[[caption-width-right:350:The master of monsters.]]

Raymond Frederick "Ray" Harryhausen (June 29, 1920 May 7, 2013) was a visual effects pioneer and a genius in his field. Inspired by ''Film/{{King Kong|1933}}'', he became the most prominent StopMotion animator in the film industry and worked on such classics as ''Film/JasonAndTheArgonauts'', ''Film/{{Clash of the Titans|1981}}'', three ''Sinbad'' films (''Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad'', ''Film/TheGoldenVoyageOfSinbad'' and ''Film/SinbadAndTheEyeOfTheTiger''), as well as some of the most notable dinosaur films of the pre-''Franchise/JurassicPark'' era. A lesser known fact: most of the settings in these films were made using matte painting, another technique he was a master of.

These {{adventure}} movies would often be more showcases for Harryhausen's talent than anything else, but they had several similarities:

* Fantastic plots: ''Jason'' and ''Clash'' are both adapted from Myth/ClassicalMythology, the ''Sinbad'' movies come from [[ArabianNightsDays Arabian myths]][[note]](with some classical mythology monsters thrown in the mix nonetheless)[[/note]] and ''Film/OneMillionYearsBC'' is set in a [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology prehistorical world where humans and dinosaurs coexist]].
** TheQuest: In the Greek Mythology films and ''Sinbad'' films especially, the heroes embark on a journey to find magical artifacts.
** {{Evil Sorcerer}}s as enemies.
* Monster {{Behemoth Battle}}s:
** ''Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad'' (1958) - Cyclops/dragon battle
** ''Film/OneMillionYearsBC'' (1966) - Carnosaur/ceratopsian battle and pterosaur/pterosaur battle
** ''Film/TheValleyOfGwangi'' (1969) - Allosaurus/styracosaurus battle
** ''Film/TheGoldenVoyageOfSinbad'' (1974) - Griffin/centaur battle
** ''Film/SinbadAndTheEyeOfTheTiger'' (1977) - Troglodyte/smilodon battle

* [[LargeHam Hammy acting]], the [[EvilIsHammy villains in particular]].
* {{Classically Trained Extra}}s: [[Creator/LaurenceOlivier Sir Laurence Olivier]] and Creator/MaggieSmith were both in ''Clash of the Titans''. Why? {{Awesome|Dear Boy}} / MoneyDearBoy.
* [[MsFanservice Gorgeous actresses]]: Raquel Welch in ''Film/OneMillionYearsBC'', Caroline Munro in ''The Golden Voyage of Sinbad'', Jane Seymour and Taryn Power in ''Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger''...

!!Projects Harryhausen Worked On:


[[folder:Comic Books]]
* Several of his classic films have been given Comic Book sequels, or adaptations, which include his original sketches as an extra. These include
** ''It Came from Beneath the Sea... Again!''
** ''20 Million Miles to Earth''
** ''Earth vs. the Flying Saucers''
** ''The Elementals'' - An unproduced Harryhausen Project.

