Aeschylus (Αισχύλος, ''Aischylos'') was an ancient Greek playwright (5th century BC), the earliest Greek tragedian whose plays have survived to the present. He won multiple awards, and is credited with several major innovations in writing for the stage, including the practice of having multiple actors with speaking parts. Previously, the usual format had been to have a GreekChorus telling the story, with a single actor playing the parts of individual characters, swapping between them as required. The addition of a second actor opened up the dramatic possibilities: with two speaking characters on stage at a time, characters could for the first time be shown interacting with each other.
Aeschylus also served as a soldier during the Persian Wars (an aspect of his life that gets more space on his gravestone than his literary achievements). His oldest surviving play, ''The Persians'', is set during the Wars, and was the first Greek tragedy to be set during recent history instead of in far-off mythical times.
There is a persistent legend that Aeschylus was killed when an eagle [[DroppedABridgeOnHim dropped a tortoise on him]] from a great height, thinking that his bald head was a stone that would crack the tortoise open.
Six of his plays are known to survive complete:
* ''ThePersians'' (''Persai'')
* ''SevenAgainstThebes'' (''Hepta epi Thēbas'')
* ''Theatre/TheSuppliants'' (''Hiketides'')
* ''Theatre/TheOresteia'' trilogy
** ''Theatre/TheLibationBearers'' (''Choēphoroi'')
Another surviving tragedy, ''Theatre/PrometheusBound'' (''Promētheus Desmōtēs''), was attributed to Aeschylus in ancient times, but its authorship is now in doubt.
!!Works by Aeschylus that don't have their own trope pages provide examples of:
* TheMagnificentSevenSamurai: ''Seven Against Thebes'' which is nothing less than the UrExample .... *and* a spectacular inversion. Unlike the typical story featuring this trope, the Seven were the invaders of the settlement, brought an army each, were unashamedly the villains since the play centers on the city's defenders, and lost. However, since there were also seven defenders the "Seven For Thebes" can probably be considered an example of this being played straight.
* ValuesDissonance: In an extant fragment of ''[[SatyrPlay The Net Fishers]]'', an infant Perseus masturbates a satyr. Stress on "infant".
* WolverinePublicity: Because Sophocles' version of the Oedipus story was so popular, ''Seven Against Thebes'' had a coda of sorts added to it, with a final scene showing Antigone and Ismene hearing the order to leave Polyneices unburied and Antigone expressing her intention to do so anyway.