[[quoteright:250:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/HPL-Smiling!.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:250:A rare picture of our author [[TheUnsmile attempting to smile]].]]

->''"The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown."''
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The best known author of the CosmicHorrorStory and the origin of the Franchise/CthulhuMythos, Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 -- March 15, 1937) is considered perhaps the greatest of all horror fiction writers, rivaled only by his idol Creator/EdgarAllanPoe. An antiquarian eremite, he was [[NotGoodWithPeople more fond of books than of people]], very much like most of his protagonists. There is, however, no official record of Lovecraft ever encountering anything corporeally eldritch, as much as some fans [[BeethovenWasAnAlienSpy wish it were all true]]. To this day you can find at least a half dozen different [[{{Defictionalization}} fabrications]] of Lovecraft's wholly fictional ''[[TomeOfEldritchLore Necronomicon]].'' He credited his night terrors[[note]]while similar to nightmares, they are actually the result of a sleep disorder[[/note]] with providing most of his inspiration; both night terrors and the filmy, oily membrane between waking and sleep factor heavily in his various works.

Although Lovecraft had a very happy childhood by his own account -- his rich grandfather, mother and aunts gave him just about everything he wanted including free run of the family library -- his early years were marked by loss. His father went insane (from syphilis) and died when Lovecraft was about eight. His grandfather died and his money was mismanaged by relatives, leaving the family penniless. Lovecraft's mother also supposedly went insane (now believed to be severe anxiety) and died in a mental hospital.[[note]]Recent biographers contextualize Susie's "insanity" with the medical view of women at the time and remind us that there was a lot more to Susie than the whacked-out accounts written to make HPL ''look'' like he'd had an eldritch, amorphous, deliquescent childhood.[[/note]] In his adult years he drifted in and out of poverty (mostly in), ate cold beans out of cans, lost his wife, and ended his life with [[ShootTheShaggyDog cancer of the small intestine]].

On the other hand, he was a member of the United Amateur Press Association and made many friends by correspondence, and when possible he would travel to meet them, journeying all up and down the east coast and even venturing into Canada. He was an amateur astronomer and antiquarian, a tireless walker, ardent bicyclist, and lover of all things ancient and strange. He was a professed atheist, but loved the gods of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and as a child had prayed to them.

He earned most of his living as an editor and ghostwriter. He was reluctant to sell his own stories, fearing they would not be well-received, but he was a prolific correspondent with other writers of the time, including Creator/RobertEHoward and Creator/ClarkAshtonSmith (not to mention the teenage Creator/RobertBloch), and heavily rewrote many of their stories for them, inserting his own themes. Creator/LordDunsany, Creator/EdgarAllanPoe, Creator/RobertWChambers' ''Literature/TheKingInYellow'', and Creator/ArthurMachen are frequently cited as major influences on Lovecraft's work.

No summary of Lovecraft's life is complete without a mention of his passionate [[KindheartedCatLover devotion to cats]] and to his home town of Providence, Rhode Island. He only owned one cat in his lifetime, but fed and named every alley cat he found. His words ''I Am Providence'' are engraved on his tombstone.

Given his view of the world, Lovecraft might be considered a real life StrawNihilist. He was also a xenophobe, an anti-Semite and an outspoken racist; one recorded criticism of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany was that UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler's plans were too optimistic.[[labelnote:1]]"The crazy thing is not what Adolf wants, but the way he sees it & starts out to get it. I know he’s a clown, but by God, I like the boy!" –Letter from Lovecraft to Donald Wandrei, November 1936[[/labelnote]][[labelnote:2]]On the other hand, his short story "The Temple" takes a very dim view of German militarism and racism (its villain protagonist, a UsefulNotes/WorldWarI U-boat commander, thinks of mere Rhinelanders as too weak for the Fatherland).[[/labelnote]] Even after he married a Jewish woman, Sonia Greene, he often made anti-Semitic remarks -- in response to which she [[YouKnowImBlackRight gently reminded him]] with whom he was sleeping. Many of his early stories and poems contained overt racial slurs, mostly aimed at immigrants from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. One of the "horrors" he intended to creep out his audience was miscegenation -- racial impurity, which he considered "degenerate" -- again, a commonplace societal fear at the time, especially in the New England states where [[RealityIsUnrealistic opposition to interracial marriages was higher than in the South]]. The racial slurs are far less common in his later stories, though it's debatable whether he truly moderated his views over time - as late as 1931 he wrote: "The black is vastly inferior. There can be no question of this among contemporary and unsentimental biologists — eminent Europeans for whom the prejudice-problem does not exist."

Lovecraft's stories featured not so much fear of people of different (non-White) skin colour, but distaste aimed at "mental, moral and physical degeneration" (a concept prevalent at the time) due to in-breeding, interbreeding with non-human creatures, or even immoral acts such as cannibalism (("The Picture in the House"). In his stories such degeneration could afflict the lower classes ("The Horror at Red Hook") and inbred rural communities ("The Dunwich Horror", "The Shadow over Innsmouth") as well as upper class families ("Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family", "The Rats in the Walls", "The Lurking Fear"). It's interesting -- perhaps even humorous -- to note that "The Shadow Over Innsmouth" was not inspired by fears of miscegenation, but by Lovecraft's own discovery that his great-grandmother was... ''[[FelonyMisdemeanor Welsh]]''. (Whatever the truth of this, there was mental illness in Lovecraft's family history, too, and he was haunted by the fear that he might, like his forebears, suddenly undergo mental degeneration.)

On the third appendage, Lovecraft's stories, especially the Dreamland stories, featured protagonists with dark skin of which he speaks quite highly, and Lovecraft was a great admirer of the civilizations of Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire. He differentiated between people of "noble" appearance and heritage and civilized behaviour contra "degenerate" individuals or tribes, independently of ethnicity or skin-colour. Early in life, he thought that immigrants to the U.S. should learn English and completely assimilate. After seeing a community of Orthodox Jews in New York, he sympathized with their rejection of modernity and over time came to think foreigners might do better to retain their original language, dress and customs, because attempts to "Americanize" often made them look vulgar.

It has often been suggested that [[AlternativeCharacterInterpretation he only incorporated so much racism in his stories because they stemmed from the element that proliferates all of his works: fear of the unknown.]] He almost single-handedly invented a new cosmology, but instead of being one based on science and progress, it was instead full of otherworldly horror and blind, raving deities. While most people of his time were entranced by the technological innovation produced by the Industrial Revolution, Lovecraft was [[RomanticismVersusEnlightenment deeply suspicious of modern technology and the poorly-understood powers it vested in mankind]]. All of his work resonates with the terror of the newly-discovered magnitude of the universe, which in the early period of his life was believed to consist entirely of the Milky Way. Einstein's theory of relativity opened a door into teleportation, time travel, and {{alien geometr|ies}}y, and radically altered peoples' notion of space-time itself, while the discovery of pre-Cambrian fossils and Wegener's then-new-and-controversial hypothesis of continental drift brought the notion that the Earth was far older than previously believed, and that even the shape of the continents was not [[StealthPun set in stone]]. All of this was subtly addressed in Lovecraft's stories of alien horror, and of the remains of ancient civilizations lost to the abyss of geological deep time.

The dizzying speed of progress of his time was compounded by an expansion of the unknown. Each new development, instead of reducing the number of questions as had been expected by pre-modern philosophers, instead compounded them exponentially. Leibniz had hoped that the entire world could be described by reason, and that this is the best of all possible worlds -- a possibility utterly abolished during Lovecraft's writing period. Each new discovery only increased humanity's knowledge of its own ignorance and {{insignifican|tLittleBluePlanet}}ce, encouraging a nihilistic atmosphere, and this is perhaps the central theme of Lovecraft's incisive fiction. For fiction done by others in his literary mythos (and the Lovecraftian setting as a whole), see the CthulhuMythos.

