[[caption-width-right:200:''[[http://www.pbs.org Be more.]]'']]
->''"I'm talking about hopes, dreams--the magic of television! Especially ''public'' television. Puppets can say what men cannot."''
-->--Callum Crashaw, ''Pressing Issues'' (Radio/GTARadio)

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is America's publicly-owned TV network, though its history dates back much further than the government's involvement with it. It is not so much a traditional network as a consortium of non-commercial, educational TV stations.

!!The NET era (1952–1970)

PBS' first incarnation was the Educational Television and Radio Center in 1952, originally a private network set up by the Ford Foundation's Fund for Adult Education in order to serve as an educational television service complementing the entertainment programming of the commercial networks. Unique among American networks, content was produced not by the network itself, but by the individual stations -- a model similar to that of the (then UsefulNotes/{{West|Germany}}-) [[UsefulNotes/GermanTVStations German public broadcasting]], which had been imposed on them at the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII by the Western Allies. This led to content that was ''very'' in-depth in its subject matter, but also very dry, academic, low-budget and dull. As a result, ETRC floundered in its early years, earning the nickname "The University of the Air".

In 1958, ETRC changed its name to National Educational Television and Radio Center (NETRC), and then to just National Educational Television (NET) in 1963. Under new network president John F. White (formerly the station manager at WQED in UsefulNotes/{{Pittsburgh}}), it tried to shake off its ultra-academic reputation and become America's "fourth network". It expanded from five hours of programming a day to 10, imported shows from Creator/TheBBC and other international networks to fill those hours, and became more centralized. It created a slew of programming, such as the adult drama program ''NET Playhouse'', the seminal children's show ''Series/MisterRogersNeighborhood'', and a hard-hitting, controversial TVDocumentary series called ''NET Journal'' that frequently explored social issues like poverty and prejudice. This last program outraged NET's more conservative affiliates, especially those in the Southern United States, and despite its critical acclaim would lead to the network's downfall once it became government-funded.

In 1966, the Ford Foundation, having invested over $130 million into a network that was still dependent on their contributions and grants, decided to start withdrawing funding for the network, causing many affiliate stations to consider turning to the federal government for financial assistance. As a result, the government passed the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, creating the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, a semi-private[[note]]Its board is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.[[/note]] corporation to fund NET. While it did this for a few years, it soon became clear that NET's documentary programming had not only alienated many of its affiliates, but also angered UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who saw NET's documentaries as nothing more than propaganda against his administration. As a result, the CPB created the Public Broadcasting Service in 1969 as a new entity to take over network operations, and in 1970 NET was dissolved and merged into WNDT in [[{{Joisey}} Newark, New Jersey]] (which became WNET), [[NetworkDeath ending its existence as a formal network]]. NET's decentralized system was retained by PBS, largely because the existing commercial {{networks}} and conservatives in Congress did ''not'' want an American version of the BBC.

!!The PBS era (1970–present)

PBS has gone largely unchanged since then, though for the first couple of years it only operated Sundays through Thursdays. Programming and the stations themselves are sponsored by donations from corporations, charitable foundations and ViewersLikeYou. The federal government chips in, as well, by means of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which also funds Creator/{{NPR}} and public-radio programs. Instead of interrupting programs with commercials, PBS stations run a sponsor tag at the start and end of each program, and hype their other programs during a five-minute break at the end of each show. For a week or two every however-many months, they also run a [[{{Telethon}} pledge drive]], during which viewers are asked to donate money to help the station stay on the air. This is usually when they drag out their highest quality programs, such as concerts by Music/TheGratefulDead and [[Music/PinkFloyd David Gilmour]], and performances from the Austin City Limits festival, though this is also where you'll see endless self-help and financial gurus; it's just a matter of getting through the lengthy pledge breaks or predicting when they will end and put up the next show. Some stations take off programming for a few days to air an auction of products, services and trips where funding goes to the station, or "friends" of the station, a concept where an outside third party or an board is the one who makes programming purchase and scheduling decisions rather than station personnel.

In 2011, PBS launched a UK cable and satellite channel, carrying a broad cross section of its U.S. programming.

