[[quoteright:250:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/cslewis.jpg]]
-->''"...I often find myself living at such cross-purposes with the modern world: I have been a converted Pagan living among apostate Puritans."''
-->-- ''Surprised By Joy''

'''Clive [[EmbarrassingMiddleName Staples]] Lewis''' ("Jack" to his friends and family) (1898-1963) was a mid-twentieth century Irish author of many sorts of books: scholarship regarding medieval literature, lay Christian theology, ScienceFiction, and {{Fantasy}}.

He was born and raised in [[UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland Ulster]]. [[MissingMom His mother died]] when he was young. He was educated in a series of English {{Boarding School}}s, the first of which was run by a SadistTeacher. He fought in [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI the Great War]]. He was a member of TheInklings and a friend of Creator/CharlesWilliams and Creator/JRRTolkien, whose influence partially led to his conversion to Christianity (though Lewis being an Anglican and Tolkien a Roman Catholic led to some friction). He published an autobiography of his early life and conversion titled ''Surprised By Joy''. Afterwards, he met Joy Gresham and [[CitizenshipMarriage married her so she could remain in the UK]]. Then, they [[PerfectlyArrangedMarriage fell in love]] and had an Anglican ceremony after Joy was diagnosed with terminal bone cancer. She died four years later. Lewis himself died the same day as [[Literature/BraveNewWorld Aldous Huxley]] and UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy; this led to his passing being almost unpublicized.

Lewis and Gresham's romance was dramatized in the film and stage play ''Shadowlands'', with Creator/JossAckland and Creator/AnthonyHopkins taking the role of Lewis in two different film versions.

[[TropeNamers Trope Namer]] for TheFourLoves (from the book ''Literature/TheFourLoves'') and NarniaTime (from the way time works between worlds in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'').

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!!C. S. Lewis' fictional works:
* ''Dymer'' (1926): A narrative poem, published under the pseudonym Clive Hamilton.
* ''Literature/ThePilgrimsRegress'' (1933): His first publication following his conversion. An allegory generalizing from the details of Lewis' own, somewhat unusual, conversion.
* ''Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy''
** ''Out of the Silent Planet'' (1938)
** ''Perelandra'' (1943)
** ''That Hideous Strength'' (1946)
* ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'' (1942): An [[ScrapbookStory epistolary novel]], consisting of letters from [[UnreliableNarrator an elder demon]] to a young tempter, concerning the proper way to damn an Englishman.
* ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce'' (1945): A dream-visit to a semi-MundaneAfterlife, where the joys of Heaven are available to all, and the punishments of Hell are entirely [[SelfInflictedHell self-inflicted]] (and therefore all the more inescapable).
* ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''
** ''Literature/TheLionTheWitchAndTheWardrobe'' (1950).
** ''Literature/PrinceCaspian'' (1951).
** ''Literature/TheVoyageOfTheDawnTreader'' (1952).
** ''Literature/TheSilverChair'' (1953).
** ''Literature/TheHorseAndHisBoy'' (1954).
** ''Literature/TheMagiciansNephew'' (1955).
** ''Literature/TheLastBattle'' (1956). The last ''Narnia'' book.
* ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'' (1956): The novel Lewis considered his best.
* ''Screwtape Proposes A Toast'' (1961): A brief sequel to ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters''.
* ''Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer'' (1964): A posthumously published epistolary novel.
* ''The Dark Tower'' (1977): An abandoned and unfinished sequel to ''Out Of The Silent Planet'', i.e. ''Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy'''s WhatCouldHaveBeen.
* ''Boxen: the Imaginary World of the Young C. S. Lewis'' (1985): Stories about talking animals which Lewis and his brother wrote from childhood through their teen years, [[OldShame which he never considered publishing during his life]].

!!Non-fiction with their own pages
* Literature/TheDiscardedImage
* Literature/TheFourLoves