Despite [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._P._Lovecraft#Copyright some controversy]] over whether most of his works are genuinely public domain, they're all invariably available online [[https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Howard_Phillips_Lovecraft somewhere.]] [[http://www.hplovecraft.com/study/bios/lvw.aspx The letters]] are harder to get ahold of (and [[https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/SearchResults?an=Lovecraft%2C+Joshi&bi=0&bx=off&ds=30&kn=Lovecraft&recentlyadded=all&sortby=17&sts=t&tn=Lord+of+a+Visible+World%3A+An+Autobiography+in+Letters expensive as hell, check out Abebooks]]), but they're well worth the search.

!! Works by Lovecraft include:
[[index]]
* ''Literature/AtTheMountainsOfMadness'' -- Scholarly expedition to [[MysteriousAntarctica Antarctica]] discovers ruins of a city built by AncientAstronauts and has close encounters with [[BlobMonster formless horrors]] and [[OurMonstersAreWeird giant hairless penguins]], incidentally proving that "It gets better" ''can'' be used to great effect.[[/index]]
** Creator/GuillermoDelToro (the director of ''Film/{{Hellboy}}'' and ''Film/PansLabyrinth'') had a screenplay prepared, although it will be quite a while before anything comes of it, what with [[Film/TheHobbit one thing]] and [[Franchise/{{Frankenstein}} another]]. Although it had Creator/TomCruise and Creator/JamesCameron involved, it was cancelled in light of The Wolfman reboot flopping. At one point, Del Toro said that ''Film/{{Prometheus}}'' may have killed any chance of his ''Mountains'' adaptation being made, as he considers the stories much too similar, but he has since taken back this statement.
** Dan O'Bannon, the original writer of ''Film/{{Alien}}'', is a massive Lovecraft fan (he would go on to direct an adaption of ''The Case of Charles Dexter Ward'') and initially conceived the plot of ''Alien'' as a kind of "At the Planet of Madness"; much of the original story involved the aliens being "gods" to a long-lost civilization who sacrificed victims to them in, and left hieroglyphs depicting their lifecycle on the walls of, a giant pyramid. Many of these ideas would be subsequently reused in ''Film/AVPAlienVsPredator'' (which, just to drive the point home, was set in Antarctica) and in ''Film/{{Prometheus}}''.
** John Carpenter's ''Film/{{The Thing|1982}}'' is even closer. Indeed, a genealogical connection is plausible: the film is an adaptation of Creator/JohnWCampbell's short story "Literature/WhoGoesThere", published in ''Magazine/AstoundingStories'' in 1938. Campbell -- who became editor of ''Astounding'' that year -- would surely have been reading it in 1936, when it published ''At the Mountains of Madness''. John Carpenter himself is an admitted H.P. Lovecraft fan, so it'd hardly be surprising if he drew a little inspiration from the story, even indirectly (there actually is some resemblance between the sequences where Mac and Copper investigate the Norwegian camp in ''The Thing'' and the scene where Dyer and Danforth investigate Lake's camp in ''At The Mountains of Madness'', not to mention that the Norwegians weren't in the novella the film was based on...). He even made ''Film/InTheMouthOfMadness'' as a tribute to Lovecraft's work.
[[index]]
* "Literature/TheCallOfCthulhu" -- [[SufficientlyAdvancedAlien Cthulhu]] briefly wakes, and fills the dreams of men with madness. The first and best-known Lovecraftian [[TabletopGames Tabletop RPG]] is [[TabletopGame/CallOfCthulhu named after it]] and reprints the story in full.[[/index]]
** ''[[http://www.hplhs.org/ The H.P. Lovecraft Historical Society]]'' [[LovecraftOnFilm adapted]] this story [[http://www.hplhs.org/mpcoc.php to film]] in 2005, faithful to the original, in the style of a classic 1920's black-and-white silent movie. A must-see.[[/index]]
* ''Literature/TheCaseOfCharlesDexterWard'' -- Long dead {{necromancer}} steals the identity of his [[IdenticalGrandson identical great-great-great-grandson]]. The source of perhaps one of the most solid pieces of advice for anyone messing with sorcery: "[[EvilIsNotAToy Do not call up that which you cannot put down.]]" Also used in the Roger Corman film, ''The Haunted Palace''.
* "Literature/TheColourOutOfSpace" -- A toxic meteorite that's of a colour NotOfThisEarth devastates a small farm in Massachusetts. Lovecraft insists upon using the Commonwealth spelling of "colour", as always. He stated that this was his favorite of all his stories.[[/index]]
** A big part of the inspiration for the "Weeds" segment (starring self-professed Lovecraft fan Creator/StephenKing) in ''Film/{{Creepshow}}''.
** Plot also used in the movie ''Film/TheCurse'', starring John Schneider, Claude Akins, and Wil Wheaton. Rather faithful to the original, under the circumstances.
** Also a very loose adaption from 1965 called ''Film/DieMonsterDie'' with Creator/BorisKarloff.
** Adapted in 2008 as movie called ''[[http://www.die-farbe.com/ Die Farbe]]'' (''The Colour'') by Sphärentor Produktion, a German indie studio. All in black and white, except for the colour itself. Makes a few changes, but overall pretty faithful to the source material.
[[index]]
* "Cool Air" -- A boarding-house resident who likes, for some reason, to have it ''very'' cold in his apartment goes into a panic when his swamp cooler breaks down; his downstairs neighbor soon begins to wonder where the smell is coming from...[[/index]]
** "Cool Air" and "Pickman's Model" were made into episodes of ''Series/NightGallery''. Unfortunately, ''Night Gallery'' insisted on adding a female love interest and DamselInDistress for Pickman to the episode. Not only that, the story was combined with "Innsmouth", only with rats instead of fish.
** Also was loosely adapted as one of the segments in the cheaply-made, [[InNameOnly only nominally Lovecraftian]] anthology film ''Necronomicon'', with, of all people, [[MoneyDearBoy a slumming]] David Warner as the star. They decided to throw in a love triangle plot, for some reason.
** A quite faithful indie adaption of "Cool Air" can be found in ''The H.P. Lovecraft Collection'' (Part 1) by Lurker Films, Inc.
** Adapted as "Baby, It's Cold Inside" in ''Vault of Horror'' #17 (February 1951) from Creator/ECComics.
[[index]]
* "Literature/{{Dagon}}" -- A young man serving in the navy during World War I escapes German captivity only to glimpse a strange monster.
* His ''Dreamland'' stories, among them "Literature/TheCatsOfUlthar", "Celephais", "The Quest of Iranon", "The Silver Key", "Through the Gates of the Silver Key" and ''Literature/TheDreamQuestOfUnknownKadath''. The last encompassed a number of characters from Lovecraft's other stories, "Pickman's Model" in particular.
* "Literature/TheDreamsInTheWitchHouse"
* "Literature/TheDunwichHorror" -- Invisible abomination terrorises the Massachusetts countryside.[[/index]]
** Filmed in 1970 as a not-entirely-faithful CultClassic starring Dean Stockwell as Wilbur Whateley and Sandra Dee as Nancy Wagner, who wasn't in the original story. ''Yog-Sothoth!'' There was also a 2009 remake by Creator/{{Syfy}} - again starring Dean Stockwell, but as Professor Armitage.
[[index]]
* "Literature/FromBeyond"
* ''Literature/HerbertWestReanimator'' -- A MadScientist develops a serum that can revive the dead. Probably best known in its gory, darkly comedic [[Film/ReAnimator film adaptation]] it is actually one of the first tales to use the cannibalistic [[OurZombiesAreDifferent zombies]] archetype so beloved of modern culture. The novella itself was written as a parody of ''Literature/{{Frankenstein}}''. Lovecraft himself disliked the story due to the constraints placed on him by the magazine in which it was published.
* "The Music of Erich Zann" -- [[/index]]A student, seeking cheap accommodation, takes a room underneath a strange, mute cellist who plays unnatural music late into the night. He considered this one of his best stories, as he managed to avoid his usual tactic of explaining everything (read: [[NothingIsScarier the tiniest explanation of anything is juuust barely alluded to]]--in the form of a note the protagonist never actually gets to read).
