[[quoteright:239:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Kafkaresize.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:239:A book must be the axe for the frozen sea inside us.]]

->''"Anyone who cannot come to terms with his life while he is alive needs one hand to ward off a little his despair over his fate... but with his other hand he can note down what he sees among the ruins."''

Franz Kafka (1883-1924) was one of the major German-language fiction writers of the 20th century. His unique body of writing--much of which is incomplete and was mainly published posthumously--is among the most influential in Western literature. His stories, such as ''Literature/TheMetamorphosis'' (1915), and novels, including ''The Trial'' (1925) and ''The Castle'' (1926), concern troubled individuals in a nightmarishly impersonal, modern, and bureaucratic world.

Not to be confused with Creator/FrankCapra or [[VideoGame/FinalFantasyVI Kefka]]. And most certainly not [[SayonaraZetsubouSensei Kafuka Fuura]].
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!!This author's work includes examples of:
* AmbiguouslyJewish: Kafka's work doesn't directly ever reference his Jewish background, but the Jewish angst somehow seems to seep through anyway.
* AlternateCharacterInterpretation: In-work in ''The Trial'' when the prison chaplain tells Josef the story [[https://records.viu.ca/~Johnstoi/kafka/beforethelaw.htm "Before the Law."]] Is the gatekeeper an ObstructiveBureaucrat who misled the man into keeping him out until he was too old to enter, or is he a [[WhatMeasureIsAMook tragic hero]] beholden to the Law while the man is free to enter, but chooses not to?[[invoked]]
* AuthorAvatar: A lot of his characters at least share some traits with him, such as a domineering father and a creative desire stifled by the doldrums of everyday life.
* AuthorExistenceFailure - None of his major works were finished. What's more, Kafka never intended to publish any of it and only wrote as a sort of personal therapy. He asked his good friend Max Brod to burn his works after his death, but when Brod refused to do this to his face Kafka never bothered to find another person to care for the copies instead. Apparently he wasn't THAT bothered by the prospect of being outlived by his work.
* BewilderingPunishment: The central point of ''The Trial''
* BodyHorror - Some of his characters are physically marred by the traumas they undergo.
* CallingTheOldManOut - Almost. ''Letter to His Father'', which was never given to his dad.
* ChewToy - The protagonists of his books hardly ever seem able to catch a break.
** Karl Rossman, protagonist of ''Amerika'', unwillingly gets the family maid pregnant, gets sent off to America by his father without any practical skills he could make a decent living with, finds a long-lost uncle, only to be thrown out after he vistits an acquaintence against his uncle's will, gets a alright job as a lift boy, is dismissed due to the Head Porter who has it in for Karl because he does't greet the Porter politely and regularly, falls in with rogues (not the lovable kind), etc.
* CrapsackWorld
* DeadArtistsAreBetter - the titular character from "The Hunger Artist." Not to mention Kafka himself.
** Subverted in "Josephine the Singer", though: after she, representing culture in general, dies, nobody will remember her.
* {{Determinator}} - K in ''The Castle''. Deconstructed: All his efforts are in vain. He would be happier if he just gave up.
* DisproportionateRetribution - "The Judgement" among others.
* DownerEnding - The only books that do not have one are the books Kafka never finished.
* IceCreamKoan - Deliberately.
* FishOutOfWater: Karl Rossman in America.
* KafkaKomedy - Franz Kafka is the TropeNamer. When read the right way by a person with a very dark sense of humour, his books can be genuinely funny. According to his friends, Kafka himself would sometimes laugh out loud while reading his own work.
** Similarly, OrsonWelles always considered his film adaptation of ''The Trial'' to be a black comedy, and considered it wildly funny himself.
* KangarooCourt
* {{Koan}} - "Before the Law, there stands a guard..."
* MagicRealism
* {{Metamorphosis}}
* MindScrew
* MundaneFantastic
* NoEnding
* ObstructiveBureaucrat - In "Before the Law" or "Vor dem Gesetz", the doorkeeper acts as the literal and symbolic obstructive bureaucrat, blocking the man from the country from getting admittance to the Law.
* OneLetterName - K. in ''The Castle'' and Joseph K. in ''The Trial''.
* OntologicalMystery - ''The Trial'' is a cynical, bureaucratic example.
* OurMonstersAreWeird - Several of his vignettes feature rather bizarre and fantastic creatures, the oddest perhaps being the titular being in "Odradek".
* OutOfOrder: ''The Trial'' contains a lot of self-contained chapters, and it is unclear in what order Kafka intended them to be read.
* ShootTheShaggyDog - Almost everything by Kafka falls into this category.
* ShaggyDogStory
* SliceOfLife - His collected writings contain one-page stories that don't really have a point to them, apart from [[SceneryPorn describing an interesting scene]] and [[SeinfeldianConversation observing things about it.]]
** His Fandom; however, managed to take this to a whole new level by [[http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8791.html publishing the various insurance claim reports Kafka wrote for his day job as a lawyer]] (particularly noteworthy works include "Fixed-Rate Insurance Premiums for Small Farms Using Machinery" and "Accident Prevention in Quarries") and interpreting them in this vein. Although knowing that Kafka used to work in law probably puts ''TheTrial'' into [[WriteWhatYouKnow a new light]].
* SurrealHorror - His protagonists are often utterly (and sometimes fatally) bewildered by circumstances that would be funny if the consequences were less hideous.
* TortureTechnician - the Officer from "In the Penal Colony" who uses an execution device with needles to mark the crime the person is being executed for (the person dies eventually after several hours of pain of either shock or blood loss)
* UnreliableNarrator - For example in the short story ''The Judgement'' where at first the narrator seems to be pretty much identical with protagonist Georg Bendemann, bragging what a considerate person he is because he doesn't tell his unfortunate friend abroad what a happy successful life he has. How nice and understandable, thinks the reader - until Bendemann's father calls him out and accuses him of being a liar so that we have to start questioning Bendemann's motives and if the friend abroad actually exists.
* WeirdnessCensor - Apart from the protagonists, very few people in his stories notice or care when something clearly out of the ordinary has happened.
* WhiteCollarWorker - Kafka himself and his characters provide an [[UnbuiltTrope early]] example of this trope.
* WrongGenreSavvy - Josef K in ''The Trial'' thinks he's a plucky everyman fighting against injustice. He's very, very wrong.
* YankTheDogsChain
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!!Appearences in popular culture:

