DarkFantasy and SwordAndSorcery -- which, in fact, received its name from a discussion of what the genre that a Howard story was should be called. Along with Creator/JRRTolkien, he is one of the most influential writers in modern fantasy. His life was the subject of the 1996 film ''Film/TheWholeWideWorld''.

Howard was a friend and correspondent of Creator/HPLovecraft and one of the contributors to the original Franchise/CthulhuMythos.

His most well-known creation is Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian, a character that has greatly overshadowed his creator.

Howard committed suicide with a gun at the age of 30, after his ailing mother fell into an irrecoverable coma [[TearJerker and he was told she'd never wake again (she died shortly after)]].

Notable characters created by Howard include (sorted by approximate internal chronology):

* Literature/{{Kull}}, exile of Atlantis and king of Valusia.
* [[Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian Conan]], a barbarian from Cimmeria who would become king of Aquilonia. Many other works have been written about him, but the complete, canonical stories are:
** Literature/ThePhoenixOnTheSword
** "Literature/TheFrostGiantsDaughter"
** "Literature/TheGodInTheBowl"
** "Literature/TheScarletCitadel"
** "Literature/TheTowerOfTheElephant".
** "Literature/BlackColossus"
** "Literature/XuthalOfTheDusk"
** "Literature/ThePoolOfTheBlackOne"
** "Literature/TheValeOfLostWomen"
** "Literature/RoguesInTheHouse"
** "Literature/IronShadowsInTheMoon"
** "Literature/QueenOfTheBlackCoast".
** "Literature/TheDevilInIron"
** "Literature/ThePeopleOfTheBlackCircle"
** "Literature/AWitchShallBeBorn"
** "Literature/TheBlackStranger"
** "Literature/TheServantsOfBitYakin"
** "Literature/BeyondTheBlackRiver"
** "Literature/ManEatersOfZamboula"
** ''Literature/TheHourOfTheDragon''
** "Literature/RedNails"
* ''Literature/BranMakMorn'', king of the Picts.
* Cormac Mac Art: An Irish pirate during the time of KingArthur.
* Turlogh Dubh [=O'Brien=], a Gaelic outlaw.
* Comicbook/RedSonja was not actually created by Howard, but she inhabits the [[HyborianAge Hyborian]] {{Verse}} together with Conan and is inspired by a "Red Sonya" who hailed from Russia in Howard's story ''The Shadow of the Vulture''.
* Literature/SolomonKane, a British Puritan explorer in Africa.
* Esau Cairn, an Earthman who became a hero on the distant planet of ''Almuric''.
* Black Terrence Vulmea, an Irish pirate.
* Breckenridge Elkins: A 19th century MountainMan, PlayedForLaughs and, although not well known now, at the time of his death, Howard's most popular character.
* The Sonora Kid, a Western [[TheGunslinger gunslinger]]

Many of Howard's works (including some juvenalia) are available [[https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikisource/en/wiki/Author:Robert_Ervin_Howard here]]
!!Artists that were influenced by Robert Howard's works include:

* Music/BalSagoth, whose name is derived from the Howard short story ''The Gods of Bal-Sagoth''.
* Creator/FritzLeiber in the description of lush, sensuous oriental civilizations which he employed to great effect in his Lankhmar stories.
* Creator/KarlEdwardWagner
* Creator/TerryPratchett who created the famous Cohen the Barbarian for Literature/{{Discworld}}
!!Robert Howard's stories (that do not have their own articles on this wiki) include examples of:

* ActionGirl:
** Dark Agnes.
** Red Sonya of Rogatino.
* AuthorExistenceFailure: Many of Howard's incomplete drafts were picked up by other writers, such as Creator/LSpragueDeCamp, and turned into complete stories.
* BornInTheWrongCentury: Esau Cairn of ''Almuric'' is a Conan-like figure who is described by Howard as being born out of his epoch, a man of great strength and intelligence who was nevertheless ill-fitted to life in a "machine-made civilization."
* TheButcher: Skol the Butcher from "The Blood of Belshazzar".
* CanonWelding: Howard did this a lot with his historical, horror and fantasy stories. Just to name a few examples: Literature/{{Kull}} was explicitly tied with Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian in the essay "The Hyborian Age". Both were tied to the historical-fantasy character Literature/BranMakMorn through the Kull-Bran crossover "Kings of the Night". The ring of Thoth-Amon from the Conan stories, and worshipers of Bran Mak Morn, both featured in Howard's modern horror stories, while both Bran and Kull are mentioned in one of his Turlogh Dubh O'Brien stories set in 1200's. It wouldn't be unreasonable to consider all of Howard's speculative fiction to be part of [[TheVerse the same verse]], even if Howard [[AuthorExistenceFailure never lived]] to point it out himself. And of course Howard and Creator/HPLovecraft making references to each-others in their works was the foundation of the Franchise/CthulhuMythos.
* CreatorThumbprint: [[RatedMForManly Manliness]], those manly men getting [[{{Gorn}} in touch with their inner barbarian]], Irish or Irish-American manly men (even Conan is, within the Howard mythology, an ancestor of the Irish) and in modern-day stories, manly men named Steve. [[ReptilesAreAbhorrent Repellent reptiles.]]
* CrossOver: The story ''Kings of the Night'' stars Kull crossing over into the world of Brak Mak Morn.
* FeministFantasy: Dark Agnes de Chastillon's stories in particular can be seen as early examples of this trope.
* GoneSwimmingClothesStolen: Happens to Breckenridge Elkins, leading to a situation where he gets [[MistakenForSpecialGuest mistaken for a prizefighter]].
* GoodOldFisticuffs: He wrote a lot of non-supernatural stories about boxers and other fist-fighters, usually with titles like "Circus Fists" and "Waterfront Fists."
* LoopholeAbuse: Lopez from "The Horror From The Mound" swore inviolable oaths to his father never to speak of the Mound's curse to anyone but his own eldest son. But when Brill suggests he ''write down'' the secret instead of say it, Lopez has no problem with that.
%%* TheMorlocks: The Children of the Night are a stunted variation.
%%* MountainMan: Breckenridge Elkins
%%* OutlawTown: Bab-el-Shaitan ("the Gate of the Devil") in the story "The Blood of Belshazzar".
* OurZombiesAreDifferent: "Pigeons From Hell" featured a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuvembie "zuvembie"]], which name was later used by Creator/MarvelComics for its voodoo-based zombie-like creatures (who couldn't be called such due to UsefulNotes/TheComicsCode.)
* PlanetaryRomance: ''Almuric''. An Creator/EdgarRiceBurroughs-style adventure, but with a Howard hero.
* TheTropeKid: The Sonora Kid
* TheVerse: Conan and Kull both exist in the same history. Also, in "Kings of Night" Kull is brought forward to help Bran Mac Morn who is implied to be the reincarnation of Kull's friend Brule. And many of Howard's stories touch upon their place in the Franchise/CthulhuMythos.
* WalkingTheEarth: de Montour, from "Wolfshead".