* "The Outsider" -- One of the prime examples of TomatoInTheMirror in literature. ItWasHisSled may be in place, naturally.
* "Pickman's Model" -- A [[MadArtist degenerate artist]] gives one of his former friends a glimpse of the [[RealAfterAll horrible secret]] behind his disturbing subject matter.
** Has been adapted a number of times into short movies by various independent film makers from different countries, movies which were collected on DVD as part of ''The H.P. Lovecraft Collection'' (Part 4) by Lurker Films, Inc.
[[index]]
* "Literature/TheRatsInTheWalls" -- The narrator, a man from New England, buys an old keep in England that belonged to his ancestors (and which was erected at the site of much older Roman and iron-age temples) and discovers a [[ImAHumanitarian horrifying]] [[MadwomanInTheAttic family]] [[PeopleFarms secret]] that drives him insane.
* "Literature/TheShadowOutOfTime" -- One of his best-regarded stories. A strange creature from the deep past [[GrandTheftMe swaps bodies]] with a modern-day scholar, followed by the latter's subsequent investigations into the years he can't remember.[[/index]]
** Adapted in 2012 as a short old-timey independent film starring Åke Rosén and narrated by John Hutch. See it [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7jp1CT1h6c here.]]
** This is the primary inspiration for the framing story in ''VideoGame/CallOfCthulhuDarkCornersOfTheEarth''.
* "Literature/TheShadowOverInnsmouth" -- Man visits a TownWithADarkSecret and finds [[HalfHumanHybrid something]] [[StealthPun fishy]] in [[TomatoInTheMirror his family tree]].
** This one was the primary inspiration for the video game ''VideoGame/CallOfCthulhuDarkCornersOfTheEarth'', which takes place in Innsmouth.
** Also loosely adapted into ''Film/{{Dagon}}'', set on the coast of modern-day Spain.
*** This, in turn, might be part of the inspiration for ''VideoGame/ResidentEvil4'', also set in Spain with the antagonists as inhuman villagers who are part of a cult that worships horrific tentacled things. And that's not even getting into some of the ''other'' enemies...
** Also part of a long sequel series by various authors, ''Shadows over Innsmouth''.
** 2007 indie film ''Film/{{Cthulhu}}'' by Dan Gildark and Grant Cogswell is actually based on this story rather than any of the Cthulhu mythos stories.
[[index]]
* "Literature/TheShunnedHouse"
* "Literature/SweetErmengarde" -- In a [[HeAlsoDid massive change of pace]], a overtly comedic parody of hack {{Melodrama}}.
* "Literature/TheTemple" -- A German U-Boat crew is subjected to a series of strange and unexplained events.
* "Literature/TheThingOnTheDoorstep" -- A sweet but weak-willed man marries a sinister young woman from [[Literature/TheShadowOverInnsmouth Innsmouth]] and starts to exhibit disturbing personality changes.
* "Literature/TheWhispererInDarkness" -- A science fiction First Contact story with strong [[GrandTheftMe horror elements]]. A scholar and his pen pal friend discover a colony of sinister fungoid space-faring aliens in the mountainous rural backwaters of Vermont in 1930.[[/index]]
** ''[[http://www.cthulhulives.org/toc.html The H.P. Lovecraft Historical Society]]'' [[LovecraftOnFilm has]] [[AdaptationExpansion adapted]] this puppy to [[http://www.cthulhulives.org/whisperer/index.html film as well.]] ''Another'' must-see.
[[/index]]
* And most terrifyingly of all, "[[http://www.hplovecraft.com/writings/texts/essays/cd.aspx Cats and Dogs,]]" an almost 6000 word essay on [[ArsonMurderAndJaywalking why cats are better than dogs.]]

For a mostly-complete list of film adaptations, see LovecraftOnFilm. For the comic book about Lovecraft, see ''Comicbook/{{Lovecraft}}''. For more adaptations in a variety of forms, see the work of the Creator/HPLovecraftHistoricalSociety.
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!!Other works by Lovecraft include examples of:
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* AbsurdlyCoolCity: Sarnath is like a Goth Xanadu crossed with Minas Tirith.
* AlienInvasion: The SufficientlyAdvancedAliens are waiting to reclaim what was rightfully theirs; the others have been here for millennia, but humans are simply unaware of their presence.
* TheAllConcealingI: "The Outsider", in which the narrator [[spoiler: is eventually revealed to be a sentient humanoid monster, although his exact nature (undead? humanoid abomination?) is never explained]].
* AlmightyIdiot: Azathoth, known to fans as the "Blind Idiot God". He created reality by accident, and will be equally oblivious when he destroys it.
* AmbiguousGender:
** In "The Hound" we know St. John is male because his narrator and partner in crime tells it. There is no telling, or even any hint, on the narrator's gender and role in the story: St. John's wife? Mistress? Male partner, associate or lover?[[note]]HPL [[http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/the-complicated-friendship-of-h-p-lovecraft-and-robert-barlow-one-of-his-biggest-fans did have some gay friends]] but seems to have been asexual if anything.[[/note]]
** "The Nameless City", "The Festival", "Ex Oblivione", "Cool Air", "The Music of Erich Zann", and "What the Moon Brings" likewise never explicitly state the gender of the protagonist.
* AndThenJohnWasAZombie: Pickman's alluded-to fate (later confirmed in ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath'') in "Pickman's Model" is an inversion: he does not, in fact, consider it a terrible fate at all.
* AngryFistShake: Done by the protagonist of "In the Walls of Eryx" in order to intimidate the Venusian natives. They're not exactly intimidated.
* AntiHero: His main recurring protagonist, Randolph Carter, does almost nothing to help anyone that doesn't benefit him directly in any of his stories. In fact, he seems to outright reject the idea that anything in human reality matters...[[AuthorAvatar perfectly mirroring Lovecraft's own views]] at least during his Decadent period. However, in ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath'', he repays the cats who saved him from the moon-beasts by alerting them to and helping them foil a Zoog raid. When he discovers three of the ghouls who helped him, captured and being tortured by said moon-beasts at the nameless rock near Sarkomand, he derails his own quest to summon the night-gaunts and the ghoul army to save them.
* ApocalypticLog:
** "The Hound", a short story about two grave robbers coming under a strange curse, ends with the final lines revealing [[spoiler:the entire story was a suicide note--the narrator could no longer cope with the unfathomable terror]].
** "In the Walls of Eryx" is the recordings of the final days of a space explorer and prospector trapped in an invisible maze on the planet Venus, running low in oxygen and water.
* ArcWords:
--> ''That is not dead which can eternal lie,\\
And with strange aeons even death may die.''
** Also:
-->''In his house at R'lyeh, dead Cthulhu waits dreaming.''
** You could compile a dictionary of Lovecraft's unique lexicon of overused words; [[http://arkhamarchivist.com/wordcount-lovecraft-favorite-words/ in fact, someone has]].
* ArtifactOfDeath: The Shining Trapezohedron from "The Haunter of the Dark". Gazing into it allows you to see into the audient void and learn things man was not meant to learn, but the downside is that it also summons an avatar of the god Nyarlathotep to hunt you down and kill/possess you.
* AttackOfTheMonsterAppendage: TheReveal of "Under the Pyramids" is that the five-headed creature that the narrator sees crawling out of the abyss (and which is implied to be the inspiration for the Sphinx) is merely the forepaw of some vastly larger EldritchAbomination.
* AuthorAppeal: Lovecraft liked cats, and included heroic/benign examples of them in some of his stories, a particular example being the army of cats which assists the protagonist in the novella ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath.'' He was also known to use as many adjectives as humanly possible. Old buildings (wholesome and not so much), great cities (ditto), and quaint villages (ditto) figure in nearly all his stories, and he never lost his love for ArabianNightsDays.
* AuthorAvatar: Abdul Alhazred and Randolph Carter particularly, although most of his protagonists were somewhat autobiographical.