* He appears in a historical/flashback episode of ''Series/NorthernExposure'', played by the series' star Rob Morrow. Yes, the show set entirely in Alaska.
* In ''Film/TheProducers'', while looking for the worst play ever written, Max reads the first line from ''Literature/TheMetamorphosis'', and rejects it as being too good.
* RobertCrumb made an analytical comic book/book about Kafka's life.
* The young Indiana Jones meets him in ''[[Series/YoungIndianaJones The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles]]''.
* Music/FrankZappa advises buyers of his album ''Music/WereOnlyInItForTheMoney'' to read Kafka's "In The Penal Colony" before listening to the last track
* The "Director's Cut" episode of ''WesternAnimation/HomeMovies'' features a plotline where teenage metalhead Duane attempts to persuade Brendon to film his [[RockOpera Rock Opera]] of [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uaaF83eVig Kafka's ''Metamorphosis'']], which Brendon is unwilling to do, preferring to direct a film called ''Louis, Louis'' depicting a fictional encounter between Louis Pasteur and Louis Braille.
--> "A, rock opera, based on Franz Kafka's ''Metamorphosis'' .....I don't think so."
--> [[PunctuatedForEmphasis "HE! IS! FRANZ! KAF! KA! FRANZ-KAF-KA!"]]
* ''Website/TheOnion'' [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEyFH-a-XoQ ran a video]] about how Prague's Franz Kafka International airport is the most alienating, dehumanizing airport in the world.
* There's a ShoutOut to ''In the Penal Colony'' in ''[[Literature/BookOfTheNewSun The Shadow of the Torturer]]'' where the head torturer shows a prisoner an apparatus designed to carve slogans into someone's flesh and mentions that it isn't working properly. [[spoiler: In the original story, there is such an apparatus, which malfunctions and carves a slogan into the ''guard's'' flesh.]]
* Kafka himself is the protagonist of Creator/StevenSoderbergh's 1991 film ''Kafka''.
* In JohnnyTheHomicidalManiac, Johnny's cockroaches (although he believes them all to be one constantly regenerating cockroach) are named "Mr. Samsa", after the character from ''Literature/TheMetamorphosis''.
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