Each PBS station sets its own schedule with a mix of local productions, national programs and foreign imports, but they tend to follow a rough pattern with their scheduling:
* Children's shows in the daytime. Over the years, this block, known as Creator/PBSKids since 1993, has included ''Series/SesameStreet'', ''Series/MisterRogersNeighborhood'', ''Series/ReadingRainbow'', ''WesternAnimation/WordGirl'', ''Series/BillNyeTheScienceGuy'', ''TheMagicSchoolBus'', ''WesternAnimation/{{Arthur}}'', ''WesternAnimation/DragonTales'', ''Series/BarneyAndFriends'' and ''Series/{{Teletubbies}}''. PBS has generally placed a strong emphasis on [[EdutainmentShow education]] and [[AnAesop Aesops]] with its kids' shows, even when children's programming on other networks started getting more geared towards [[MerchandiseDriven selling toys]]. People who grew up before children's programming started proliferating on cable (or even after, if they had parents who [[TheMoralSubstitute objected to]] the MerchandiseDriven nature of many {{Saturday morning cartoon}}s) were probably raised on PBS.
* News in the early evening. Their main news programs are the ''PBS [=NewsHour=]'' nightly newscast[[note]] the show had its' origin in anchors Robert [=MacNeil=] and Jim Lehrer being teamed for PBS' coverage of the Watergate hearings in 1973; WNET-13 in NYC then gave [=MacNeil=] his own half-hour program, ''The Robert [=MacNeil=] Report'' in October 1975, focusing initially on local, New York-area issues and with a half-hour runtime. Soon after, Jim Lehrer became co-anchor from Washington (WETA in Washington became co-producer), the show was renamed to ''The [=MacNeil=]/Lehrer Report'', and now commenced national PBS broadcasts. In September 1983, the program was modified to be more competitive with the "Big 3" newscasts, and became the ''The [=MacNeil=]/Lehrer [=NewsHour=]''; it was renamed in 1995 to ''The [=NewsHour=] with Jim Lehrer'' after [=MacNeil=] retired; and in 2009 it was renamed as the ''PBS [=NewsHour=]'', given it's status as PBS' most notable newscast, plus Lehrer's decreased prominence and a return to rotating co-anchors, setting the stage for his retirement in 2011.[[/note]] and the award-winning ''Frontline'' {{documentary}} series (not to be confused with [[Series/{{Frontline}} the Australian series]]). Nearly all stations also run the ''Nightly Business Report''. Some stations also air ''[[Creator/TheBBC BBC World News America]]'', and a few stations might air local news broadcasts, such as WNET in New York, which, as a result of being licensed to Newark, NJ, must air semi-sister station NJTV's nightly news broadcasts. On Fridays, stations run the [[TalkShow news talk show]] ''Washington Week'', which was shown on Thursdays when it premiered on NET in 1967 and during the network's five-days-a-week phase in the early '70s.
* UsefulNotes/PrimeTime brings entertainment for mature viewers, such as ''Series/{{Masterpiece}}'' on Sundays and ''Antiques Roadshow'' on Mondays, along with science documentaries on Wednesdays such as ''Series/{{NOVA}}'' and ''Nature''.
* Late night brings more public affairs programming. This block was severely affected by the Weinstein Effect and resulting [=#MeToo=] movement, which saw both of its mainstays get the boot in a span of three and a half weeks. The current inhabitants of the block are British CNN personality Christiane Amanpour, with a special PBS version of ''Amanpour.'', and the ''BBC World News'' team, with ''Beyond 100 Days'' and a weekly special edition of their own ''BBC World News''. Stations have also been known to run ''BBC World News'', ''Nightly Business Report'', ''The Whole Truth with David Eisenhower'', ''Great Decisions in Foreign Policy'', and ''NHK Newsline'', among others, in this block as part of their own local programming.
* The late night graveyard slot is full of prime time reruns, though most stations just use the feed given to them by PBS regardless of what they had themselves run during prime time that night. A notable exception is KQED, which does repeat its own prime time programming in the late night. Some stations, such as WGBH out of Boston, Massachusetts, have also started airing {{Infomercial}}s during this timeslot in recent years.
* Saturdays and Sundays usually bring out content meant for older audiences, such as repeats of ''The Lawrence Welk Show'' and {{BritCom}}s such as ''Series/AreYouBeingServed'', and ''Series/KeepingUpAppearances'' that have been run so much by the stations that the tape is probably nearly worn out by this point. Various {{Cooking Show}}s also may be featured, particularly in the afternoons.