* AuthorTract: "The Silver Key" consists almost entirely of his AuthorAvatar Randolph Carter, who is exactly like Lovecraft except that his family didn't lose its wealth and prestige, musing about all things wrong with the society. He bashes both religion and science for their obsession with order and structure, and declares that dreams are equal to reality, and that the only things worth valuing in a meaningless universe are beauty and harmony. The ending implies a romanticized view of suicide, as Carter abandons the Waking World, ironically in perfect opposite to the {{Aesop}} he was supposed to have learned in ''Literature/TheDreamQuestOfUnknownKadath''.
* AuthorVocabularyCalendar:
** Lovecraft seems to like a lot of adjectives, and many which are uncommon or archaic. Favorites include 'abnormal', 'accursed', 'blasphemous', 'cyclopean', 'daemoniac', 'eldritch', 'furtive', 'hideous', 'nameless' and 'shunned'. There are also some which he used only a few times, but are just so rare or obscure that fans associate them strongly with Lovecraft--such as 'gibbous', 'tenebrous', 'stygian', 'ululating', 'non-Euclidean', 'squamous', 'fungous, 'nitrous' and 'rugose'.
* BadassBookworm: Randolph Carter, featured in several of Lovecraft's best-known tales. A WWI veteran, having served from the first in the [[LegionOfLostSouls Foreign Legion of France]], he has great courage and resourcefulness despite his occasional tendency to swoon when things get too eldritch.
* BeethovenWasAnAlienSpy: "The Outsider" and "Under the Pyramids"[[note]]short story ghostwritten for Creator/HarryHoudini[[/note]] both mention in passing the female pharaoh [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitocris Nitocris]] as the ruler of a society of monsters and undead.
* BeneathTheEarth: "Pickman's Model" features an underground/cavern-dwelling non-human civilization.
* BittersweetEnding:
** The main character from ''The Outsider'' is forever separated both from humanity that he desperately wanted to join, and from the comforting oblivion of his previous existence. However, he finds a sort of contentment with others of his kind in the shadows beneath the Pyramids in Egypt.
** The protagonist of ''Celephais'' finds his CoolCity and rules it HappilyEverAfter as a god, but it's his DyingDream after falling off a cliff. In later stories he says he wishes it were more like his childhood home, Cornwall.
* BigBad: Multiple stories reference Elder/Outer Cthulhu, Azathoth, and Yog-Sothoth, all of whom are essentially powerful enough to destroy the known universe (Cthulhu being the only one bound to Earth, which he shall destroy in Lovecraft's universe).
* BlobMonster: The creatures in "He" and "The Unnameable" were described as being at least partially gelatinous.
* BodyHorror:
** In "Cool Air", the learned doctor melts. [[spoiler:He's actually been dead for years.]]
** "Under the Pyramids" suggests that a corrupt branch of the ancient Egyptian priesthood had made a practice of stitching together patchworks of human and animal corpses, in emulation of their animal-headed gods. Shadows of these mix-and-match mummies are seen moving across the walls, implying either that they're undead, or that the priests had scooped Dr. Frankenstein's breakthrough by millennia and brought their hybrids to life.
* BreatherEpisode: ''Celephais'' is quite pleasant, displaying none of the CosmicHorrorStory elements Lovecraft is famous for. It's about a man who, as a boy, dreams of exploring a fantastic, wonderful city, his 40-year long dream quest to find it again, and how he ends up ruling there forever after as a PhysicalGod. With the CruelTwistEnding -- depending on your point of view -- that the last part is [[spoiler: his DyingDream after falling off a cliff and drowning (then again, this is a tale of the Dreamlands, a real place in HPL's work, and we meet this guy in other stories).]]
* BuffySpeak: "Beyond The Wall of Sleep" features a man whose doctor recognizes as being possessed by some cosmic entity of superhuman intelligence who is struggling to express its metahuman thoughts and ideas through the man's backwoods brain and vocabulary.
-->"Big, big cabin with brightness in the roof and walls and floor, and the loud queer music far away..."
* BurnTheWitch: In "The Festival", the unburned corpse of a wizard (or, presumably, a witch) can give rise to [[TheWormThatWalks a walking humanoid mass of worms]], which collectively become host to the dead spellcaster's mind when they consume its rotting flesh. Why it's necessary to burn such people ''alive'' is not explained, however.
* CannibalClan: In "The Lurking Fear" the monsters terrorizing the town turn out to be descendants of a cannibalistic family, who have devolved into subhuman creatures by generations of inbreeding and living underground.
* CannibalismSuperpower: The focus of the old man's speculations in "The Picture in the House":
-->''"They say meat makes blood an' flesh, an' gives ye new life, so I wondered ef 'twudn't make a man live longer an' longer ef 'twas more the same--"''
* CannibalLarder: In the short story "The Picture in the House," the narrator realizes that his host's talk of historical cannibalism is not purely academic when blood soaks through the ceiling and drips onto the titular picture.
* CessationOfExistence:
** "Ex Oblivione", where the protagonist discovered that oblivion was the natural state of things, and that 'existence', as it is known, is merely a brief nightmare...
** In "The Quest of Iranon", the main character is told of such oblivion in terms of similar optimism by the people in one of the towns he visits. When Iranon himself dies at the end the issue of what becomes of him is not spoken of, and the variance and flexibility of Lovecraft's contradictory cosmology and mythos leaves the question open.
* ChangelingTale: The narrator of "Pickman's Model" is particularly disturbed by a painting depicting a ghoul changeling participating in family prayers with his unknowing human hosts. And also by the companion piece, a painting of the stolen human child being taught to feed like its ghoul "parents" do.
* ChinaTakesOverTheWorld:
** "Nyarlathotep" shows a future resembling a ZombieApocalypse with "yellow evil faces peering from behind fallen monuments" instead of zombies.
** In "He", a visitor is given a glimpse of a hellish future New York: ''" the heavens verminous with strange flying things, and beneath them a hellish black city of giant stone terraces with impious pyramids flung savagely to the moon, and devil-lights burning from unnumbered windows. And swarming loathsomely on aërial galleries I saw the yellow, squint-eyed people of that city, robed horribly in orange and red, and dancing insanely to the pounding of fevered kettle-drums, the clatter of obscene crotala, and the maniacal moaning of muted horns whose ceaseless dirges rose and fell undulantly like the waves of an unhallowed ocean of bitumen."'' This would likely be considered very racist by even the most conservative people today.
* ChristmasEpisode: Lovecraft managed to work his own unique version of a Christmas Episode into the Cthulhu Mythos with a short story called "The Festival", set in a picturesque New England town during the Yule season. This being Lovecraft, expect Eldritch Abominations and terrors aplenty.
* CityOfGold: Several of the Dreamlands' cities are described in terms of the exotic and precious materials from which their streets, wharfs, or buildings are made.
* CityWithNoName: The city in "The Nameless City" (namedropped in many other Franchise/CthulhuMythos stories) is an odd case; its "real" name, if it ever had one, is unknown, but characters and fans pretty much turn the phrase "The Nameless City" into its NonindicativeName.
* CoolMask: The horrible [[spoiler:[[TheWormThatWalks worm-monster-horrors masquerading as people]]]] in "The Festival" wear waxen masks.
* CorruptHick: "Beyond the Wall of Sleep".
* CrisisOfFaith: Randolph Carter goes through this in "The Silver Key". Carter has lost the ability to go to the Dreamlands, and without that experience, life isn't worth living. Fortunately he finds a way, by starting his life over from childhood.
* {{Cult}}
** "Under the Pyramids".
** "The Horror at Red Hook".
* DarkIsNotEvil: Ghouls and Nightgaunts that inhabit the Underworld in Lovecraft's Dreamlands are a far cry from pure evil, and compared to the monsters inhabiting the outer voids they are downright cuddly. While they can be dangerous to any unprepared traveller who goes too near to the caves the Nightgaunts are set to guard, they can befriend and give aid to human dreamers. If you don't mind their habit of eating rotting human corpses stolen from the cemetaries of the Waking World, they can be downright amiable lot, once you learn to know them.
* DarknessEqualsDeath: "The Haunter of the Dark" features a monster that can be hurt or banished by light, and which goes after the protagonist during a thunderstorm that knocks out the lights.