* ''Film/MightyJoeYoung'' - Harryhausen's first Hollywood gig, spiritual sequel to ''Film/KingKong1933''. The effects were a collaboration between O'Brien and Harryhausen.
* ''Film/TheBeastFromTwentyThousandFathoms'' - While not the first [[AttackOfThe50FootWhatever monster to attack a city]], it was the first monster to be [[ILoveNuclearPower created by The Bomb]]. [[InNameOnly Very loosely based]] on the short story of the same name by Harryhausen's friend and fellow guy-named-Ray, Creator/RayBradbury. Because of the movie's success and only vague connection to the story, Bradbury renamed his work "The Fog Horn" to differentiate the two.
* ''Film/ItCameFromBeneathTheSea'' - [[EverythingsSquishierWithCephalopods Giant Octopus attacks San Francisco]]. Notably, the City Fathers didn't want to have their newly built [[MonumentalDamage Golden Gate Bridge]] destroyed in the film for fear it would show the bridge being a weak structure. The producers filmed guerrilla-style and put it in anyway. The octopus only has six tentacles, to save on animation time.
* ''The Animal World'' - Started as a Documentary about life, but the StopMotion [[EverythingsBetterWithDinosaurs dinosaurs]] stole the show. It also reunited Harryhausen with his idol Willis O'Brien.
* ''Film/EarthVsTheFlyingSaucers'' - AlienInvasion done with little subtlety. Some of the most iconic MonumentalDamage occurs in this movie when Washington is attacked, including a saucer crashing into the Washington monument and knocking it onto people as well as a Saucer destroying the dome of the Capital Building.
** Footage from this movie later showed up in several [[BMovie rather less well done SF films]] like ''Film/TheGiantClaw'' and ''[[Film/TheThreeStooges The Three Stooges in Orbit]]''. It also showed up in the classic ''[[Series/TheTwilightZone Twilight Zone]]'' story "To Serve Man".
* ''Film/TwentyMillionMilesToEarth'' - Please stop harassing the Ymir.
** Harryhausen later authorized the [[GeorgeLucasAlteredVersion colorization]] of ''Film/ItCameFromBeneathTheSea'', ''Film/EarthVsTheFlyingSaucers'' and ''Film/TwentyMillionMilesToEarth''. The colorized versions were released as a DVD box set, with the option of watching the films in the original black and white.
* ''Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad'' - His first full-length color film, and TropeCodifier for Harryhausen, introducing one of his most iconic creatures : the [[DemBones living skeleton]].
* ''Film/TheThreeWorldsOfGulliver'' - An adaptation of ''Literature/GulliversTravels''.
* ''Film/MysteriousIsland'' - Sequel to ''20,000 Leagues Under the Sea''. Charles Shneer threw in [[AttackOfThe50footWhatever various giant animals]] to give Harryhausen something more to do.
* ''Film/JasonAndTheArgonauts'' - Harryhausen's first world-recognized CrowningMomentOfAwesome occurs with a bronze giant and a battle with 7 skeletons. It took him several days to film one second of film--and he got the scene done in a single take! Also one of the [[TropeCodifier Trope Codifiers]] and most iconic of Harryhausen's films.
* ''Film/TheFirstMenInTheMoon'' - Victorians InSpace meet [[BeePeople Ant People]] on the moon.
* ''Film/TheValleyOfGwangi'' - [[TheWestern Cowboys]] [[CoolVersusAwesome versus]] [[EverythingsBetterWithDinosaurs Dinosaurs]], noted for the epic scene where the cowboys [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome rope the eponymous Allosaurs]].
* ''Film/OneMillionYearsBC'' - Often noted more for Raquel Welch in a FurBikini than for Ray's special effects. But they're very good effects. Supposedly, the archelon model had a lot of critics complaining that Harryhausen used [[{{Slurpasaur}} a real turtle]].
* ''Film/TheGoldenVoyageOfSinbad'' - Epic scenes include a statue of Kali swordfighting Sinbad with all ''six arms'' and a [[OurCentaursAreDifferent centaur]]-{{cyclops}}. Also notable for being the film that brought Creator/TomBaker (who played the evil magician Koura) to the attention of the producers of ''Series/DoctorWho''.
* ''Film/SinbadAndTheEyeOfTheTiger'' - Sinbad goes to a LostWorld and battles a giant saber toothed cat.
* ''Film/{{Clash of the Titans|1981}}'' - Ray's final feature, featuring his last CrowningMomentOfAwesome in the Medusa battle done by flickering firelight. The complexity of that scene wows FX artists to this day.

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* Many of his effects were reused in famous television series--most notably ''Series/TheTwilightZone'' reusing his Flying Saucers in ''To Serve Man.''

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* Harryhausen's first gig was making shorts for the Army. Infamously, the short ''How To Build a Bridge'' had no visuals of soldiers putting the bridge together, and the superiors worried that the soldiers would think the bridges ''would build themselves!''
* Harryhausen also did several fairy tale adaptations, but few are of note, as they were fully animated Gumby-style shorts.

!!Homages and Shout Outs:

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* Creator/GeorgePerez cited Harryhausen as a chief inspiration for his ''ComicBook/WonderWoman'' run, most notably in the "Challenge of the Gods" story-arc, where the skeleton-army sequence from ''Jason and the Argonauts'' is homaged down to the Hydra-teeth.