For a complete list of Lewis' writings, non-fiction and fiction, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._S._Lewis_bibliography the other wiki]].
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!!Tropes featured in his work:
* AllJustADream: [[spoiler: ''The Great Divorce'']].
* AllTakeAndNoGive: Repeatedly. Discussed more than once in ''The Four Loves.'' Particularly the pathological Giver variant.
* AuthorTract: Much of Lewis's work could qualify [[note]](a good reminder that [[TropesAreTools Tropes Are Not Bad]])[[/note]], though there are some exceptions:
** ''Literature/TheLionTheWitchAndTheWardrobe'': Lewis himself explained that the first book of what is now ''The Chronicles of Narnia'' was initially written as a stand alone piece revolving entirely around the image of a faun carrying a pile of packages and an umbrella, in the snowy woods, next to a lamppost. The symbolism of Aslan as Jesus was entirely accidental. He attributed it to his values subconsciously coming out. It wasn't until this similarity was pointed out to him by fans and critics that he started purposely writing that way; he saw writing as way to spread the Gospel. This is why, in a study of the Chronicles in their entirety, this book has some of the weakest symbolism and allegory, much more akin to Tolkien's "applicability" in the Lord of the Rings. (It also explains why ''Wardrobe'' was Tolkien's personal favorite of the Narnia books; he found them increasingly insufferable as they became more suppositional.)
** A lot of his nonfiction: While his religious books have always been his most popular, Lewis wrote quite a bit of literary criticism and history too.
** ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'': While the Christian themes are there, they're pretty subtle and easy to miss if you're not looking for them. It ''is'' a retelling of a pagan myth, after all.
** Then there's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirits_in_Bondage that book of cynical, decidedly anti-Christian poetry]] he wrote before his conversion.
* AVeryBritishChristmas: In a very humorous piece in ''God In The Dock,'' {{Herodotus}} visits the island of [[SdrawkcabName Niatirb]] and concludes that the resident barbarians observe two entirely separate holidays on 25 December: Exmas (a commercial racket) and Crissmas (a religious festival). Also, [[SantaClaus Father Christmas]] shows up in Narnia.
* BigCreepyCrawlies: In ''Surprised by Joy'', Lewis writes that his nightmares during childhood were either about ghosts or insects. Of the two, he found the dreams about insects much more frightening.
** In ''The Pilgrim's Regress'', young John is told that the damned are tortured by scorpions the size of lobsters.
** In ''Perelandra'', Ransom encounters flies and beetles larger than himself in the caverns of Venus. Subverted in this case. Once the [[{{Satan}} Un-man's]] presence is gone, Ransom ceases to find them frightening, and speculates that they may, in fact, be sentient.
** In ''The Problem of Pain'' he discusses the moral problem of the suffering of animals (who after all are not either being [[PayEvilUntoEvil punished for something]] or [[TheSpartanWay being trained in how to be good]] and therefore not subject to some of the possible explanations for human suffering). In fact he does take the question seriously. But when he gets to discussing animals and the afterlife, he imagines someone asking "Where do you put all the mosquitos" and then notes ironically that heaven for mosquitos and hell for humans might be "very conveniently combined."
* BoardingSchoolOfHorrors: Lewis had an extremely unpleasant experience at school, compounded by the fact that his first teacher was a ''literal'' SadistTeacher to the level of actual clinical insanity. Not surprisingly, boarding schools in Lewis's works are very unlikely to be positively portrayed.
** Another school he went to had an overweening "aristocracy" of {{Jerk Jock}}s supported by teachers which engaged in organized [[TheBully bullying]] and even rumored pedophilia toward the underclass students (the second of which Lewis actually said was, under the circumstances actually a saving grace because it got their minds off their snobbishness!) Lewis hated that school so much that he almost considered UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne less unpleasant: no one said you had to pretend to like it, after all.
** In general, C. S. Lewis's father was ''not'' good at picking boarding schools.
* CombatByChampion: Prince Caspian features a particularly gut-churning edge-of-your-seat example. All the more so for Peter's quiet dignity.
* CommonalityConnection: In ''Surprised by Joy'' and "Three Ways of Writing for Children".
* DemocracyIsFlawed: The chief value he saw in Democracy was simply that [[WhoWatchesTheWatchmen it prevented tyranny]]. Otherwise he would have preferred Aristocracy.
* DueToTheDead: A major plot point in ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'', and even overdone in ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce''.
* EvilOverlord: The White Witch and the Lady Of the Green Kirtle in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''.
* FairyTaleMotifs: Discussed throughout his work, and given free rein in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'' (which is a FantasyKitchenSink).
* ForTheEvulz: Deconstructed in ''Mere Christianity'': although it is possible to do good for the sake of doing good, nobody does evil for the sake of doing evil; evil deeds are merely the pursuit of some good in the wrong way.