* DarkIsEvil: A plot point in ''The Haunter of The Dark'', the monster of the story is repelled by light, but is indestructible in the dark.
* DaylightHorror: "Cool Air":
-->''It is a mistake to fancy that horror is associated inextricably with darkness, silence, and solitude. I found it in the glare of mid-afternoon, in the clangour of a metropolis, and in the teeming midst of a shabby and commonplace rooming-house with a prosaic landlady and two stalwart men by my side.''
* DeathOfAChild: In ''The Horror at Red Hook'', Malone sees an old lady teaching a child one of the evil chants used by the cultists.
* DidWeJustHaveTeaWithCthulhu: In "Through the Gates of the Silver Key", Randolph Carter gets to have a friendly chat with Yog-Sothoth.
* {{Dissimile}}: Played for horror in "The Festival".
-->''They were not altogether crows, nor moles, nor buzzards, nor ants, nor vampire bats, nor decomposed human beings; but something I cannot and must not recall.''
* DoomyDoomsOfDoom: Unsurprisingly, a motif in "The Doom That Came to Sarnath", sometimes in all-caps:
-->''And before he died, Taran-Ish had scrawled upon the altar of chrysolite with coarse shaky strokes the sign of DOOM.''
* DreamLand: Lovecraft's Dream Cycle stories, inspired by the works of Creator/LordDunsany, are set in a world which can be entered through dreams. ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath'' suggests that each planet has its own dream land, and there are some locations where the dream land and waking world intersect.
%%* DreamingOfTimesGoneBy
* DrugsAreGood: Hashish is a helpful adjunct to exploring the Dreamlands in the short story "Celephais".
* DugTooDeep: "The Transition of Juan Romero" has miners blasting a new area open for work, only to find a bottomless cavern, a horrible pounding noise, and ''God, I dare not tell you what I saw!''
* FamousFamousFictional: "The Nameless City" has an example of famous-fictional-fictional, where the first name is real and the rest are continuity nods to "The Doom That Came to Sarnath":
-->''To myself I pictured all the splendours of an age so distant that Chaldaea could not recall it, and thought of Sarnath the Doomed, that stood in the land of Mnar when mankind was young, and of Ib, that was carven of grey stone before mankind existed.''
* FearOfThunder: In "The Lurking Fear", the Martense clan [[spoiler:and their Morlock-like degenerate descendants]] share the hereditary trait of being driven to frenzied, violent panic by thunderstorms.
* AFeteWorseThanDeath: The titular winter solstice rite beneath the town of Kingsport in "The Festival". [[spoiler:The town is made up of [[TheWormThatWalks monstrous worm creatures]] posing as human who, yearly, go beneath the earth to engage in [[ReligionOfEvil various unspeakable rites]].]] However, it is never made clear [[OrWasItADream whether or not the protagonist was dreaming]].
* FireKeepsItDead: From "The Festival":
-->"Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say, that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain, and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes."
* FictionalReligion: Lovecraft's fiction abounds with strange gods and creatures, an entirely fictive cosmos whose deities are merely advanced alien and/or interdimensional beings who cannot be understood by human minds.
* ForeignLanguageTitle: "Ex Oblivione" ("From Oblivion" in Latin).
* ForTheEvulz: Nyarlathotep, one of the few {{Eldritch Abomination}}s who seems to take active interest in humanity, seems to love messing with people just because he can. Although in some stories he is simply the guardian of hidden lore, in ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath,'' he's intentionally cruel. In the prose poem "Nyarlathotep," he tours the country driving people insane with scientific exhibitions. His purpose is never clear. In general, he's so powerful that his cruel actions are analogous to a child burning ants with a magnifying glass.
* FrazettaMan: The nameless tribe of "white apes" from "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family". Unusually for this trope, they're not actually portrayed as doing anything "evil", the titular character's ultimately suicidal revulsion seems to stem entirely from the revelation that [[spoiler:his great-great-great-grandmother was a princess from that tribe]].
* GeniusLoci: "The Street".
-->''There be those who say that things and places have souls, and there be those who say they have not; I dare not say, myself, but I will tell of the Street.''
* GiantFlyer: The byakhee from "The Festival".
* GlassesPull: "The Curse of Yig".
-->''Dr. [=McNeill=] paused here and removed his glasses, as if a blurring of the objective world might make the reminiscent vision clearer.''
* GoMadFromTheRevelation: Occurs on a global scale in "Nyarlathotep", which tells of one man [[spoiler:(although he's really a messenger for the god of chaos)]] revealing such cosmic secrets that [[spoiler:entire cities are driven mad and civilisation collapses]].
* GraveRobbing: The antiheroes of "The Hound" are a pair of ghoulish guys who rob graves for fun.
* HalfHumanHybrid: An unusually unnatural version, even by the standards of Lovecraft, the man-made anthromorphic animal mummies from Under The Pyramids, created in a blasphemous ritual to emulate the Egyptian pantheon, and rejected by all sane divine forces.
* HaveYouTriedNotBeingAMonster: Robert M. Price has hypothesized that "The Outsider" carries this subtext, however unintentionally.
* HellHound: "The Hound".
* HereditaryCurse: In "The Alchemist", Charles Le Sorcier utters a curse against his father's murderer, with each person in the bloodline being [[YourDaysAreNumbered killed at the age of 32]]. [[spoiler:It is caused by someone living that long and manually ensuring their deaths.]] The last of the line, Antoine, breaks the curse after careful study about the terms, and exploring the castle that he inherited.
* HeterosexualLifePartners:
** St John and ''The Hound'''s anonymous narrator.
** Randolph Carter and Harley Warren, in "The Statement of Randolph Carter".
** The dudes from "Hypnos" (though their case borders on ChastityCouple)...
** In "Pickman's Model", Thurber might have had such a relationship with Richard Pickman if not for realizing how insane he was.
* HigherUnderstandingThroughDrugs:
** In the Dreamlands story "Celephais", the dreamer uses hashish because he wants to get back to Celephais, and ends up going everywhere ''but'' there.
** In "Hypnos", the narrator and his companion must consume unnamed illegal drugs to astral travel to forbidden dreamscapes. Later they end up relying on drugs to stay awake to keep away the horrors they unwittingly summoned.
* HillbillyHorrors:
** In "The Lurking Fear", it turns out the "monsters" are [[spoiler:the cannibalistic descendants of a single family so heavily inbred they have all but turned into goblins]].
** "The Picture in the House" is set in "the ancient, lonely farmhouses of backwoods New England; for there the dark elements of strength, solitude, grotesqueness, and ignorance combine to form the perfection of the hideous."
* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Lovecraft has become one in the end of the 20th and early 21st Century. He appears in many comics and stories. He's the subject of Creator/AlanMoore's SidelongGlanceBiopic ''ComicBook/{{Providence}}''.
* HumanitysWake: In "Memory", a demon and genie idly contemplate a number of apes who frolic in ancient ruins. The demon eventually remembers that the apes are the descendants of an older race called "man", the original builders of the ruins.
* HumanoidAbomination: The monstrous hybrid mummies from Under The Pyramids.
* HumansAreCthulhu: In "Through the Gates of the Silver Key", the second half deals with a space alien named Zkauba being [[spoiler:posessed]] by the human sorcerer Randolph Carter, and who is "...disgusted by the thought of the repellant Earth-mammal" until Carter discovers a way to [[spoiler:suppress Zkauba's personality entirely, and then proceeds to enter suspended animation until his host's homeworld is cold and dead, then travel thousands of lightyears to earth just so he can try to return to his body shortly after he left it, all while holding Zkauba prisoner in his own body.]]
* ImAHumanitarian: ''The Picture in the House'' involves the discovery of a CannibalLarder.