* ''Film/ArmyOfDarkness'' features a very Harryhausen-inspired battle sequence with an Army of Skeletons. Some of which were stop motion.
** ''Film/SpyKids 2: The Island of Lost Dreams'' has a skeleton army too; the titular setting, full of creatures of varying sizes and natures, wouldn't be out of place in the Harryhausen canon either.
* While it mostly uses the traditional PeopleInRubberSuits that comes standard with ''[[{{Toku}} Tokusatsu]]'', ''Film/KamenRiderZO'' features a stop motion fight with a giant spider monster that is rather Harryhausen-esque.
* ''Sinbad: The 5th Voyage'' is a GenreThrowback to the aforementioned Harryhausen ''Sinbad'' movies, going as far as using actual stop motion animation(albeit far more technologically advanced) for the creatures.
* ''WesternAnimation/SinbadLegendOfTheSevenSeas'' is, in many ways, an homage to Harryhausen's body of work, combining the Sinbad and Greek mythology films into a single setting full of giant monsters. Especially in the "Cyclops Island" short included on the home video version: Sinbad's reaction to encountering the one-eyed giants is [[Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad "Not again!"]]
* ''Film/PacificRim'', while not directly related, is stated to be a tribute to both Ray Harryhausen and fellow Monster movie creator Creator/IshiroHonda.

[[folder:Live Action Television]]
* ''Series/HerculesTheLegendaryJourneys'' did a Jason and the Argonauts story which climaxed with a battle against (CGI) Skeletons in Harryhausen fasion.
* Scenes from both ''The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms'' and ''Valley of Gwangi'' have been used in the Newsflash game on ''Series/WhoseLineIsItAnyway''

[[folder:Multiple Genres]]
* It's hard not to find a Medusa or Gorgon design not influenced by Harryhausen's design: from TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons to ComicBook/TheIncredibleHercules, they all nod to Harryhausen.

* The video for Jon Spencer Blues Explosion's "Burn It Off" is a pastiche of Harryhausen movies, with members of the band chased by CGI versions his monsters (especially the skeletons) around an island and on a ship.
* The Hoosiers song "Worried About Ray" is named for him, and the video even features stop motion creatures reminiscent of Harryhausen's works.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The ''VideoGame/GodOfWar'' series draws a lot of inspiration from Harryhausen's movies, namely the Myth/ClassicalMythology inspired ones. In particular, the second game includes several shout outs, including fighting skeletons while following Film/{{Jason|AndTheArgonauts}}.
* The {{Cyclops}} in the UsefulNotes/PlayStation game for ''Series/XenaWarriorPrincess'' was quite obviously modeled on the ones from ''Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad'' complete with a horn on its forehead and (if you use the camera to see its lower body) satyr-like legs.
* Several ''[[VideoGame/KillerInstinct Killer Instinct 2]]'' characters pay homage to Harryhausen's movies, notably Spinal and Eyedoll.
* ''VideoGame/AgeOfMythology'' has several Greek myth units based directly on Harryhausen's version of them - Cyclops and Medusa, for example.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* Harryhausen had an upscale restaurant named after him in Creator/{{Pixar}}'s ''WesternAnimation/MonstersInc''.
* Speaking of Shout Outs, two stop-motion films that came out in the same year had the exact same nod to the man: both ''WesternAnimation/TheCurseOfTheWereRabbit'' and ''WesternAnimation/CorpseBride'' had a "Harryhausen" piano in there.
* One episode of ''WesternAnimation/SwatKats'', ''Bride of the Pastmaster'', had two of its three {{Cyclops}} adorned with horns on their foreheads like the ones in ''Film/The7thVoyageOfSinbad''.
* ''WesternAnimation/ClassOfTheTitans'' is full of Harryhausen movie shout-outs, starting of course with [[Film/ClashOfTheTitans1981 the title]].
* An episode of WesternAnimation/TheAngryBeavers has them transported to ancient Rome where they face off against a Cyclops that looks Harryhausen-esque, even moving as if stop motion animated.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/GravityFalls'' episode ''Little Gift Shop of Horrors'', [[{{Expy}} Harry Claymore]] animated stop-motion skeletons and a cyclops for the film ''The Voyages of Loinclothiclese''. [[spoiler: Which is to say he used black magic to bring to life actual-size clay monsters, which turned on him after the advent of computer animation.]]
-->'''Harry Claymore:''' [[spoiler: Do you really believe someone moves these figures one frame at a time? I'm not a masochist.]]