Some local PBS stations create their own content, but most buy content produced by others. The largest content producer in the country is UsefulNotes/{{Boston}}'s WGBH, which has produced shows like the science documentary series ''Nova'' and the {{edutainment}} show ''Series/{{ZOOM}}''. And while we're on the subject, WGBH's [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEAQn1Zle5s ident]] (which has remained unchanged since ''1977'') happens to be pure [[NightmareFuel/VanityPlate Nightmare Fuel]] (as were some of PBS's [[VanityPlate own early logos]]). WQED in Pittsburgh was historically another major provider, but it gradually petered out (with the end of the ''Neighborhood'' in 2001, it ceased to produce nationally-distributed programming). Similarly, WTTW of Chicago's output has dwindled in recent years; in the past it provided ''Series/SiskelAndEbert'' their first TV series, ''The Frugal Gourmet'', ''Lamb-Chop's Play Along'' as well as a revival of ''Series/{{Kidsongs}}'' on television. It still co-produced ''Series/TheMcLaughlinGroup'' for both PBS and network stations until creator, executive producer, and host John [=McLaughlin=]'s death in 2016. WNET of New York also contributes major programming, including ''Great Performances'', ''American Masters'', ''Nature'', producing ''PBS [=NewsHour=] Weekend'', and a large amount of PBS Kids programming. Some noteworthy programs broadcast throughout PBS' history include many of Ken Burns' documentaries and the controversial show ''An American Family'' in 1973, which is now viewed as the UrExample for the entire genre of [[RealityTV reality television]]. (The {{irony}} of a network with a reputation as highbrow as PBS inventing the RealityShow is not lost on some of us.) Some PBS affiliates also let other companies use their studios for filming non-PBS programs. An example is Philadelphia's WHYY, who had among other things, Creator/{{Nickelodeon}}'s quintessential game show, ''[[Series/DoubleDare1986 Double Dare]]'', as well as sister series ''Series/FindersKeepers'' and ''Series/ThinkFast'', taped at their facilities until Nick moved to Orlando- and Ride/UniversalStudios- in 1990.

Many PBS stations also rely on content from the BBC, leading to a joke claiming that the network's acronym stood for "[[FunWithAcronyms Primarily British Series]]." For many years during its original run, PBS was the U.S. distributor of ''Series/DoctorWho''. Two other popular British imports are ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus'' and ''Series/AreYouBeingServed'', which have been airing on a PBS station somewhere or other since they first acquired the programs in the mid-1970s. The sci-fi sitcom ''Series/RedDwarf'' was also broadcast on some PBS stations, on occasion being the focus of the aforementioned pledge drives. Finally, the [[LongRunner long-running]] ''Masterpiece Theatre'' (now known simply as ''Series/{{Masterpiece}}'') consists mostly of British productions (including some from Creator/{{ITV}} and Creator/ChannelFour), the most popular of which currently are ''Series/DowntonAbbey'' and the revival of ''Series/UpstairsDownstairs'', which have been among [[http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/19/downton-abbey-season-3-becomes-top-rated-pbs-drama-of-all-time.html the biggest hits]] the network's had in its history.

As a government-run television network, PBS has been subjected to fights within the government over funding as far back as TheSixties ([[Series/MisterRogersNeighborhood Fred Rogers']] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXEuEUQIP3Q speech to the Senate]] in defense of the young network may just be his CrowningMomentOfAwesome). The usual cry of public television's opponents is that PBS was created in [[TheSixties a time]] when there were only [[Creator/{{CBS}} three]] [[Creator/{{NBC}} television]] [[Creator/{{ABC}} networks]] in the United States as opposed to over a hundred, and that the public need for it no longer exists in today's world of cable and satellite TV. Supporters, meanwhile, argue that PBS is essential for rural viewers and those who can't afford cable or satellite, that it provides things like science documentaries, hard-hitting investigative journalism and educational children's programming that would never last a day on commercial television, and that commercial educational channels are vulnerable to NetworkDecay.[[note]]The experience of the Creator/DiscoveryChannel, Creator/TheHistoryChannel, Creator/NickJr and TLC in the last several years bears that out pretty well.[[/note]] The large degree of control given to local affiliates is also a point of contention, with some people arguing that this is an outmoded, inefficient structure that should be replaced with something more centralized, and others saying that it's necessary for the community involvement for which PBS stations are known. Also, despite the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 prohibiting political bias in PBS broadcasting, it has been accused of such by both sides over the years ([[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment and let's just leave it at that]]). On at least one occasion, the reverse has happened: In 1982, Congress asked PBS to abandon its official neutral position in order to air the program ''Let Poland Be Poland'', which criticized the Soviet-enforced declaration of martial law in Poland in 1981.

Currently, they have branched out to the Internet, creating a well-received, informative WebVideo series on Website/YouTube, The WebVideo/PBSIdeaChannel. Other TV ventures include several diginets, including ''World'', offering PBS' current affairs library 24/7, ''V-Me'', focusing on Spanish-language programming, and ''Create'', focusing on DIY-type and cooking shows; these digi-nets are not operated by PBS, but by close ally American Public Television, which syndicates various programs to PBS stations. PBS also has a home video division, Creator/PBSHomeVideo.