* ImpossiblyMundaneExplanation: In "The Alchemist", men of the narrator's family all die at the age of 32, supposedly due to a curse laid on the family by the son of an alchemist one of his ancestors killed 600 years ago. While researching the curse he dismisses the possibility that his ancestors were assassinated by descendants of the alchemist [[spoiler:but it turns out that the alchemist's son has, in fact, been murdering them by assorted means over the centuries. This entails him having invented an elixir of immortality so that he could stick around and see the job done, so it's not entirely a mundane solution]].
* INeedAFreakingDrink: The narrator of "Pickman's Model", increasingly, as he recounts the lovely horrors he encountered in his acquaintance with the titular artist.
* InhumanHuman:
** In "Cool Air", a [[MadScientist supremely talented Spanish physician]] had revived himself after being dead, but unless he "lives" at low temperature, below 56 °F (13 °C), his body [[BodyHorror would decompose itself]] like a corpse, and even during this "life" there is [[UncannyValley something repugnant in his appearance]]. He eventually dies a second death when his refrigeration system breaks down, but for many months before his appearance had already become scary to people and his mind drifted.
* InsectoidAliens: "Beyond the Wall of Sleep" makes mention of "the insect-philosophers that crawl proudly over the fourth moon of Jupiter".
* InterspeciesRomance: In "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family", it is intimated that [[spoiler:Sir Wade Jermyn and his white ape bride]] loved each other very dearly, even if the story as a whole plays such a romance as being a thing of utter deviancy.
* InvasionOfTheBabySnatchers: The ghouls in "Pickman's Model" steal children, occasionally leaving young ghouls who can pass as human in their place.
* ItsTheOnlyWayToBeSure:
** In "The Picture in the House", just as it dawns on the protagonist what horrifying events have transpired in the eponymous house, the house is blasted by a bolt of lightning from the heavens.
** The epilogue paragraphs of "The Lurking Fear" have the main character hiring a team to dynamite the mansion the story centers on, a significant portion of the surrounding forest, and any caves or tunnels they can find. He still worries that it won't be enough.
* TheJuggernaut: The titular creature in "The Hound" slowly but constantly pursues the protagonist, who stole an amulet from a tomb. The only thing that ever slows it down is a second theft of its amulet, and after dealing with that thief it immediately returns to the protagonist (who eventually decides he would rather commit suicide than be caught by it).
* KeeperOfForbiddenKnowledge: Nyarlathotep is characterized like this in most of his appearances. In "The Haunter of the Dark" he is a gatekeeper to secrets beyond human ken, and must be appeased with human sacrifices in order to relinquish some of this knowledge. In his original appearance in the prose-poem "Nyarlathotep", he instead grants humanity information in abundance as a figure of science, leading to the entire world [[GoMadFromTheRevelation Going Mad From The Revelation]].
* KillerGorilla: "Facts Concerning The Late Arthur Jermyn" mentions that one of Jermyn's ancestors, a circus performer whose act consisted of a mock boxing match against a gorilla, was brutally killed by it after he had a breakdown and assaulted it after it accidentally punched him too hard during practice.
* LampshadeHanging:
** "[[http://www.dagonbytes.com/thelibrary/lovecraft/theunnamable.htm The Unnamable]]" is kind of a spoof of Lovecraft's own tendency towards making his monsters indescribable, incomprehensible, or, indeed, unnameable.
** "[[https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Reminiscence_of_Dr._Samuel_Johnson A Reminiscence of Dr. Samuel Johnson]]" is basically a long exercise in Lovecraft poking fun at himself for his tendency at PurpleProse and SesquipedalianLoquaciousness.
* LegionOfLostSouls: "The Silver Key" mentions that [[BadassBookworm Randolph Carter]] served in the Legion from the beginning of WW I. He was nearly killed near Belloy-en-Santerre in 1916.
* LighthousePoint: The narrator of "The White Ship" is a lighthouse keeper, and it's implied that the solitude either a) made him more sensitive to the supernatural or b) affected his sanity.
* LightningReveal: In "The Lurking Fear", the first chapter ends with the narrator realizing that something other than one of his human companions was snuggled up to him on a cot in a reputedly haunted house when it gets up suddenly and a flash of lightning casts its shadow on the wall he's facing.
* TheLittleShopThatWasntThereYesterday: "The Music of Erich Zann" features a variation of this trope: the protagonist is never able to find the ''street'' he lived by ever again, after the events of the story, despite the fact that he had a normal landlord, and the street had many other inhabitants, as well.
* LivingShadow: In "The Haunter of the Dark", the eponymous being appears to be some type of a shadowy creature (with wings, tentacles and a three-lobed burning eye). Its weakness is light (a little light hurts it, bright light will banish it).
* LizardFolk:
** In "The Nameless City", the denizens of the Nameless City are very reptilian.
** In "In the Walls of Eryx", the Venusians are described as lizards.
* LongTitle: "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family". To Lovecraft's distaste, it was retitled "The White Ape" when it was first published. Simply shortened to "Arthur Jermyn" in the Del Rey anthology.
* LostRomanLegion: In ''[[http://www.hplovecraft.com/writings/texts/fiction/vof.aspx The Very Old Folk.]]''
* MadArtist:
** "Pickman's Model". Richard Pickman is an artist who is obsessed with painting grotesque pictures, and can produce extremely lifelike and frightening portraits of inhuman monsters [[spoiler:because he uses real ghouls as his models]].
** "The Music of Erich Zann". Erich Zann seems somewhat crazy. He spends most of his time locked up in his apartment, playing his cello, and doesn't let anybody else hear him play. He does that because he believes that his music is the only thing that keeps {{Eldritch Abomination}}s from entering our dimension through his bedroom window. This being Lovecraft, he turns out to be right.
* MadGod: Azathoth, who also happens to be the TopGod in the Mythos. Which fits perfectly with Lovecraft's idea of an uncaring and indifferent universe where mankind is utterly insignificant.
* MadwomanInTheAttic:
** In "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family", some earlier members of the Jermyn family are said to have been kept out of public sight. However, as for the key figure of the great-great-great-grandmother of Arthur, she turns out not to have been insane so much as [[spoiler:not a human being at all]].
** In "The Unnamable", what was kept in the attic was some super-vague... [[UltimateEvil thing]]; a HumanoidAbomination MixAndMatchCritter whose appearance caused someone to GoMadFromTheRevelation. Its relationship to the people keeping it there was also vague. Then it had died and become [[EldritchAbomination even weirder]].
* MagicMusic: In "The Music of Erich Zann", the music Zann plays has power to hold back an unearthly threat.
* MaybeMagicMaybeMundane : ''The Night Ocean'' is maybe just the tale of an impressionable lonely painter having a bout of depression on his vacation as autumn comes.
* MonstrousCannibalism: At the end of "The Lurking Fear", one of the odd-eyed subterranean monstrosities turns on a weaker companion and eats it. To the narrator's eyes, it looks like a routine practice.
* MorePredatorsThanPrey: In "The Lurking Fear", the mutated deformed cannibals number in the dozens, if not hundreds, while their abode is rather isolated and the number of people who fall victim to them is small. (It's hinted, though, that they have no problem preying on each other...)
* TheMorlocks:
** The creatures in "The Lurking Fear" are somewhat like Morlocks as they are carnivorous de-evolved apelike humans. However, [[spoiler:it's not social class and evolution that turned them into this, but [[CannibalClan generations of inbreeding]]]].
** One of HPL's earliest stories, "The Beast in the Cave", tells of an encounter between a lost cave-explorer and an ape-like subterranean creature he ''thinks'' is this trope. [[spoiler:At least, until the dying creature utters a few final sounds, revealing itself to be an ordinary man who'd been lost in the vast, pitch-black caverns so long that he'd reverted to animal-like behavior.]]
* MuggingTheMonster: "The Terrible Old Man". Some burglars decided to go for an easy target: that weird old retired sea captain who lives on the edge of town, has a garden full of creepy statues, and talks to a collection of jars with little pendulums inside. It doesn't go well for the burglars.
* NightmareFetishist: "The Hound" stars two people who spend their days collecting whatever ghastly things they can find, from TomesOfEldritchLore to corpses.