* GeekyTurnOn : Several of his descriptions of Joy Gresham.
* GentlemanSnarker : C.S. Lewis himself was one of the best and his snarkyness appears in his books.
* GetItOverWith
* HaveAGayOldTime: Lampshaded. In one of the essays from ''God In the Dock'', he gives a LongList of old ecclesiastical terms that have changed meaning.
* HeterosexualLifePartners: Was a very close friend of JRRTolkien, author of the Lord of the Rings books.
* HighFantasy: He and Tolkien were the {{Trope Maker}}s, though Lewis' ''Narnia'' books skew more toward FairyTale than Tolkien's more epic ''Literature/LordOfTheRings''. Among other things, they [[TropeCodifier codified]] many genre staples, such as the EvilOverlord and MedievalEuropeanFantasy (before them, similar fantasy works would have taken place in the actual MiddleAges).
* HumansAreTheRealMonsters: Appears to some extent in practically all his work, but his non-fiction dedicates entire chapters to expounding on how and why humans are bastards, and how the bastardliness can be reduced.
** In one of his essay's, he mentions Dark-Gods-of-the-Blood which comes down to how we must always fight off the desire to give into the baser desires we feel as we go through daily life.
* ItsAllAboutMe: A theme of many of his theological works, especially ''The Great Divorce.'' Lewis views {{Pride}} as the cardinal sin, and the source of all other sin.
* JesusWasCrazy: Famously, ''Mere Christianity'' popularized the so-called "trilemma" argument in favor of the deity of {{Jesus}}: if Jesus wasn't {{God}}, then it's fallacious to say He was "[[JesusWasWayCool a great moral teacher]]," since an actual great moral teacher would be humble rather than [[AGodAmI claiming to be God]] as Jesus did. So either Jesus was GodInHumanForm, Jesus was [[ThatLiarLies a liar]], or JesusWasCrazy. [[note]]Assuming the usual [[UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} Christian view]] of Literature/TheBible, of course. Let's remember the RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment.[[/note]]
* LiteraryAllusionTitle:
** ''That Hideous Strength'' is named after a line in a Sir David Lyndsay poem.
** ''Surprised By Joy'' is named after Wordsworth's "Surprised By Joy--Impatient As The Wind".
** ''The Great Divorce'' is a response to Blake's ''The Marriage of Heaven and Hell''.
** ''The Pilgrim's Regress'' is a ShoutOut to ''Literature/ThePilgrimsProgress''.
* MagicPoweredPseudoscience in ''That Hideous Strength''
* {{Mythopoeia}}: Lewis was one of the {{Trope Codifier}}s, both in his own works and his analysis of Creator/GeorgeMacDonald's fairy tales.
* NoSuchThingAsSpaceJesus: Averted in Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy, and discussed in several of his theological essays.
* ObstructiveBureaucrat : ''TheScrewtapeLetters'' opines that {{Hell}} is run by these.
* PerspectiveFlip: ''Till We Have Faces''.
* ResignedToTheCall: The way Lewis describes his conversion in ''Surprised By Joy'':
-->You must picture me all alone in that room in Magdalen, night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me. In the Trinity Term of 1929 I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all of England.
* SiblingTeam: Lewis and his brother Warren.
* SourSupporter
* TheStoic: One of his favorite tutors, Kirk, is described in this way. In fact descriptions in ''Surprised by Joy'', make him sound like he had AspergersSyndrome.
* TalkingAnimal: ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''
* TalkingInYourDreams
* TearsOfJoy: Not quite the theme of ''Surprised by Joy'', but heading that way.
* TrueCompanions: The Inklings.
* ViewersAreGeniuses: His work geared at adults is often peppered with untranslated Latin or French phrases, under the assumption that his readers will know what they mean.
** Likely enough at the time when large numbers of upper and middle class English would have learned those at school.
* WhatCouldHaveBeen: A scholarly book entitled ''Language and Human Nature'' was begun but never completed. The rub: It was to have been coauthored with Creator/JRRTolkien. [[http://www.txstate.edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2009/07/CSLewis070809.html]]. Mind you, he fought in a World War, so we should really be thankful we had him at all....
* UsefulNotes/WorldWarII: Much of Lewis's fiction (''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'', ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce'', five of the seven [[Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia Narnia]] books, and the second book in Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy, specifically) takes place during the War. It's usually not dealt with extensively, but you can catch plenty of references to the Blitz and the subsequent air raids, blackouts, etc. all the same. This is understandable, as Lewis lived in England and did much of his writing during the '30s and '40s.
** What later became ''Mere Christianity'' was originally a series of wartime radio broadcasts given by Lewis, meant to lift the spirits of the British people. These broadcasts were only edited and put into print after the war was over.
** Somewhat ironically, Lewis makes very few references to [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI the World War he actually fought in.]]
*** He may not have wanted to dwell on the experience-WarIsHell after all, that one especially.
* YouAreWorthHell: Thoroughly [[DeconstructedTrope Deconstructed]].
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