The radio equivalent is Creator/{{NPR}}.
!!Shows aired on PBS stations [[note]]supplied either by the network or outside syndicators[[/note]] include:


* WebVideo/PBSIdeaChannel
* Creator/PBSKids (the channel's famous children's programming block)
** Creator/{{Sprout}} (digital cable channel it formerly co-owned)

[[folder:Live-Action TV -- Documentary]]
* ''Series/TheAmericanExperience''
* ''Series/{{Cosmos}}: A Personal Voyage''
* ''Series/{{Nova}}''

[[folder:Live-Action TV -- Fiction]]
* ''Series/AlloAllo''[[note]]Premiered on PBS in 1987[[/note]]
* ''Series/AreYouBeingServed''[[note]]Premiered on PBS in 1987, with the original roster consisting of a mere 24 stations, the first two to pick it up being KAET in Phoenix, AZ and KCET in Los Angeles, CA.[[/note]]
* ''Series/AsTimeGoesBy''
* ''Series/BlakesSeven''
* ''Series/CallTheMidwife''
* ''Series/TheCobblestoneCorridor''[[note]]A Connecticut Public Television original drama distributed by APT[[/note]]
* ''Series/DeathInParadise''
* ''Series/DocMartin''[[note]]Broadcast on PBS stations courtesy of APT beginning in 2007.[[/note]]
* ''Series/DoctorWho''[[note]]While the original series was seen on practically every PBS station, the new series is another issue. The BBC currently gives the US distribution rights first to BBC America, where they will hang on to the new episodes for about a year before handing it over to PBS. And even then, not all PBS stations still show the new episodes. As of this writing, the only stations that still show new episodes are: WTTW in Chicago, IL, WPT in Madison, WI, KLRU in Austin, TX, WETA in Washington D.C., OETA in Oklahoma City, OK, and IPTV for the entire state of Iowa.[[/note]]
* ''Series/DowntonAbbey''
* ''Series/{{Eastenders}}''
* ''Series/FatherBrown''
* ''Series/FawltyTowers''
* ''Series/{{Grantchester}}''
* ''Series/HollywoodTelevisionTheatre''
* ''Series/HouseOfCardsUK''
* ''Series/InspectorMorse''
* ''Series/KeepingUpAppearances''[[note]]Premiered on PBS in 1991.[[/note]]
* ''Series/LastOfTheSummerWine''[[note]]Originally broadcast on A&E before moving to PBS stations.[[/note]]
* ''Series/{{Masterpiece}}''
* ''Series/MercyStreet''
* ''Series/MidsomerMurders''[[note]]Broadcast on A&E from 1998 until their NetworkDecay in 2002, and then on The Biography Channel until 2007; APT picked it up for broadcast on PBS stations in 2009.[[/note]]
* ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus''[[note]]This was the first BBC production shown on PBS in 1974, courtesy of KERA in Dallas, TX.[[/note]]
* ''Series/MooneBoy''
* ''Series/OneFootInTheGrave''
* ''Series/OnlyFoolsAndHorses''
* ''Series/OpenAllHours''[[note]]Broadcast on A&E beginning on September 3, 1982, the complete series has been broadcast on PBS stations since 1985.[[/note]]
* ''Series/{{Poirot}}''
* ''Series/RedDwarf''
* ''Series/{{Sharpe}}''
* ''Series/{{Spooks}}'' (as ''MI-5'')
* ''Series/{{Spy}}''
* ''Series/ToTheManorBorn''
* ''Series/UpstairsDownstairs''
* ''Series/WaitingForGod''
* ''Series/YesMinister''

[[folder:Live-Action TV -- Other]]
* ''Series/AntiquesRoadshow''
* ''Series/ThreeTwoOneContact''
* ''Series/TheLawrenceWelkShow''
* ''Series/TheMcLaughlinGroup''
* ''Magazine/MotorWeek''
* ''Series/NewtonsApple'': An {{edutainment}} show for kids about science that aired in the 1980s.
* ''Series/TheWonderfulWorldOfDisney''[[note]]Syndicated to several PBS stations in the mid-'80s.[[/note]]
* ''Series/{{ZOOM}}''

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Castle}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Cathedral}}''
* ''Pyramid''
* ''Roman City''
* ''Mill Times''

[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
Of course, this page wouldn't be complete without a list of anime broadcast by certain affiliates, including, most prominently, KQED Plus. These include:

* ''Manga/UruseiYatsura''
* ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion''
* ''Manga/SailorMoon''
* ''Anime/CorrectorYui''
* ''Manga/CardCaptorSakura''
* ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf''
* ''Anime/DirtyPairFlash''
* ''Anime/FullMetalPanic''
* ''Manga/MagicKnightRayearth''
* ''Anime/{{Robotech}}''
* ''Manga/AstroBoy''
* ''Anime/SakuraWarsTV''
* ''Anime/TenchiUniverse''
* ''Anime/KeyTheMetalIdol''
* ''Anime/{{Gatchaman}}''
* ''Anime/SamuraiPizzaCats''
* ''Anime/MobileSuitGundam''
* ''Anime/BubblegumCrisis''
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