* NothingIsScarier: In "The Music of Erich Zann", the horror of that story lies not in any kind of monster, but a vague sense of something horrible and unknowable lurking outside the window.
* OfficerOHara: There's a scene in "The Haunter of the Dark" where the protagonist is researching a local desecrated chapel, and is told that all the Catholics in the area know the story behind it. So he asks the nearest police officer, "a great wholesome Irishman."
* OntologicalMystery: "The Outsider". A man has lived his whole life in a dark castle beneath an all-enclosing forest that blocks out the sky. Yet, he feels strangely that he has not always been there...
* OrWasItADream: The narrator of Under The Pyramids belives what he saw beneath the pyramids was just a mad dream brought on by his obsessive reading of egyptology prior to his trip and the trauma he endured leading up to him being trapped inside the tunnels but part of him cannot forget that his mysterious guide that no one else seems to remember, had a disturbing likeness to Pharaoh Khefren, the face upon the Sphinx.
* OurGhoulsAreDifferent: In "Pickman's Model" and ''The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath'', Lovecraft popularized his own version of ghouls as a secretive living species, rather than undead or demons. In "Pickman's Model", ghouls are depicted as horrible and potentially dangerous canine-humanoids, capable of growing to titanic sizes, who live in a complicated network of underground tunnels and raid graves for food from the bottom up. They also leave their own young as changelings in the place of human children. The young ghoul grows up to resemble a human, but retains a ghoulish mindset, while the fate of the human child is vague. Ghouls also apparently have a morbid sense of humor.
* OurLichesAreDifferent: "The Festival" suggests that a sufficiently skilled sorcerer can attain life after death by transferring his consciousness to the maggots that have eaten his corpse and living on as a man-shaped pile of creepy crawlies.
* PerfectPacifistPeople: Made fun of in the poem, "Pacifist War Song."
* PettingZooPeople: Played for horror in "Under the Pyramids".
-->''Heaven take it away! Hippopotami should not have human hands and carry torches... men should not have the heads of crocodiles...''
* PiecesOfGod: In "Through the Gates of the Silver Key", Randolph Carter learns that all conscious beings are actually tiny aspects of Eldritch Abominations outside time and space, granted the illusion of individuality by their limited perception of the universe. Facing the Great Old One Yog-Sothoth, he realizes that he and it are the same being.
* RedemptionEqualsDeath: Or possibly, Redemption ''Requires'' Death - although it's ambiguous. In "The Horror at Red Hook", the corpse of Robert Suydam reanimates itself somehow and pushes a golden pillar into the ocean, severely disrupting a cult/smuggling ring's operations.
* RedEyesTakeWarning: "The Haunter of the Dark". The titular monster has a red, three-lobed, burning eye.
* ReligiousHorror: The existence of Azatoth is almost worse than the concept of GodIsEvil. The creator of our universe is little more than a mindless force, with no ability to care one way or the other about the goings on of its creation. He is not good or evil or even just alien like the Elder Gods, he simply Is.
* ReluctantMonster: In "The Outsider", [[spoiler:the main character is one, if only for a minute. He spends most of his life completely alone, thinking he's human. When he finally does meet other people, they run away in terror, and he even terrifies himself when he sees his reflection. He quickly decides to just go with it]].
* ReptilesAreAbhorrent: "The Nameless City".
* TheReptilians:
** "The Nameless City": The denizens of the Nameless City are described as "an unnamed race of reptiles with a body shaped like a cross between a crocodile and a seal with a strange head common to neither, involving a protruding forehead, horns, lack of a nose and an alligator-like jaw".
** "In the Walls of Eryx": The Venusians are described as reptilian.
* RetiredMonster: The title character of "The Terrible Old Man" is implied to be one. Pieced together from the meager hints of the story, he appears to be a former pirate captain who through black magic keeps the souls of his former crew captive in jars on his desk. Unlucky burglars discover the hard way how a feeble, old man with no bank account, who pays for his meager purchases with old gold coins can live quietly without fear of being robbed.
* TheReveal:
** ''Facts Concerning The Late Arthur Jermyn'': [[spoiler: The Jermyn family are descended from the union between the great-great-great-grandfather Wade Jermyn and an intelligent, humanoid ape.]]
** ''The Outsider'': [[spoiler: The main character is some form of undead, and was not aware of it]]
* RobbingTheDead: In "The Hound", two self-described ghouls remove an amulet from an infamous grave. The amulet's owner is less than happy about this.
* ScareEmStraight: Lovecraft, a teetotaler in real-life, wrote a joking example of an anti-drinking screed in his comedic short story "Old Bugs".
* SceneryPorn: Combined with DevelopingDoomedCharacters, or in this case, Doomed Cities, ''The Doom That Came To Sarnath'' is over ''half'' lavish description of what a strange, wondrous, beautiful, amazing city it is. Details and grand vistas alike are rendered as only Lovecraft's PurpleProse can do. All, of course, so the eventual doom is all the more horrific for the fact that it is barely described at all.
* SharedUnusualTrait: The horribly inbred Martense clan from "The Lurking Fear" all have brown-and-blue eyes. [[spoiler:This is the tip-off that the swarm of Humanoid Abominations haunting the area actually consists of their offspring]].
* ShoutOut:
** Clark Ashton Smith, [[http://www.dagonbytes.com/thelibrary/lovecraft/imprisonedwithpharaos.htm Harry Houdini]] and some of Lovecraft's other friends became characters in his stories.
** Robert Blake in "The Haunter of the Dark" is modeled on Lovecraft's young admirer Creator/RobertBloch. There's also a character named Howard who is a recluse in Providence ends up dying in one of Bloch's stories. "The Haunter of the Dark" even references that story. Both stories also begin with dedications to the other author, and involve the other dying horribly.
* SinisterGeometry: The shining trapezohedron from "The Haunter of the Dark".[[note]]A [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trapezohedron trapezonhedron]] is a prism with kite-shaped sides. A ten-sided die is an example.[[/note]] Gazing into this alien artefact will grant you visions from beyond our world, but also summons the titular monster, an avatar of the Crawling Chaos Nyarlathotep, to kill or possess you.
* SinisterMinister: The title character of "The Evil Clergyman", a mysterious man with a decidedly Anglican attire who appears to have cast his soul into a matchbox-like object in an act of pre-suicidal sorcery, later attempting to completely usurp anyone that handles said object.
* SinsOfOurFathers: "The Doom that Came to Sarnath" takes a thousand years.
* SpaceClothes: Toyed with in "In the Walls of Eryx", taking place in the wet jungles of a pulp Venus. The planet-hopping protagonist grouses in his diary about his sturdy leather suit, wishing for something made of indestructible shiny metal foil instead.
* SpellMyNameWithABlank: In "The Alchemist", written in Lovecraft's late teens, the narrator's last name is blanked out; he only refers to himself as "Antoine de C-".
* SpookyPainting:
** In "The Picture in the House", the eponymous picture depicts a cannibal banquet. [[spoiler:The really creepy bit is the implication that its owner is himself a cannibal.]]
** "Pickman's Model" concerns a meeting with the infamous artist in the title, who creates works such as "Ghoul Feeding" that are so disturbing that he can't even donate them to art museums, and then shows the narrator a private gallery of monstrous portraits that make him scream out loud. The ''real'' creepy part comes at the end when the narrator notices a reference photograph stuck next to a work-in-progress: [[spoiler:Pickman doesn't have a twisted imagination -- he has ghouls come in and sit for him in his basement studio.]]
* StealthParody: According to the editor's notes in the collection ''The Call of Cthulhu and Other Weird Stories'', "The Hound" has been criticized for being overwritten, but the [[PurpleProse over-the-top prose]] was intentional as part of an attempt at self-parody.
