->''Tsze-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?"\\
The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names." "So! indeed!" said Tsze-lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be such rectification?"\\
The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.\\
"[[ForWantOfANail If names be not correct]], language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.\\
"When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.\\
"Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect."''
-->-- '''The Analects'''

'Confucius' (September 28, 551 BC 479 BC) is the name given to an extremely influential Chinese philosopher who lived in the 6th century BC. After his death, his teachings were compiled in a work known in the English-speaking world as the ''Analects of Confucius'' (Traditional: 論語; Simplified: 论语; Pinyin: ''Lún Yǔ'', lit. "discussion over Confucius' words" -- though analects means "a collection of excerpts from a literary work" and is thus an inaccurate translation).

The name "Confucius" comes from the 16th century Latin translation of the ''Analects'' by the Jesuit scholar Matteo Ricci, who introduced him to the Catholic world. The Mandarin is ''Kǒng zǐ'' (孔子; "Master Kong") or ''Kǒng Fūzǐ'' (孔夫子 "Grand Master Kong"). [[AlternateCharacterReading He is known as Koshi in Japan]]. In Chinese tradition, his [[IHaveManyNames names]] are (in Hanyu Pinyin) ''Qiu'' (丘) and ''Zhongni'' (仲尼). (Yes, you can call him "Johnny Kong" if you want to be utterly informal.)

Confucius's enduring legacy is the codification of an ethos that predated him by centuries into a system of relatively coherent moral codes. [[note]]Indeed, he sees himself as "merely" preserving and passing on values prevalent during the Western Zhou era.[[/note]] In a sense, Confucianism isn't so much a philosophy (or religion, as it is sometimes erroneously called) as a model of behavior. There have been several cycles of decay and revival in the history of Confucianism, but the latest wave of Neo-Confucianism is at the core of what has been claimed as 'traditional' values in East Asia: a strong emphasis on family life and loyalties (filial piety), deference to authority and personal responsibility in authority (feudal loyalty). Associated with these are the prizing of self-discipline and (academic) learning. After his death, it was proclaimed as the official religion/ethos of the Han dynasty (Whether they actually did it is another question entirely, a common proverb about the Han states that they went for [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legalism_(Chinese_philosophy) Legalism]] under the banner of Confucianism) and went on to become insanely popular. It was one of the few hundred schools of thought to actually achieve notoriety and holds enormous sway over modern ideology and politics. [[note]] One reason for the massive influence is that Confucius advocated a path for all scholars, which is for them to become officials. As it turned out, many of Confucius's disciples did become officials, and they in turn used their influences to elevate their teacher to the status of a sage. Another reason is that Confucius's teachings are more easily followed by the upper classes, i.e. the classes who can afford to be educated and then seek their fortunes at officialdom.[[/note]]

The ''Analects'' begin thus:

-->The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? Is a gentleman not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

The (supposed) descendants of Confucius have carefully maintained their family records for the past 2,500 years and are now in their 83rd generation.

Tradition says that Creator/{{Laozi}} was a contemporary of his and that they met. Historical evidence seems to be that this is impossible, with Laozi either being a mythic figure or living rather later.

In Western popular culture, the name of Confucius is often attached to joke proverbs expressed in mangled English, e.g. "Confucius say: He who [[YouNoTakeCandle no take candle]] not very bright." It hopefully goes without saying that the genuine article's thoughts were somewhat deeper; one problem with translations into European languages is that classical Chinese is a notoriously laconic and nuanced language, as if being of a completely different language group wasn't enough. In any case, "Confucius say..." or "Wise man once say..." are prefaces to facetious 'quotes'; texts that actually reference Confucius generally begin more eloquently, e.g. "The Master said..."

!!Provides examples of:

* AgentScully: Was vaguely agnostic, treating funeral rites and such as a means of instilling discipline and cultivating order rather than exercises in spiritualism.
* BlindObedience: Warned against. It is a subordinate's duty to speak up when his superior is heading down the wrong track. "When the command is wrong, a son should resist his father, and a minister his august master."
* BookEnds: According to a legend, a ''qilin'' announced Confucius's birth to his mother. Years later, another ''qilin'' was injured by a charioteer. This was considered as a prediction of Confucius's death, which happened a short time later.
* {{Crossover}}: His legendary meeting with Creator/{{Laozi}}, the other famous Chinese philosopher, in Luoyang.
* DueToTheDead: Due to the premature deaths of his son and favourite disciples, Confucius has many laments in his final years.
* EasyEvangelism: The Book of Filial Duty holds that by bearing the father or master's wrongdoing towards oneself stoically, and remonstrating with him when he gives wrongful orders, he will be stayed from the wrong path.
* GentleGiant: According to legend, was 9 and a half feet tall, though units were shorter then, so who knows?
* GentlemanAndAScholar: The Confucian ideal. To elaborate, for Confucius, the ideal is that one should become a gentleman first, then become an official; if he has extra energy, he should become a scholar as well.
* TheGoldenRule: Played with. In every relationship, Confucius advocates that both parties have their responsibilities. Just as the son should be filial, so should the father be benevolent in return; just as the minister should be loyal, so should the sovereign be benevolent in return.
* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Appears in Creator/GoreVidal's ''Literature/{{Creation}}'' in the crucial third section, and since he's a favorite of Vidal's, he is shown very positively.
* HonorRelatedAbuse: Up against an AbusiveParent or AbusiveSpouse? So long as the beatings don't cause lasting harm, endure them, because that's what filial piety demands. However, as the MyMasterRightOrWrong entry shows, Confucius actually advocates that both parties in a relationship (parent-child, between spouses) have their respective duties.
* HotBlooded: Not him, but his disciple Zhong You (see ManlyTears below). He supposedly predicted that due to this trope, Zhong You will not come to a good end.
* HumbleHero: Confucius himself, with his insistence that only his perseverance and love of learning set him apart from other men of learning.
* IntrepidMerchant: To Confucius' chagrin, Zigong (子贡), one of his disciples. Trade is rarely considered an honourable profession by Confucians as merchants do not produce anything for themselves or others, but instead deal in the fruits of others' labours. Nevertheless, he was one of Confucius' important disciples, one who used his money and influence to protect Confucian sects in the 'age of martial philosophies'.
* ManlyTears:
** One of the provided quotes is "He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping."
** According to tradition, his disciple Zhong You (仲由; courtesy name 子路 ''Zilu'') was killed and posthumously butchered into meat paste. After the incident, if he encountered (otherwise perfectly edible) meat paste during his meals, he would cover the paste and refuse to eat it.
* MyMasterRightOrWrong: Applied to one's father or master, this is expected. While BlindObedience is discouraged, the standard interpretation of filial piety is that this only extends to the duty to complain (though theoretically, [[EasyEvangelism this should be all that's needed]]). Actually disobeying is still the most heinous of sins. To be fair, Confucius advocates that just as the son and minister have their duties, so too does the father and the sovereign.
* ThePhilosopherKing: Not one himself, but his philosophy was expected to be followed by any Emperor worth his salt. Given that the historians were Confucian, how well they did so pretty much determined their later reputations.
* RenaissanceMan: Confucianists are expected to enjoy music, art, and the contemplation of nature.
* RetGone: Removed from his place on the Chinese curriculum post-PRC, although he's being rehabilitated.
* ShoutOut: Confucius' moral philosophy was founded on the ''Book of Songs'', from which he drew a bunch explanatory metaphors.
* StayInTheKitchen: Played with. Confucius stressed that women should be obedient to the men in their lives (first their fathers, then their husbands, then their sons), but also advocated that women deserved a good, comprehensive education, and that they should not be forbidden to learn the use of weapons; he was of the opinion that knowledgeable and capable women made for a better society.
* TakeThat: Contrary to impressions of him being a harmonious sage, Confucius actually did not mince his words in his teachings. One can easily find passages where he was scolding a student in anger, or using allegory to remind the student to reflect on himself.
* ThickerThanWater: Filial Piety. SeriousBusiness back in the day. Conflicts between it and one's feudal loyalties were deadly serious business, such that suicide is one of the few acceptable solutions to such a clash.
* TooGoodForThisSinfulEarth: His favorite disciple Yen Hui (顏回) died young. ("There was one, Yen Hui, who loved to learn. He never transferred his anger, nor repeated an error. Sadly his appointed time was short, and he died; now, there are none like him. I have yet to hear of anyone who loves to learn as he did.")
* TraumaCongaLine: Confucius's final years were filled with tragedy as his only son and two disciples (Yan Hui and Zhong You) predeceased him. In particular, he himself passed away about one year after Zhong You's violent death.
* TrueCompanions: The core group of disciples who studied under Confucius and compiled the ''Analects''.
* WellDoneSonGuy: The latest wave of Neo-Confucianism holds that a gentleman is supposed to be (somewhat) aloof from his sons-- who're hoped to be paragons of achievement and filial piety, partly as a result of said aloofness and their consequent desire to please.
* YoungestChildWins: Yan Zhengzai, Confucius's mother. She was the youngest of the three Yan daughters. When the 65-year old Shu Lianghe made a request of a marriage to the Yan family, Zhengzai's father asked his three daughters who was willing to marry him. The two older sisters did not answer, but Zhengzai said she was OK. Through this marriage, she became the mother of one of the wisest Chinese men.