* SugarBowl: The Dreamland stories. Sona-Nyl, Celephais and Aira are all described in these terms. And even Randolph Carter, having just endured innumerable horrors after his ascent of Mt. Ngranek, gets a break as he heads for Thran to catch a ship to Celephais:
--> Well did the traveller know those garden lands that lie betwixt the wood of the Cerenerian Sea, and blithely did he follow the singing river Oukranos that marked his course. The sun rose higher over gentle slopes of grove and lawn, and heightened the colours of the thousand flowers that starred each knoll and dingle. A blessed haze lies upon all this region, wherein is held a little more of the sunlight than other places hold, and a little more of the summer's humming music of birds and bees; so that men walk through it as through a faery place, and feel greater joy and wonder than they ever afterward remember.
* SummoningArtifact: The Shining Trapezohedron in "The Haunter of the Dark" summons the titular Haunter, an avatar of Nyarlathotep (it also gives you visions of the Outer Void and of its own history, but summoning an EldritchAbomination is clearly its main function).
* SuspiciouslySpecificDenial: "The Haunter of the Dark" opens with a couple of paragraphs explaining that the general consensus is that Robert Blake was killed by lightning. Sure, the window was closed, but maybe lightning can do that. And the expression on his face was probably just because of a muscle spasm, not anything he saw. His diary entries were just based on local legends (sure, he also said he didn't know anything about them, but who believes that?), and the deserted church was obviously vandalized by pranksters with whom he was somehow connected. The well-respected doctor who read Blake's diaries and subsequently broke into the church, grabbed the stone and the metal box from out of the windowless black steeple and dumped them in the bay was just a crazy fanatic. Clearly.
* TakeThat: New York. Lovecraft ''hated'' New York and made it apparent. If you want to know what he thought of New York, read "He" and "The Horror At Red Hook".
* TheTeetotaler: Lovecraft was one of these, though he had enough of a sense of humor about it to write "Old Bugs" a short parody of ScareEmStraight anti-drinking screeds.
* ThresholdGuardian: In "Beyond the Gates of the Silver Key", [[EldritchAbomination Yog-Sothoth]] appears as a literal threshold guardian on Randolph Carter's astral journey, marking the point where Carter must choose between returning to his normal life or exploring the universe (but risking never getting back).
* ThroughTheEyesOfMadness: "Hypnos" leaves it extremely open whether the narrator's nameless "friend" ever really existed or was simply [[spoiler:a marble statue he may have found and taken home someday]] all along.
* TimeAbyss:
** In "The Haunter of the Dark", the protagonist writes down the history of an [[ArtifactOfDoom ancient artifact]] after gazing into it. Said artifact was originally created on planet Yuggoth, and came into the possession of the Elder Things on Earth billions of years ago. Later it was worshiped by a race of serpent-men in [[Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian ancient Hyperborea]], until it was lost for millions of years before being found by the first humans in Lemuria and millennia later again in ancient Egypt, where the eponymous Avatar of the god Nyarlathotep was given its familiar name, and was involved in the fall of an entire dynasty. A few thousand years later it was found in the ruins of a temple and brought to Providence, where an occult cult formed around it.
** The eponymous city in "The Nameless City".
* TopGod: Azathoth and Yog-Sothoth.
* TomatoInTheMirror:
** ''The Outsider'' is a first person point-of-view story that follows a mysterious lonely individual who cannot remember coming in contact with people. It features an actual Mirror.
** "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family".
* TomeOfEldritchLore: The Necronomicon, trope popularizer.
* TotalEclipseOfThePlot: A total eclipse of the moon happens at the climax of "The Other Gods", along with a rumble of thunder from a clear sky, when Barzai the Wise attempts to see the gods of the Earth with his own eyes. He failed to take the other Gods into consideration, and was never seen again. The implication was that it wasn't Earth's shadow hiding the moon as usual, but something humongous and otherworldly coming to punish Barzai for his transgression...
* TownWithADarkSecret: Kingsport in "The Festival".
* TheTropeWithoutATitle:
** "The Nameless City".
** Lovecraft used this trope so much that he lampshaded it in "The Unnameable", which not only embodies the trope but discusses it at length.
* {{Tuckerization}}: In "The Haunter of the Dark", a character named Robert Blake meets a terrible fate. The story is a sequel to Creator/RobertBloch's "The Shambler from the Stars", in which Bloch (with Lovecraft's permission) inflicted a similarly horrible fate on a fictionalized version of Lovecraft.
* TwoFaced: The Egyptian Queen Nitokris, as described in "Under the Pyramids":
-->''By his side knelt beautiful Queen Nikotris, whom I saw in profile for a moment, noting that the right half of her face was eaten away by rats or other ghouls.''
* {{Unobtainium}}: The "crystals" on Venus in "In the Walls of Eryx." Like their later namesake, they are a super energy source for humans but have a mysterious psychic or religious value to the planet's natives.
* VenusIsWet: "In the Walls of Eryx", one of his ventures into straight science fiction, is set on a Venus that has a tropical climate and is filled with lush, swampy jungles. The atmosphere is not human-breathable however and the protagonist mentions having to wear a breathing mask and periodically changing filter cartridges.
* VillainProtagonist: The scornful, heartless, exploitative crystal thief in "In the Walls of Eryx." He comes to a bad end.
* WasOnceAMan:
** The title monster from "The Beast in the Cave" turns out to be a human who reverted to an animalistic state after being lost alone in the cave for years.
** "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and his Family".
** The Martense family in "The Lurking Fear", so inbred and degenerate now that one might not realize they were ever human.
* WeakenedByTheLight: In the "The Haunter of the Dark", the titular being (an avatar of Nyarlathotep) has an extreme aversion to light. Any light will harm it and strong enough light will destroy it. In the end it is destroyed by a flash of lightning.
* WeirdnessCensor: In "The Nameless City" the narrator attributes the wall-art showing the lizard/seal things to be symbolic of early humans and/or the gods they worshiped. Even after seeing wall-art of the lizards killing a human, it takes a while for the point to sink in.
* WhatMeasureIsANonHuman: Any non-human intelligent species appearing in his works will almost invariably be hideous and monstrously evil. Examples include the Deep Ones, the Mi-Go and the Shoggoth. Even non-violent species, such as [[spoiler: the white ape ancestor of the Jermyn family]] are treated as revolting for the sole crime of not being human.
** Averted with the Elder Things, who are described as "men of another form", and with the Great Race of Yith, who are portrayed as highly civilized and intelligent. Unfortunately, their mind-breakingly hideous forms are still highly distressing to humans.
** Initially played straight with the ghouls of "Pickman's Model," but the human protagonist of "The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath" considers them helpful -- if unsettling -- allies.
* WhereWhere: Played for drama in "The Outsider". The protagonist, who has lived alone as far back as he can remember, goes in search of human company, and finds a castle where a party is going on. As he enters, the entire party flees in terror.
-->''The cries were shocking; and as I stood in the brilliant apartment alone and dazed, listening to their vanishing echoes, I trembled at the thought of what might be lurking near me unseen.''
* TheWormThatWalks: One common interpretation of the ending of "The Festival", though it could just as easily refer to a maggot-infested corpse, or a single huge worm.
-->''Wisely did Ibn Schacabao say, that happy is the tomb where no wizard hath lain, and happy the town at night whose wizards are all ashes. For it is of old rumour that the soul of the devil-bought hastes not from his charnel clay, but fats and instructs the very worm that gnaws; till out of corruption horrid life springs, and the dull scavengers of earth wax crafty to vex it and swell monstrous to plague it. Great holes secretly are digged where earth's pores ought to suffice, and things have learnt to walk that ought to crawl.''
* WretchedHive: New York City is presented like this in "The Horror of Red Hook" and "He", mainly because of all the immigration.
* YellowPeril: In "He", a man travels into the future and sees New York filled with scary Asian people.
* YouFool: Used in "The Statement of Randolph Carter". Harley Warren goes exploring in an underground tomb that he believes contains a mystic portal, while Carter waits at the entrance as backup. [[spoiler:Warren discovers something that causes him to frantically call for Carter to close up the tomb and run for his life, then falls silent. Carter calls out to Warren, and in reply hears an utterly inhuman voice, which says, ''"You fool, Warren is dead!"''.]]
* YourDaysAreNumbered: "The Alchemist" features a HereditaryCurse in which each victim dies at the age of 32.
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